Xdh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Xdh
Description: xanthine dehydrogenase
Alias: XOR, xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, xanthine oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase
Species: rat
Products:     Xdh

Top Publications

  1. Prajda N, Weber G. Malignant transformation-linked imbalance: decreased xanthine oxidase activity in hepatomas. FEBS Lett. 1975;59:245-9 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidase was decreased 2- to 10-fold in all examined rat hepatomas irrespective of the malignancy; growth rate and degrees of histological differentiation of the neoplasms...
  2. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O. Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:2391-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, in three subjects with type I xanthinuria, the primary genetic defects were confirmed to be in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene. ..
  3. Ohtsubo T, Matsumura K, Sakagami K, Fujii K, Tsuruya K, Noguchi H, et al. Xanthine oxidoreductase depletion induces renal interstitial fibrosis through aberrant lipid and purine accumulation in renal tubules. Hypertension. 2009;54:868-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an enzyme responsible for purine degradation, reactive oxygen species production, and adipogenesis. XOR gene-disrupted (XOR(-/-)) mice demonstrate renal failure and early death within several months...
  4. Shafik A. Febuxostat improves the local and remote organ changes induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:650-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of diseases, and is thought to be the most important source of oxygen-free radicals and cell damage during re-oxygenation of hypoxic tissues...
  5. Han S, Bhopale V, Thom S. Xanthine oxidoreductase and neurological sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicol Lett. 2007;170:111-5 pubmed
    ..To determine whether xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) participates in the pathophysiology of CO-mediated NS, we examined myelin basic protein in CO ..
  6. Sultana S, Verma K, Khan R. Nephroprotective efficacy of chrysin against cisplatin-induced toxicity via attenuation of oxidative stress. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..the DNA damage and toxicity markers, such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity, accompanied by increase in enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and ..
  7. Soucy K, Lim H, Attarzadeh D, Santhanam L, Kim J, Bhunia A, et al. Dietary inhibition of xanthine oxidase attenuates radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that radiation causes endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular stiffness by xanthine oxidase (XO) activation...
  8. Okamoto K, Kawaguchi Y, Eger B, Pai E, Nishino T. Crystal structures of urate bound form of xanthine oxidoreductase: substrate orientation and structure of the key reaction intermediate. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:17080-3 pubmed publisher
    ..have been proposed for the binding mode of the substrate xanthine to and its activation mechanism by xanthine oxidoreductase. In an effort to distinguish between the two models, we determined the crystal structures of the urate ..
  9. El Bassossy H, Watson M. Xanthine oxidase inhibition alleviates the cardiac complications of insulin resistance: effect on low grade inflammation and the angiotensin system. J Transl Med. 2015;13:82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the effect of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition on the cardiac complications of IR...

More Information

Publications96

  1. Piret S, Esapa C, Gorvin C, Head R, Loh N, Devuyst O, et al. A mouse model of early-onset renal failure due to a xanthine dehydrogenase nonsense mutation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45217 pubmed
    ..8 Mbp region on chromosome 17E1.3. DNA sequencing of the xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 26 that co-segregated with affected RENF mice...
  2. Tamura Y, Tanabe K, Kitagawa W, Uchida S, Schreiner G, Johnson R, et al. Nicorandil, a K(atp) channel opener, alleviates chronic renal injury by targeting podocytes and macrophages. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..with maintenance of the mitochondrial antioxidant, manganese SOD, in podocytes and with suppression of xanthine oxidase expression in infiltrating macrophages...
  3. Bindoli A, Cavallini L, Rigobello M, Coassin M, Di Lisa F. Modification of the xanthine-converting enzyme of perfused rat heart during ischemia and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 1988;4:163-7 pubmed
    The reversible and irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase during ischemia/reperfusion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or diamide and its relationship with glutathione and protein SH groups ..
