Gene Symbol: AFT1
Description: DNA-binding transcription factor AFT1
Alias: RCS1, DNA-binding transcription factor AFT1
Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Top Publications

  1. Milne G, Ho T, Weaver D. Modulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA double-strand break repair by SRS2 and RAD51. Genetics. 1995;139:1189-99 pubmed
    ..Thus, RAD52-dependent recombinational repair is controlled both negatively and positively. ..
  2. Hamza A, Baetz K. Iron-responsive transcription factor Aft1 interacts with kinetochore protein Iml3 and promotes pericentromeric cohesin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4139-47 pubmed publisher
    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae iron-responsive transcription factor, Aft1, has a well established role in regulating iron homeostasis through the transcriptional induction of iron-regulon genes...
  3. Fragiadakis G, Tzamarias D, Alexandraki D. Nhp6 facilitates Aft1 binding and Ssn6 recruitment, both essential for FRE2 transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 2004;23:333-42 pubmed
    ..a plasma membrane ferric reductase is induced by the iron-responsive, DNA-binding, transcriptional activator Aft1. We have shown that Nhp6 interacts directly with the Aft1 N-half, including the DNA-binding region, to facilitate ..
  4. Philpott C, Rashford J, Yamaguchi Iwai Y, Rouault T, Dancis A, Klausner R. Cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of G1 cyclin translation by iron in AFT1-1(up) yeast. EMBO J. 1998;17:5026-36 pubmed
    ..In yeast, iron uptake is homeostatically regulated by the transcription factor encoded by AFT1. Expression of AFT1-1(up), a dominant mutant allele, results in inappropriately high rates of iron uptake, and AFT1-..
  5. Blaiseau P, Lesuisse E, Camadro J. Aft2p, a novel iron-regulated transcription activator that modulates, with Aft1p, intracellular iron use and resistance to oxidative stress in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34221-6 pubmed
    ..Aft2p was found to activate transcription. Overproduction of Aft2p activates the transcription of the AFT1 target gene FET3. The double aft1aft2 mutant was unable to grow in iron-deprived conditions...
  6. Yamaguchi Iwai Y, Ueta R, Fukunaka A, Sasaki R. Subcellular localization of Aft1 transcription factor responds to iron status in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18914-8 pubmed
    The Aft1 transcription factor regulates the iron regulon in response to iron availability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  7. Yamaguchi Iwai Y, Dancis A, Klausner R. AFT1: a mediator of iron regulated transcriptional control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1995;14:1231-9 pubmed
    ..for selecting mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with abnormalities of iron metabolism, we have identified a gene, AFT1, that mediates the control of iron uptake...
  8. Irazusta V, Moreno Cermeño A, Cabiscol E, Ros J, Tamarit J. Major targets of iron-induced protein oxidative damage in frataxin-deficient yeasts are magnesium-binding proteins. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1712-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism explains selective protein oxidation and provides clues for better understanding of iron-overloading pathologies. ..
  9. Yamaguchi Iwai Y, Stearman R, Dancis A, Klausner R. Iron-regulated DNA binding by the AFT1 protein controls the iron regulon in yeast. EMBO J. 1996;15:3377-84 pubmed
    Iron deprivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces transcription of genes required for high-affinity iron uptake. AFT1 mediates this transcriptional control...

More Information


  1. Diab H, Kane P. Loss of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity in yeast generates an iron deprivation signal that is moderated by induction of the peroxiredoxin TSA2. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:11366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Biol. Chem. 282, 7125-7136). Fluorescent biosensors placing GFP under transcriptional control of either an Aft1-dependent promoter (P(FIT2)-GFP) or the TSA2 promoter (P(TSA2)-GFP) were constructed to monitor transcriptional ..
  2. Pujol Carrion N, Belli G, Herrero E, Nogues A, De La Torre Ruiz M. Glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 regulate nuclear localisation of Aft1 and the oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4554-64 pubmed
    Grx3 and Grx4, two monothiol glutaredoxins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, regulate Aft1 nuclear localisation. We provide evidence of a negative regulation of Aft1 activity by Grx3 and Grx4...
  3. Yadav P, Rajasekharan R. Misregulation of a DDHD Domain-containing Lipase Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Yeast. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18562-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggested that the accumulation of monolysocardiolipin is deleterious to the cells. We show that Aft1 and Aft2 transcription factors antagonistically regulate the DDL1 gene...
