Gene Symbol: Xiap
Description: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis
Alias: Api3, Birc4, riap3, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase XIAP, IAP homolog A, IAP-3, RIAP-3, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase XIAP, X-linked IAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, apoptosis inhibitor protein 3, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 4, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 4, inhibitor of apoptosis protein 3
Species: rat
Products:     Xiap

Top Publications

  1. Suzuki Y, Imai Y, Nakayama H, Takahashi K, Takio K, Takahashi R. A serine protease, HtrA2, is released from the mitochondria and interacts with XIAP, inducing cell death. Mol Cell. 2001;8:613-21 pubmed
    X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-3, -7, and -9...
  2. Mizutani Y, Nakanishi H, Li Y, Matsubara H, Yamamoto K, Sato N, et al. Overexpression of XIAP expression in renal cell carcinoma predicts a worse prognosis. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:919-25 pubmed
    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent caspase-inhibitory IAP family member and a negative regulator of various apoptotic stimuli...
  3. Seligson D, Hongo F, Huerta Yepez S, Mizutani Y, Miki T, Yu H, et al. Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein is a strong predictor of human prostate cancer recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6056-63 pubmed
    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is associated with cell survival by blocking caspase-mediated apoptosis...
  4. Ishigaki S, Liang Y, Yamamoto M, Niwa J, Ando Y, Yoshihara T, et al. X-Linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein is involved in mutant SOD1-mediated neuronal degeneration. J Neurochem. 2002;82:576-84 pubmed
    ..The levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in the spinal cord of symptomatic G93A-SOD1 Tg mice compared with ..
  5. Perrelet D, Ferri A, Liston P, Muzzin P, Korneluk R, Kato A. IAPs are essential for GDNF-mediated neuroprotective effects in injured motor neurons in vivo. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:175-9 pubmed
    ..However, the downstream targets of neurotrophic factors have not yet been identified. Here, we demonstrate that XIAP and NAIP, but not HIAP2, are directly involved in the intracellular response to glial cell-derived neurotrophic ..
  6. Jaffer S, Orta L, Sunkara S, Sabo E, Burstein D. Immunohistochemical detection of antiapoptotic protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in mammary carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:864-70 pubmed
    An immunohistochemical survey of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression in mammary carcinoma was performed...
  7. Russell J, Whiting H, Szuflita N, Hossain M. Nuclear translocation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) determines cell fate after hypoxia ischemia in neonatal brain. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the expression and subcellular distribution of the antiapoptotic protein X-linked IAP (XIAP), and its interactions with the XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia-ischemia (..
  8. Deveraux Q, Takahashi R, Salvesen G, Reed J. X-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of cell-death proteases. Nature. 1997;388:300-4 pubmed
  9. Fadó R, Moubarak R, Miñano Molina A, Barneda Zahonero B, Valero J, Saura C, et al. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein negatively regulates neuronal differentiation through interaction with cRAF and Trk. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2397 pubmed publisher
    X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) has been classically identified as a cell death regulator. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of XIAP as a regulator of neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells...

More Information


  1. Hill C, Alexander M, McCullough L, Fitch R. Inhibition of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis with embelin differentially affects male versus female behavioral outcome following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. Dev Neurosci. 2011;33:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..data, the 'female protection' following HI injury may reflect the endogenous X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), which effectively binds effector caspases and halts downstream cleavage of effector caspases (thus reducing cell ..
  2. Bramlett H, Furones Alonso O, Lotocki G, Rodriguez Paez A, Sanchez Molano J, Keane R. Sex differences in XIAP cleavage after traumatic brain injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;461:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the TBI-induced regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) that, in addition to suppressing cell death by inhibition of caspases, is involved in signaling cascades, ..
  3. Zhang B, Rong R, Li H, Peng X, Xiong L, Wang Y, et al. Heat shock protein 72 suppresses apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:1793-9 pubmed publisher
    X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) negatively regulates apoptotic pathways at a post‑mitochondrial level. XIAP functions by directly binding and inhibiting activation of specific caspases...
  4. Jung B, Kim M, Yun S, Lee E. Down-regulation of the expression of rat inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein-1 and -3 during transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated apoptosis in rat brain microglia. Neuroreport. 2003;14:857-60 pubmed
  5. Dirks A, Leeuwenburgh C. Aging and lifelong calorie restriction result in adaptations of skeletal muscle apoptosis repressor, apoptosis-inducing factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, caspase-3, and caspase-12. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36:27-39 pubmed
    ..Calorie restriction is able to lower the apoptotic potential in aged skeletal muscle by altering several key apoptotic proteins toward cellular survival, thereby reducing the potential for sarcopenia. ..