  4. Lee T, Chen C, Hsu Y. Differential effects of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition on sympathetic reinnervation in postinfarct rat hearts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:1461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..period was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine, xanthine oxidase activity, NADPH oxidase activity, and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining...
  5. Terawaki H, Nakayama M, Miyazawa E, Murata Y, Nakayama K, Matsushima M, et al. Effect of allopurinol on cardiovascular incidence among hypertensive nephropathy patients: the Gonryo study. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013;17:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..with impaired kidney function appears to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality, indicating that this xanthine oxidase inhibitor protects the vascular system, at least in this specific group.
  6. Martelli A, Wattenhofer Donzé M, Schmucker S, Bouvet S, Reutenauer L, Puccio H. Frataxin is essential for extramitochondrial Fe-S cluster proteins in mammalian tissues. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2651-8 pubmed
    ..These results thus provide new cellular pathways that may contribute to molecular mechanisms of the disease. ..
  7. Maia L, Duarte R, Ponces Freire A, Moura J, Mira L. NADH oxidase activity of rat and human liver xanthine oxidoreductase: potential role in superoxide production. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2007;12:777-87 pubmed
    ..NADH oxidase activity of both xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and to evaluate the potential role of this mammalian enzyme as an O2*- source, kinetics and ..
  8. Sun K, Kiss E, Bedke J, Stojanovic T, Li Y, Gwinner W, et al. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in experimental acute renal-allograft rejection. Transplantation. 2004;77:1683-92 pubmed
    ..b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) may constitute a relevant reactive oxygen species (ROS) source. The study was conducted (1)...
  9. Chen L, Lan Z, Lin Q, Mi X, He Y, Wei L, et al. Polydatin ameliorates renal injury by attenuating oxidative stress-related inflammatory responses in fructose-induced urate nephropathic mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;52:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, polydatin showed inhibitory activities on xanthine oxidase to repress the level of serum uric acid in vivo and in vitro...
  10. Wang G, Qian P, Jackson F, Qian G, Wu G. Sequential activation of JAKs, STATs and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase by hypoxia in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:461-70 pubmed
    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) is associated with various pathological conditions related to the endothelial injury. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the activation of XDH/XO by hypoxia remains largely unknown...
  11. Demir E, Taysi S, Al B, Demir T, Okumus S, Saygili O, et al. The effects of Nigella sativa oil, thymoquinone, propolis, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on radiation-induced cataract. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128:587-595 pubmed publisher
    ..In the irradiated (IR) group, superoxide dismutase activity was lower, while glutathione peroxidase and xanthine oxidase activities and malondialdehyde level were higher compared with the other groups...
  12. Shimo T, Moto M, Ashizawa N, Matsumoto K, Iwanaga T, Saito K. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors. Arch Toxicol. 2014;88:1035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years...
  13. Shirakura T, Nomura J, Matsui C, Kobayashi T, Tamura M, Masuzaki H. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, improves hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:831-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme responsible for the production of uric acid. XO produces considerable amount of oxidative stress throughout the body...
  14. Kao M, Ang D, Gandy S, Nadir M, Houston J, Lang C, et al. Allopurinol benefits left ventricular mass and endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because LVH and endothelial dysfunction associate with prognosis, these results call for further trials to examine whether allopurinol reduces cardiovascular events in patients with CKD and LVH. ..
  15. Whidden M, McClung J, Falk D, Hudson M, Smuder A, Nelson W, et al. Xanthine oxidase contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to MV-induced oxidant production in the rat diaphragm and that oxypurinol, a XO inhibitor, ..
  16. Khoury W, Namnesnikov M, Fedorov D, Abu Gazala S, Abu Ghazala S, Weinbroum A. Mannitol attenuates kidney damage induced by xanthine oxidase-associated pancreas ischemia-reperfusion. J Surg Res. 2010;160:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be propagated by xanthine oxidase (XO)-generated oxidant stress...
