Gene Symbol: Zp3
Description: zona pellucida glycoprotein 3
Alias: Zp-3, zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (sperm receptor), zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3, zona pellucida protein C
Species: rat
Products:     Zp3

Top Publications

  1. El Mestrah M, Castle P, Borossa G, Kan F. Subcellular distribution of ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 glycoproteins during folliculogenesis and demonstration of their topographical disposition within the zona matrix of mouse ovarian oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:866-76 pubmed
    ..Using antibodies against mouse ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3 in conjunction with the protein A-gold technique, we have shown an association of immunolabeling with the Golgi ..
  2. Cohen N, Wassarman P. Association of egg zona pellucida glycoprotein mZP3 with sperm protein sp56 during fertilization in mice. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:569-76 pubmed
    ..The possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of mammalian fertilization. ..
  3. Louros N, Chrysina E, Baltatzis G, Patsouris E, Hamodrakas S, Iconomidou V. A common 'aggregation-prone' interface possibly participates in the self-assembly of human zona pellucida proteins. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:619-30 pubmed publisher
    Human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of four glycoproteins, namely ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4...
  4. Monné M, Han L, Schwend T, Burendahl S, Jovine L. Crystal structure of the ZP-N domain of ZP3 reveals the core fold of animal egg coats. Nature. 2008;456:653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Zona pellucida filament components ZP3 and ZP2 act as sperm receptors, and mice lacking either of the corresponding genes produce oocytes without a zona ..
  5. Bray C, Son J, Kumar P, Harris J, Meizel S. A role for the human sperm glycine receptor/Cl(-) channel in the acrosome reaction initiated by recombinant ZP3. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:91-7 pubmed
    ..in human sperm by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, investigated the potential of a recombinant human ZP3 (rhZP3) preparation as an alternative research tool to solubilized human ZP, and shown that the human sperm GlyR is ..
  6. Rankin T, Tong Z, Castle P, Lee E, Gore Langton R, Nelson L, et al. Human ZP3 restores fertility in Zp3 null mice without affecting order-specific sperm binding. Development. 1998;125:2415-24 pubmed
    ..Although the three zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) are well conserved, mammalian fertilization is relatively specific and human sperm do not bind to the mouse zona ..
  7. Howes E, Pascall J, Engel W, Jones R. Interactions between mouse ZP2 glycoprotein and proacrosin; a mechanism for secondary binding of sperm to the zona pellucida during fertilization. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4127-36 pubmed
    ..Safe mimetics of suramin have potential as non-steroidal antifertility agents. ..
  8. Lloyd M, Papadimitriou J, O Leary S, Robertson S, Shellam G. Immunoglobulin to zona pellucida 3 mediates ovarian damage and infertility after contraceptive vaccination in mice. J Autoimmun. 2010;35:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Passive transfer of serum containing ZP3 antibodies also elicited transient infertility...
  9. Jungnickel M, Sutton K, Wang Y, Florman H. Phosphoinositide-dependent pathways in mouse sperm are regulated by egg ZP3 and drive the acrosome reaction. Dev Biol. 2007;304:116-26 pubmed
    ..are triggered during sperm contact with the egg extracellular matrix, or zona pellucida, by the matrix glycoprotein ZP3. Here, we show that ZP3 stimulates production of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-triphosphate in sperm membranes...