  6. Su B, Mo F. CCN1 enables Fas ligand-induced apoptosis in cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells by disrupting caspase inhibitor XIAP. Cell Signal. 2014;26:1326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that FasL dose-dependently increased the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) levels to prevent the progression of apoptosis in H9c2 cells...
  7. Van Themsche C, Leblanc V, Parent S, Asselin E. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) regulates PTEN ubiquitination, content, and compartmentalization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation of Akt has previously been shown to be promoted by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), another antiapoptotic protein dictating the fate of normal and cancer cells...
  8. Burstein D, Idrees M, Li G, Wu M, Kalir T. Immunohistochemical detection of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cervix were surveyed for the immunohistochemical detectability of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), believed to be the most potent of a novel group of proteins designated inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)...
  9. Hwang C, Oetjen K, Kosoff D, Wojno K, Albertelli M, Dunn R, et al. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), is an antiapoptotic molecule, whose elevated expression has been observed in tumor specimens from patients with ..
  10. Löder S, Fakler M, Schoeneberger H, Cristofanon S, Leibacher J, Vanlangenakker N, et al. RIP1 is required for IAP inhibitor-mediated sensitization of childhood acute leukemia cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Leukemia. 2012;26:1020-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have important implications for developing apoptosis-targeted therapies in childhood leukemia. ..
  11. Danquah M, Li F, Duke C, Miller D, Mahato R. Micellar delivery of bicalutamide and embelin for treating prostate cancer. Pharm Res. 2009;26:2081-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Embelin induced caspase 3 and 9 activation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells by decreasing XIAP expression and was more potent than bicalutamide in killing prostate tumor cells irrespective of their androgen ..
  12. Wang K, Zhang J, Liu J, Tian J, Wu Y, Wang X, et al. Variations in the protein level of Omi/HtrA2 in the heart of aged rats may contribute to the increased susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischemia/reperfusion injury and cell death : Omi/HtrA2 and aged heart injury. Age (Dordr). 2013;35:733-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently demonstrated that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the most potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased in aging rats' hearts...
  13. Hanson A, Wallace H, Freeman T, Beauchamp R, Lee L, Lee E. XIAP monoubiquitylates Groucho/TLE to promote canonical Wnt signaling. Mol Cell. 2012;45:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report an unanticipated role for X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in regulating this critical Wnt signaling event that is independent of its antiapoptotic function...
  14. Siu P, Bryner R, Murlasits Z, Alway S. Response of XIAP, ARC, and FLIP apoptotic suppressors to 8 wk of treadmill running in rat heart and skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:204-9 pubmed
    ..training on endogenous apoptotic suppressors including X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), apoptosis repressor with caspases recruitment domain protein (ARC), and FADD-like inhibitor protein (FLIP) in ..
  15. Holcik M, Lefebvre C, Hicks K, Korneluk R. Cloning and characterization of the rat homologues of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis protein 1, 2, and 3 genes. BMC Genomics. 2002;3:5 pubmed
    ..We have identified three rat homologues of the IAP genes. The elevated expression of rat iap-1 and iap2 in testes suggests that these two genes play an important antiapoptotic role in spermatogenesis. ..
  16. Leonard K, Petrin D, Coupland S, Baker A, Leonard B, LaCasse E, et al. XIAP protection of photoreceptors in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e314 pubmed
    ..Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) carrying the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were delivered subretinally into the eye of transgenic rat pups...
  17. Wang Y, Rippstein P, Tsang B. Role and gonadotrophic regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression during rat ovarian follicular development in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:610-9 pubmed
    Although FSH up-regulates follicular cell X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression and suppresses apoptosis in vivo, if these events are coincidental or causally related remains to be investigated...
  18. Kemeny S, Dery D, Loboda Y, Rovner M, Lev T, Zuri D, et al. Parkin promotes degradation of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic ARTS protein. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38837 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ARTS is a novel substrate of Parkin. These observations link Parkin directly to a pro-apoptotic protein and reveal a novel connection between Parkin, apoptosis, and PD. ..
  19. Askalan R, Salweski R, Tuor U, Hutchison J, Hawkins C. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression after ischemic injury in the human and rat developing brain. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:21-6 pubmed publisher
    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent suppressor of neuronal death. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of XIAP after ischemia in the human and rat developing brain...
