Gene Symbol: Xpo1
Description: exportin 1
Alias: exportin-1, chromosome region maintenance 1 protein homolog, exp1, exportin 1 (CRM1, yeast, homolog), exportin 1, CRM1 homolog
Species: rat
Products:     Xpo1

Top Publications

  1. Eilers A, Sundwall E, Lin M, Sullivan A, Ayer D. A novel heterodimerization domain, CRM1, and 14-3-3 control subcellular localization of the MondoA-Mlx heterocomplex. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8514-26 pubmed
    ..Second, an extracellular signal(s) must overcome the cytoplasmic localization function imparted by CRM1 and 14-3-3 binding to the N terminus of MondoA. ..
  2. Harrison B, Roberts C, Hood D, Sweeney M, Gould J, Bush E, et al. The CRM1 nuclear export receptor controls pathological cardiac gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10636-49 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological approaches targeting CRM1-dependent nuclear export in heart muscle may have salutary effects on cardiac function by suppressing maladaptive changes in gene expression evoked by stress signals. ..
  3. Barnfield P, Zhang X, Thanabalasingham V, Yoshida M, Hui C. Negative regulation of Gli1 and Gli2 activator function by Suppressor of fused through multiple mechanisms. Differentiation. 2005;73:397-405 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations reveal that Su(fu) regulates the activity of Gli1 and Gli2 through distinct cytoplasmic and nuclear mechanisms. ..
  4. Bogerd H, Wiegand H, Yang J, Cullen B. Mutational definition of functional domains within the Rev homolog encoded by human endogenous retrovirus K. J Virol. 2000;74:9353-61 pubmed
  5. Samuels A, Klinken S, Ingley E. Liar, a novel Lyn-binding nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences erythropoietin-induced differentiation. Blood. 2009;113:3845-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Liar is a novel Lyn-interacting molecule that plays an important role in regulating intracellular signaling events associated with erythroid terminal differentiation. ..
  6. Sakiyama H, Wynn R, Lee W, Fukasawa M, Mizuguchi H, Gardner K, et al. Regulation of nuclear import/export of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP): interaction of an alpha-helix of ChREBP with the 14-3-3 proteins and regulation by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that interactions with importin alpha and 14-3-3 regulate movement of ChREBP into and out of the nucleus, respectively, and that these interactions are regulated by the ChREBP phosphorylation status. ..
  7. Fei E, Ma X, Zhu C, Xue T, Yan J, Xu Y, et al. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of dysbindin-1, a schizophrenia-related protein, regulates synapsin I expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38630-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of dysbindin-1 regulates synapsin I expression and thus may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ..
  8. Fernandez L A, Northcott P, Dalton J, Fraga C, Ellison D, Angers S, et al. YAP1 is amplified and up-regulated in hedgehog-associated medulloblastomas and mediates Sonic hedgehog-driven neural precursor proliferation. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2729-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-irradiation, YAP1 was found in newly growing tumor cells. These findings implicate YAP1 as a new Shh effector that may be targeted by medulloblastoma therapies aimed at eliminating medulloblastoma recurrence. ..
  9. Ortega J, de Conti A, Tryndyak V, Furtado K, Heidor R, Horst M, et al. Suppressing activity of tributyrin on hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with inhibiting the p53-CRM1 interaction and changing the cellular compartmentalization of p53 protein. Oncotarget. 2016;7:24339-47 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Li A, Zou F, Fu H, Cui G, Yan Y, Wu Q, et al. Upregulation of CRM1 relates to neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury in adult rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2013;51:208-18 pubmed publisher
  2. Papac Milicevic N, Breuss J, Zaujec J, Ryban L, Plyushch T, Wagner G, et al. The interferon stimulated gene 12 inactivates vasculoprotective functions of NR4A nuclear receptors. Circ Res. 2012;110:e50-63 pubmed publisher
  3. Fukasawa M, Ge Q, Wynn R, Ishii S, Uyeda K. Coordinate regulation/localization of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP) by two nuclear export signal sites: discovery of a new leucine-rich nuclear export signal site. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1166-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Okamura M, Inose H, Masuda S. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes. Genes (Basel). 2015;6:124-49 pubmed publisher
    ..are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5...
  5. Waldmann I, Spillner C, Kehlenbach R. The nucleoporin-like protein NLP1 (hCG1) promotes CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..CRM1 (exportin 1), the major export receptor, forms trimeric complexes with RanGTP and proteins containing nuclear export ..
  6. Stipanovich A, Valjent E, Matamales M, Nishi A, Ahn J, Maroteaux M, et al. A phosphatase cascade by which rewarding stimuli control nucleosomal response. Nature. 2008;453:879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of Ser 97 profoundly alters behavioural effects of drugs of abuse and decreases motivation for food, underlining the functional importance of this signalling cascade. ..
  7. Hakata Y, Yamada M, Shida H. Rat CRM1 is responsible for the poor activity of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex protein in rat cells. J Virol. 2001;75:11515-25 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the poor ability of rCRM1 to act as a cofactor for Rex function may be responsible for the poor replication of HTLV-1 in rats. ..
  8. Phillips R, Ramos S, Blackshear P. Members of the tristetraprolin family of tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins exhibit CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11606-13 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest possible roles for nuclear import and export in the regulation of cellular TTP, CMG1, and TIS11D activity. ..