  4. Li L, Miao R, Jia X, Ward D, Kaplan J. Expression of the yeast cation diffusion facilitators Mmt1 and Mmt2 affects mitochondrial and cellular iron homeostasis: evidence for mitochondrial iron export. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:17132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of MMT1 resulted in increased cytosolic iron whereas deletion of MMT1/MMT2 led to decreased cytosolic iron. These results support the hypothesis that Mmt1/2 function as mitochondrial iron exporters. ..
  5. Dubacq C, Chevalier A, Courbeyrette R, Petat C, Gidrol X, Mann C. Role of the iron mobilization and oxidative stress regulons in the genomic response of yeast to hydroxyurea. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;275:114-24 pubmed
    ..In contrast, deletion of the AFT1 and AFT2 transcription factor genes blocked the HU activation of a subset of the Aft regulon and the aft1Delta ..
  6. Miao R, Holmes Hampton G, Lindahl P. Biophysical investigation of the iron in Aft1-1(up) and Gal-YAH1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2660-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Aft1p within the Aft1-1(up) strain has a single amino acid mutation which causes it to constitutively activate iron regulon genes ..
  7. Andrew A, Song J, Schilke B, Craig E. Posttranslational regulation of the scaffold for Fe-S cluster biogenesis, Isu. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with the existence of a mechanism to increase the stability of Isu, and thus its level, that is dependent on the presence of the cysteine desulfurase Nfs1. ..
  8. Pérez Sampietro M, Herrero E. The PacC-family protein Rim101 prevents selenite toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by controlling vacuolar acidification. Fungal Genet Biol. 2014;71:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..the responses to other stresses, and have shown its genetic interaction with the iron deprivation-responsive factor Aft1. The present study shows that the absence of Rim101 leads to hypersensitivity to oxidants such as t-butyl ..
  9. Ueta R, Fujiwara N, Iwai K, Yamaguchi Iwai Y. Iron-induced dissociation of the Aft1p transcriptional regulator from target gene promoters is an initial event in iron-dependent gene suppression. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4998-5008 pubmed publisher
  10. Ueta R, Fujiwara N, Iwai K, Yamaguchi Iwai Y. Mechanism underlying the iron-dependent nuclear export of the iron-responsive transcription factor Aft1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2980-90 pubmed
    ..Cys291 of Aft1p to Phe, which causes Aft1p to be retained in the nucleus and results in constitutive activation of Aft1-target genes, disrupts the intermolecular interaction of Aft1p...
  11. Xue Y, Schmollinger S, Attar N, Campos O, Vogelauer M, Carey M, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction is required for iron homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13197-13204 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that ERMES is also required for iron homeostasis. Loss of ERMES components activates an Aft1-dependent iron deficiency response even in iron-replete conditions, leading to accumulation of excess iron inside ..
  12. Alkim C, Benbadis L, Yılmaz U, Cakar Z, Francois J. Mechanisms other than activation of the iron regulon account for the hyper-resistance to cobalt of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain obtained by evolutionary engineering. Metallomics. 2013;5:1043-60 pubmed publisher
    ..iron regulon that could be accounted for by a constitutive nuclear localization of the transcriptional activator Aft1. However, the presence of Aft1 in the nucleus was not a prerequisite for hyper-resistance to cobalt, since a mutant ..
  13. Rutherford J, Jaron S, Ray E, Brown P, Winge D. A second iron-regulatory system in yeast independent of Aft1p. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14322-7 pubmed
    ..The yeast genome contains a paralog of AFT1, which has been designated AFT2...
  14. Crisp R, Adkins E, Kimmel E, Kaplan J. Recruitment of Tup1p and Cti6p regulates heme-deficient expression of Aft1p target genes. EMBO J. 2006;25:512-21 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that transcription of the siderophore transporter ARN1 permits yeast to accumulate iron in the absence of oxygen and to deny iron to competing organisms. ..
  15. Martins T, Pereira C, Canadell D, Vilaça R, Teixeira V, Moradas Ferreira P, et al. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2018;1863:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. ..
  16. Waters B, Eide D. Combinatorial control of yeast FET4 gene expression by iron, zinc, and oxygen. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33749-57 pubmed
    ..First, we found that FET4 expression is induced in iron-limited cells by the Aft1 iron-responsive transcriptional activator...
  17. Ueta R, Fukunaka A, Yamaguchi Iwai Y. Pse1p mediates the nuclear import of the iron-responsive transcription factor Aft1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50120-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated that the nuclear localization of a mutant Aft1 protein that contains an NLS derived from SV40 was regulated by iron status regardless of whether Pse1p could ..