  17. Vaghasiya J, Sheth N, Bhalodia Y, Jivani N. Exaggerated liver injury induced by renal ischemia reperfusion in diabetes: effect of exenatide. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in liver tissue were significantly increased (P <..
  18. Mitidieri E, Souza A, Affonso O. Xanthine oxidase activity in intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Arch Geschwulstforsch. 1988;58:79-80 pubmed
    1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-induced large bowel tumors in adult male rats contained significantly lower levels of xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities when compared to levels in normal intestinal tissue...
  19. Judge A, Dodd S. Xanthine oxidase and activated neutrophils cause oxidative damage to skeletal muscle after contractile claudication. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H252-6 pubmed
    ..sources of this oxidative damage in the gastrocnemius muscle, we administered allopurinol (Allo, to inhibit xanthine oxidase) and cyclophosphamide (Cyclo, to deplete neutrophils) before inducing contractile claudication in male ..
  20. Jezewska M, Kaminski Z. Xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition by NADH as a regulatory factor of purine metabolism. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979;122B:35-40 pubmed
  21. Hu S, Zhang L, Bai H, Bao C. [The protective effects of carbachol on visceral ischemia-induced lipid peroxidation injury in rats with sepsis]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2009;21:552-4 pubmed
    ..and specimens of liver, kidney and jejunum were harvested for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), xanthine oxidase (XOD), and assessment of tissue water content (ratio of dry to wet weight) of those organs ...
  22. Zhou J, Huang Z, Lin N, Liu W, Yang G, Wu D, et al. Abdominal paracentesis drainage protects rats against severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury by reducing the mobilization of intestinal XDH/XOD. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;99:374-384 pubmed publisher
    ..Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities in the sera, intestines and lungs were assessed, as was P-selectin expression...
  23. Laakso J, Teräväinen T, Martelin E, Vaskonen T, Lapatto R. Renal xanthine oxidoreductase activity during development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1333-40 pubmed
    Hyperuricaemia and reactive oxygen species have recently been associated with essential hypertension. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) produces urate and, in its oxidase isoform, reactive oxygen species also...
  24. Omori H, Kawada N, Inoue K, Ueda Y, Yamamoto R, Matsui I, et al. Use of xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat inhibits renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012;16:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO)-specific inhibitor for treating hyperuricemia...
  25. Rees R, Smith D, Li T, Cashmer B, Garner W, Punch J, et al. The role of xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in skin ischemia. J Surg Res. 1994;56:162-7 pubmed
    ..In this series of experiments, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was increased along an ischemic gradient of a skin flap and that the XO enzyme activity ..
  26. Lu P, Liu F, Yao Z, Wang C, Chen D, Tian Y, et al. Nitrite-derived nitric oxide by xanthine oxidoreductase protects the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2005;4:350-5 pubmed
    It was demonstrated that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), during ischemia, catalyzes the formation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite (NO2-) and this NO2- -derived NO protects the isolated perfused rat heart against the damaging effects of ..
  27. Leonova E, Sokolovska J, Boucher J, Isajevs S, Rostoka E, Baumane L, et al. New 1,4-Dihydropyridines Down-regulate Nitric Oxide in Animals with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Mellitus and Protect Deoxyribonucleic Acid against Peroxynitrite Action. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119:19-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) decreased NO production in kidneys of diabetic animals...
  28. Kumar S, Prasad S, Sitasawad S. Multiple antioxidants improve cardiac complications and inhibit cardiac cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67009 pubmed publisher
    ..MA was found to decrease the expression of ROS-generating enzymes like xanthine oxidase, monoamine oxidase-A along with 5-Lipoxygenase mRNA and/or protein expression...
  29. Ghaffari T, Nouri M, Saei A, Rashidi M. Aldehyde and xanthine oxidase activities in tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;147:217-25 pubmed publisher
    Effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities and antioxidant status in liver, kidney, and heart of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined...