More Information


  1. Lu Q, Shur B. Sperm from beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase-null mice are refractory to ZP3-induced acrosome reactions and penetrate the zona pellucida poorly. Development. 1997;124:4121-31 pubmed
    ..have been suggested to mediate gamete recognition by binding to glycoside ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. The function of each of these candidate receptors is based upon varying degrees of circumstantial and direct ..
  2. O Toole C, Arnoult C, Darszon A, Steinhardt R, Florman H. Ca(2+) entry through store-operated channels in mouse sperm is initiated by egg ZP3 and drives the acrosome reaction. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:1571-84 pubmed
    ..b>ZP3, an egg zona pellucida glycoprotein, produces a sustained increase of the internal Ca(2+) concentration in mouse ..
  3. Akatsuka K, Yoshida Komiya H, Tulsiani D, Orgebin Crist M, Hiroi M, Araki Y. Rat zona pellucida glycoproteins: molecular cloning and characterization of the three major components. Mol Reprod Dev. 1998;51:454-67 pubmed
    ..A rat ovary cDNA library was screened with the mouse ZP3 and ZP2 cDNA probes, respectively...
  4. Boja E, Hoodbhoy T, Garfield M, Fales H. Structural conservation of mouse and rat zona pellucida glycoproteins. Probing the native rat zona pellucida proteome by mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16445-60 pubmed
    ..Mouse zonae are composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), while rat zonae contain four (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4/ZPB)...
  5. O Leary S, Lloyd M, Shellam G, Robertson S. Immunization with recombinant murine cytomegalovirus expressing murine zona pellucida 3 causes permanent infertility in BALB/c mice due to follicle depletion and ovulation failure. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A single intraperitoneal immunization with recombinant murine cytomegalovirus engineered to express murine ZP3 (rMCMV-mZP3) induces permanent infertility with no evident systemic illness in female BALB/c mice...
  6. Choudhury S, Ganguly A, Chakrabarti K, Sharma R, Gupta S. DNA vaccine encoding chimeric protein encompassing epitopes of human ZP3 and ZP4: immunogenicity and characterization of antibodies. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;79:137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, plasmid DNA encoding a human ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) epitope corresponding to amino acid (aa) residues 334-343 and a human ZP glycoprotein-4 (ZP4) epitope ..
  7. Bansal P, Gupta S. Binding characteristics of sperm with recombinant human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 coated beads. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:37-43 pubmed
    ..simple assay system to analyse the binding of capacitated human spermatozoa to human zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) using baculovirus-expressed recombinant human ZP3 coated beads...
  8. Chiu P, Wong B, Chung M, Lam K, Pang R, Lee K, et al. Effects of native human zona pellucida glycoproteins 3 and 4 on acrosome reaction and zona pellucida binding of human spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:869-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycosylation of ZP glycoproteins is important in spermatozoa-ZP interaction. Human ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) is believed to initiate acrosome reaction. Recently, human ZP4 was also implicated in inducing acrosome reaction...
  9. Clydesdale G, Pekin J, Beaton S, Jackson R, Vignarajan S, Hardy C. Contraception in mice immunized with recombinant zona pellucida subunit 3 proteins correlates with Th2 responses and the levels of interleukin 4 expressed by CD4+ cells. Reproduction. 2004;128:737-45 pubmed
    ..Female BALB/c and CBA mice were immunized with recombinant mouse (m) ZP3 (vmZP3) or pig (p) ZPC (vpZPC) using Freund's adjuvants and boosted three times...
  10. José O, Hernandez Hernandez O, Chirinos M, González González M, Larrea F, Almanza A, et al. Recombinant human ZP3-induced sperm acrosome reaction: evidence for the involvement of T- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Four glycoproteins (ZP1-ZP4) compose the human ZP, being ZP3 the physiological inductor of the AR...
  11. Srivastava N, Santhanam R, Sheela P, Mukund S, Thakral S, Malik B, et al. Evaluation of the immunocontraceptive potential of Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant dog ZP2 and ZP3 in a homologous animal model. Reproduction. 2002;123:847-57 pubmed
    ..These results, although preliminary, indicate that immunization with dZP3 may be a feasible proposition to control dog populations provided that adequate antibody titres are achieved. ..
  12. Hoodbhoy T, Aviles M, Baibakov B, Epifano O, Jimenez Movilla M, Gauthier L, et al. ZP2 and ZP3 traffic independently within oocytes prior to assembly into the extracellular zona pellucida. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7991-8 pubmed
    ..In mice, the zona pellucida is composed of three glycoproteins, but the presence of ZP2 and ZP3 is sufficient to form a biologically functional structure...
  13. Furlong L, Harris J, Vazquez Levin M. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1780-90 pubmed
    ..The interaction involves mannosyl, fucosyl, and sulfated glycans. Binding sites for rec-hZP would be located both at the N- and C-terminus of proacrosin, revealing a key role of the proenzyme in the interaction. ..
  14. Borillo J, Coonrod S, Wu J, Zhou C, LOU Y. Antibodies to two ZP3 B cell epitopes affect zona pellucida assembly. J Reprod Immunol. 2008;78:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has investigated whether anti-ZP3 antibodies affect ZP assembly...
  15. Bansal P, Chakrabarti K, Gupta S. Functional activity of human ZP3 primary sperm receptor resides toward its C-terminus. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:7-15 pubmed publisher
    Zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3) has been ascribed as a putative primary sperm receptor during fertilization in humans. Herein, attempts have been made to delineate the functional domain of human ZP3...
  16. Zhao M, Gold L, Dorward H, Liang L, Hoodbhoy T, Boja E, et al. Mutation of a conserved hydrophobic patch prevents incorporation of ZP3 into the zona pellucida surrounding mouse eggs. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8982-91 pubmed
    Three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) are synthesized in growing mouse oocytes and secreted to form an extracellular zona pellucida that mediates sperm binding and fertilization...