  18. Toesca I, Nery C, Fernandez C, Sayani S, Chanfreau G. Cryptic transcription mediates repression of subtelomeric metal homeostasis genes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002163 pubmed publisher
  19. Courel M, Lallet S, Camadro J, Blaiseau P. Direct activation of genes involved in intracellular iron use by the yeast iron-responsive transcription factor Aft2 without its paralog Aft1. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6760-71 pubmed
    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a pair of paralogous iron-responsive transcription activators, Aft1 and Aft2...
  20. Andreadis C, Nikolaou C, Fragiadakis G, Tsiliki G, Alexandraki D. Rad9 interacts with Aft1 to facilitate genome surveillance in fragile genomic sites under non-DNA damage-inducing conditions in S. cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:12650-67 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, known to mediate the damage signal from upstream to downstream essential kinases, interacts with Aft1 transcription factor in the budding yeast...
  21. Rutherford J, Ojeda L, Balk J, Muhlenhoff U, Lill R, Winge D. Activation of the iron regulon by the yeast Aft1/Aft2 transcription factors depends on mitochondrial but not cytosolic iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10135-40 pubmed
    Two transcriptional activators, Aft1 and Aft2, regulate iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These factors induce the expression of iron regulon genes in iron-deficient yeast but are inactivated in iron-replete cells...
  22. Kumanovics A, Chen O, Li L, Bagley D, Adkins E, Lin H, et al. Identification of FRA1 and FRA2 as genes involved in regulating the yeast iron regulon in response to decreased mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the connection between mitochondrial Fe-S cluster synthesis and the iron-sensitive transcription factor Aft1 in regulating the expression of the iron transport system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not known...
  23. Pujol Carrion N, De La Torre Ruiz M. Glutaredoxins Grx4 and Grx3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae play a role in actin dynamics through their Trx domains, which contributes to oxidative stress resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:7826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..two monothiol glutaredoxins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have previously been characterized as regulators of Aft1 localization and therefore of iron homeostasis...
  24. Ojeda L, Keller G, Muhlenhoff U, Rutherford J, Lill R, Winge D. Role of glutaredoxin-3 and glutaredoxin-4 in the iron regulation of the Aft1 transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17661-9 pubmed
    The transcription factors Aft1 and Aft2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulate the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis...
  25. Zhang Y, Li H, Zhang C, An X, Liu L, Stubbe J, et al. Conserved electron donor complex Dre2-Tah18 is required for ribonucleotide reductase metallocofactor assembly and DNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..affects both RNR gene transcription and mRNA turnover through the activation of the DNA-damage checkpoint and the Aft1/Aft2-controlled iron regulon...
  26. Kawahata M, Masaki K, Fujii T, Iefuji H. Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006;6:924-36 pubmed
    ..b>AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid...
  27. Hoffmann B, Uzarska M, Berndt C, Godoy J, Haunhorst P, Lillig C, et al. The multidomain thioredoxin-monothiol glutaredoxins represent a distinct functional group. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Grx4 functions as iron sensor for the iron-sensing transcription factor Aft1 in S. cerevisiae. We found that Aft1 binds to a conserved binding site at the C-terminus of Grx4...
  28. Portnoy M, Jensen L, Culotta V. The distinct methods by which manganese and iron regulate the Nramp transporters in yeast. Biochem J. 2002;362:119-24 pubmed
    ..nt -435 to -350 that contain dual consensus recognition sites for the Aft1 iron transcription factor; and (2) nt -348 to -247 that do not contain obvious Aft1 binding sites...
  29. Qi J, Han A, Yang Z, Li C. Metal-sensing transcription factors Mac1p and Aft1p coordinately regulate vacuolar copper transporter CTR2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:424-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ablation of either MAC1 or AFT1 also abrogated CTR2 expression induced by copper depletion...
  30. Jeong M, Kang C, Kim J, Heo D, Chang M, Baek I, et al. A novel function of Aft1 in regulating ferrioxamine B uptake: Aft1 modulates Arn3 ubiquitination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2009;422:181-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Aft1 is a transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that responds to iron availability and regulates the expression of genes in the iron regulon, such as FET3, FTR1 and the ARN family...
  31. Kang C, Kang S, Park Y, Yun C. Physical interaction between Sit1 and Aft1 upregulates FOB uptake activity by inhibiting protein degradation of Sit1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2015;15: pubmed publisher
    Previously, we reported that Aft1 regulates Sit1 by modulating the ubiquitination of Sit1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the function of the physical interaction between Sit1 and Aft1 in ferrioxamine B (FOB) uptake...
  32. Kimura A, Ohashi K, Naganuma A. Cisplatin upregulates Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in iron homeostasis through activation of the iron insufficiency-responsive transcription factor Aft1. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:378-84 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the expression of all 14 genes is known to be regulated by Aft1, a transcription factor activated in response to iron insufficiency...