  20. Rami A, Agarwal R, Spahn A. Synergetic effects of caspase 3 and mu-calpain in XIAP-breakdown upon focal cerebral ischemia. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:2072-9 pubmed
    ..The recently discovered X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is among the most potent inhibitors of apoptosis...
  21. Silverman W, de Rivero Vaccari J, Locovei S, Qiu F, Carlsson S, Scemes E, et al. The pannexin 1 channel activates the inflammasome in neurons and astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in contrast to macrophages and monocytes in which low intracellular K(+) has been suggested to trigger inflammasome activation, in neural cells, high extracellular K(+) activates caspase-1 probably through pannexin 1. ..
  22. Potts P, Singh S, Knezek M, Thompson C, Deshmukh M. Critical function of endogenous XIAP in regulating caspase activation during sympathetic neuronal apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:789-99 pubmed
    ..We have identified endogenous X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) as the essential postcytochrome c regulator of caspase activation in these neurons...
  23. Kaur S, Wang F, Venkatraman M, Arsura M. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activation by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) through ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation of the TGF-beta1-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38599-608 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB counteracts TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis through up-regulation of downstream target genes, such as XIAP and Bcl-X(L), which in turn inhibit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis...
  24. Lotocki G, Alonso O, Frydel B, Dietrich W, Keane R. Monoubiquitination and cellular distribution of XIAP in neurons after traumatic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23:1129-36 pubmed
    b>XIAP is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family that, in addition to suppressing cell death by inhibition and polyubiquitination of caspases, is involved in an increasing number of signaling cascades...
  25. Brady G, Galban S, Liu X, Basrur V, Gitlin J, Elenitoba Johnson K, et al. Regulation of the copper chaperone CCS by XIAP-mediated ubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1923-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein was recently identified as a copper-binding protein and regulator of copper homeostasis, although the ..
  26. Levkovitch Verbin H, Makarovsky D, Vander S. Comparison between axonal and retinal ganglion cell gene expression in various optic nerve injuries including glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2013;19:2526-41 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry localized changes in inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-1 and X-linked IAP (XIAP) proteins in retinas and ONs...
  27. Foster F, Owens T, Tanianis Hughes J, Clarke R, Brennan K, Bundred N, et al. Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in combination with ErbB antagonists in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R41 pubmed publisher
    ..Proliferation was examined by Ki67 staining. Four members of the IAP family, Survivin, XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, were all expressed to varying extents in breast cancer cell lines or tumours...
  28. Li T, Fan Y, Luo Y, Xiao B, Lu C. In vivo delivery of a XIAP (BIR3-RING) fusion protein containing the protein transduction domain protects against neuronal death induced by seizures. Exp Neurol. 2006;197:301-8 pubmed
    ..X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is regarded as the most potent inhibitor of cell apoptosis...
  29. Tsang A, Lee Y, Ko H, Savitt J, Pletnikova O, Troncoso J, et al. S-nitrosylation of XIAP compromises neuronal survival in Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4900-5 pubmed publisher
    ..X-linked IAP (XIAP) is the most widely expressed IAP and plays an important function in regulating cell survival...
  30. Li S, Luo Q, Huang L, Hu Y, Xia Q, He C. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on cartilage apoptosis signalling pathways in ovariectomised rats. Int Orthop. 2011;35:1875-82 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway in ovariectomised rats by monitoring the expression of mRNA of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and Bax...
  31. Yuan H, Yan B, Wang H, Hua S, Hu A. Nitric oxide preserves XIAP and reduces hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis via ERK1/2 activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) protein levels decreased in myocytes subjected to reoxygenation, and ERK phosphorylation can improve XIAP ..
  32. Leblanc V, Dery M, Shooner C, Asselin E. Opposite regulation of XIAP and Smac/DIABLO in the rat endometrium in response to 17beta-estradiol at estrus. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:59 pubmed
    ..members of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)...
  33. Li S, Zhao Y, He X, Kim T, Kuharsky D, Rabinowich H, et al. Relief of extrinsic pathway inhibition by the Bid-dependent mitochondrial release of Smac in Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26912-20 pubmed
    ..mature and to exhibit activity was because of the inhibition by the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs), such as XIAP, and also to a low caspase-8 activity. This block could be overcome in wild-type mice by two mechanisms...
  34. Korhonen L, Näpänkangas U, Steen H, Chen Y, Martinez R, Lindholm D. Differential regulation of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-3 by NMDA in developing hippocampal neurons; involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in NMDA-mediated neuronal survival. Exp Cell Res. 2004;295:290-9 pubmed
    ..of NMDA upregulates the neuroprotective molecule, X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in cultured hippocampal neurons at the post-transcriptional level...