  9. Zemp I, Kutay U. Nuclear export and cytoplasmic maturation of ribosomal subunits. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2783-93 pubmed
    ..We review current knowledge of nuclear export and cytoplasmic maturation of ribosomal subunits. ..
  10. Shinmura K, Tarapore P, Tokuyama Y, George K, Fukasawa K. Characterization of centrosomal association of nucleophosmin/B23 linked to Crm1 activity. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:6621-34 pubmed
    ..We further found that inhibition of Crm1 nuclear export receptor results in both accumulation of cyclin E at centrosomes and efficient dissociation of NPM/B23 from centrosomes. ..
  11. Bodendorf U, Cziepluch C, Jauniaux J, Rommelaere J, Salome N. Nuclear export factor CRM1 interacts with nonstructural proteins NS2 from parvovirus minute virus of mice. J Virol. 1999;73:7769-79 pubmed
  12. McKinsey T, Kuwahara K, Bezprozvannaya S, Olson E. Class II histone deacetylases confer signal responsiveness to the ankyrin-repeat proteins ANKRA2 and RFXANK. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:438-47 pubmed
    ..These results define a novel transcriptional pathway under the control of class II HDACs and suggest a role for these transcriptional repressors as signal-responsive regulators of antigen presentation. ..
  13. Hilton L, White M, Quarmby L. The NIMA-related kinase NEK1 cycles through the nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that NEK1 is a candidate to transduce messages from the ciliary-basal body region to the regulation of nuclear gene expression. ..
  14. Bai B, Moore H, Laiho M. CRM1 and its ribosome export adaptor NMD3 localize to the nucleolus and affect rRNA synthesis. Nucleus. 2013;4:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CRM1 and NMD3 have complex functions in pathways that couple rRNA synthetic and processing engines and that the rRNA synthesis rate may be adjusted according to proficiency in rRNA processing and export. ..
  15. Zuccolo M, Alves A, Galy V, Bolhy S, Formstecher E, Racine V, et al. The human Nup107-160 nuclear pore subcomplex contributes to proper kinetochore functions. EMBO J. 2007;26:1853-64 pubmed
    ..Together, our data thus provide the first molecular clues underlying the function of the human Nup107-160 complex at kinetochores. ..
  16. Natalizio B, Wente S. Postage for the messenger: designating routes for nuclear mRNA export. Trends Cell Biol. 2013;23:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms that characterize each pathway and highlight the determinants that influence mRNA transport fate. ..
  17. Jao D, Yu Chen K. Subcellular localization of the hypusine-containing eukaryotic initiation factor 5A by immunofluorescent staining and green fluorescent protein tagging. J Cell Biochem. 2002;86:590-600 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that eIF-5A gains nuclear entry via passive diffusion, but it does not undergo active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. ..
  18. Cong F, Varmus H. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Axin regulates subcellular localization of beta-catenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2882-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Axin functions as a molecular chaperone for beta-catenin and that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of Axin regulates the nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of beta-catenin. ..
  19. Nagai Fukataki M, Ohashi T, Hashimoto I, Kimura T, Hakata Y, Shida H. Nuclear and cytoplasmic effects of human CRM1 on HIV-1 production in rat cells. Genes Cells. 2011;16:203-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that hCRM1 exports gag mRNA to the cytoplasm, not only more efficiently than rCRM1 but also correctly, leading to efficient processing of Gag proteins and particle formation. ..
  20. Thomas F, Kutay U. Biogenesis and nuclear export of ribosomal subunits in higher eukaryotes depend on the CRM1 export pathway. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2409-19 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the functions of CRM1 and NMD3 in ribosomal subunit export are conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes. ..
  21. Trotta C, Lund E, Kahan L, Johnson A, Dahlberg J. Coordinated nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and NMD3 in vertebrates. EMBO J. 2003;22:2841-51 pubmed
    ..We propose that NMD3 acts as an adaptor for CRM1-Ran.GTP-mediated 60S subunit export, by a mechanism that is conserved from vertebrates to yeast. ..
  22. Boulon S, Verheggen C, Jady B, Girard C, Pescia C, Paul C, et al. PHAX and CRM1 are required sequentially to transport U3 snoRNA to nucleoli. Mol Cell. 2004;16:777-87 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the role of PHAX in determining the identity of small RNAs extends to nonexported species, and this appears critical to promote their transport within the nucleus. ..
  23. Knauer S, Carra G, Stauber R. Nuclear export is evolutionarily conserved in CVC paired-like homeobox proteins and influences protein stability, transcriptional activation, and extracellular secretion. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:2573-82 pubmed
    ..Nucleocytoplasmic transport may thus represent a conserved control mechanism to fine-tune the transcriptional activity of PLC-HDPs prerequisite for regulating and maintaining the complex expression pattern during development. ..
  24. Bai Y, Lu H, Machida C. CRM 1-mediated degradation and agonist-induced down-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor mRNAs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1076-89 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CRM 1-dependent NES-mediated mechanisms influence the degradation and agonist-mediated down-regulation of the beta1-AR mRNAs. ..
  25. Svärd J, Heby Henricson K, Henricson K, Persson Lek M, Rozell B, Lauth M, et al. Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:187-97 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway. ..
  26. Yang J, Bogerd H, Peng S, Wiegand H, Truant R, Cullen B. An ancient family of human endogenous retroviruses encodes a functional homolog of the HIV-1 Rev protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13404-8 pubmed
    ..These data provide surprising evidence for an evolutionary link between HIV-1 and a group of endogenous retroviruses that first entered the human genome approximately 30 million years ago. ..