  35. Bruno T, Iezzi S, De Nicola F, Di Padova M, DeSantis A, Scarsella M, et al. Che-1 activates XIAP expression in response to DNA damage. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:515-20 pubmed
    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family that selectively binds and inhibits caspase-3, -7 and -9...
  36. Ma J, Chen B, Xin X. XIAP gene downregulation by small interfering RNA inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and reverses the cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;146:222-6 pubmed publisher
    b>XIAP is one of the most important members of the inhibitors of apoptosis family...
  37. Samuel T, Okada K, Hyer M, Welsh K, Zapata J, Reed J. cIAP1 Localizes to the nuclear compartment and modulates the cell cycle. Cancer Res. 2005;65:210-8 pubmed
    ..Unlike family member X-linked IAP (XIAP), which was predominantly cytoplasmic, the cIAP1 protein localized almost exclusively to nuclei in cells, as ..
  38. Xia C, Zhu L, Shao W, Mi S, Du S, Ye L, et al. The Effect of Hippocampal Cognitive Impairment and XIAP on Glucose and Lipids Metabolism in Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:609-18 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of cognitive impairment and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) on glucolipid metabolism. β-amyloid (Aβ 1-42) was injected into the hippocampus of rats to establish a cognitive impairment model...
  39. Zhang D, Zhao N, Ma B, Wang Y, Zhang G, Yan X, et al. Procaspase-9 induces its cleavage by transnitrosylating XIAP via the Thioredoxin system during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24203 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, SNO-caspase-3 can transnitrosylate the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) to enhance apoptosis. XIAP is a potent antagonist of caspase apoptotic activity...
  40. Bertrand M, Lippens S, Staes A, Gilbert B, Roelandt R, De Medts J, et al. cIAP1/2 are direct E3 ligases conjugating diverse types of ubiquitin chains to receptor interacting proteins kinases 1 to 4 (RIP1-4). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22356 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2 not only directly bind to RIP1 and RIP2 but also to RIP3 and RIP4...
  41. Kissel H, Georgescu M, Larisch S, Manova K, Hunnicutt G, Steller H. The Sept4 septin locus is required for sperm terminal differentiation in mice. Dev Cell. 2005;8:353-64 pubmed
    ..the elimination of residual cytoplasm during sperm maturation and had increased staining for the caspase inhibitor XIAP. This is consistent with a role of the proapoptotic Sept4 protein ARTS in promoting caspase-mediated removal of ..
  42. Lareu R, Lacher M, Bradley C, Sridaran R, Friis R, Dharmarajan A. Regulated expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein 3 in the rat corpus luteum. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2232-40 pubmed
    ..We isolated two clones with amino acid homology to rat IAP2 (BIRC 3) and three to rat IAP3 (rIAP3; BIRC 4)...
  43. Blancas S, Fadó R, Rodriguez Alvarez J, Moran J. Endogenous XIAP, but not other members of the inhibitory apoptosis protein family modulates cerebellar granule neurons survival. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2014;37:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, we found a differential expression pattern of cIAP-1, cIAP-2, XIAP and survivin during cerebellar development in an age-dependent manner, highlighting the significant increase of ..
  44. Siegelin M, Kossatz L, Winckler J, Rami A. Regulation of XIAP and Smac/DIABLO in the rat hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:41-51 pubmed
    We investigated the expression of XIAP (X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and Smac/DIABLO, a newly identified mitochondrial apoptogenig molecule in the hippocampus following transient global ischemia...
  45. Tabuchi K, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan A. Role of inhibitor of apoptosis protein in gentamicin-induced cochlear hair cell damage. Neuroscience. 2007;149:213-22 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in hair cell death due to gentamicin...
  46. Moubarak R, Planells Ferrer L, Urresti J, Reix S, Segura M, Carriba P, et al. FAIM-L is an IAP-binding protein that inhibits XIAP ubiquitinylation and protects from Fas-induced apoptosis. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that FAIM-L protects rat neuronal Type II cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. XIAP has previously emerged as a molecular discriminator that is upregulated in Type II and downregulated in Type I ..
  47. Zhang Z, Wang X, Wang S. Chemosensitization effects of simultaneous suppression of MDR1 and XIAP in multidrug resistant glioma cells. Med Oncol. 2008;25:367-73 pubmed publisher
    We studied the mechanisms involved in the drug resistance of C6/ADR and compared the reversal effects of XIAP and MDR1 ASO used in combination and separately...