  30. Wallwork C, Parks D, Schmid Schonbein G. Xanthine oxidase activity in the dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rat. Microvasc Res. 2003;66:30-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that xanthine oxidase (XO) may be a potential source of oxidants induced by glucocorticoid-induced hypertension...
  31. Vorbach C, Scriven A, Capecchi M. The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland. Genes Dev. 2002;16:3223-35 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types...
  32. Wang J, Pan Y, Hong Y, Zhang Q, Wang X, Kong L. Quercetin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Renal Uric Acid Transport System Alteration and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:548430 pubmed publisher
    ..Cd exposure induced hyperuricemia with renal XOR hyperactivity and UA excretion dysfunction in rats...
  33. Kertmen H, Gürer B, Yılmaz E, Kanat M, Arikok A, Ergüder B, et al. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of darbepoetin-α against traumatic brain injury in rats. Arch Med Sci. 2015;11:1119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..001 and p < 0.001 respectively). Trauma caused significant elevation in the nitric oxide synthetase and xanthine oxidase levels (p < 0.001 for both)...
  34. Hassoun P, Yu F, Cote C, Zulueta J, Sawhney R, Skinner K, et al. Upregulation of xanthine oxidase by lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1, and hypoxia. Role in acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:299-305 pubmed
    LPS and selected cytokines upregulate xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) in cellular systems. However, the effect of these factors on in vivo XDH/XO expression, and their contribution to lung injury, are poorly understood...
  35. Garab D, Fet N, Szabo A, Tolba R, Boros M, Hartmann P. Remote ischemic preconditioning differentially affects NADPH oxidase isoforms during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Life Sci. 2014;105:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammatory enzyme activities (myeloperoxidase (MPO) and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR)), cytokine production (TNF-? and HMGB-1), liver necroenzyme levels (AST, ALT and LDH) and NOX2 and ..
  36. Moumen R, Ait Oukhatar N, Bureau F, Fleury C, Bougle D, Arhan P, et al. Aluminium increases xanthine oxidase activity and disturbs antioxidant status in the rat. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;15:89-93 pubmed
    ..In order to determine whether Al promotes oxidative stress in vivo, we measured the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ..
  37. Gomez Cabrera M, Borras C, Pallardo F, Sastre J, Ji L, Vina J. Decreasing xanthine oxidase-mediated oxidative stress prevents useful cellular adaptations to exercise in rats. J Physiol. 2005;567:113-20 pubmed
    ..oxygen or nitrogen species (RONS) are produced during exercise due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase. When exercise is exhaustive they cause tissue damage; however, they may also act as signals inducing ..
  38. Yang Z, Dettbarn W. Lipid peroxidation and changes in cytochrome c oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity in organophosphorus anticholinesterase induced myopathy. J Physiol Paris. 1998;92:157-61 pubmed
    ..source of ROS initiating lipid peroxidation, the cytocrome-c oxidase (Cyt-ox) and xanthine dehydrogenase-xanthine oxidase (XD-XO) systems were investigated...
  39. Springer J, Tschirner A, Hartman K, von Haehling S, Anker S, Doehner W. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol reduces cancer cachexia-induced cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:3527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolizes purines to uric acid and its inhibition has been shown to improve clinical outcome in ..
  40. Shimo T, Ashizawa N, Matsumoto K, Nakazawa T, Nagata O. Simultaneous treatment with citrate prevents nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2005;87:267-76 pubmed
    The possible mechanism of the underlying nephropathy found in the rat toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, was investigated...
  41. Xu J, Beckman J, Hogan E, Hsu C. Xanthine oxidase in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 1991;8:11-8 pubmed
    ..Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to the formation of superoxide, an oxygen radical...
  42. Taki K, Fukushima T, Ise R, Horii I, Yoshida T. 6-Mercaptopurine-induced histopathological changes and xanthine oxidase expression in rat placenta. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37:607-15 pubmed
    ..The 6-MP-treatment resulted in the increased xanthine oxidase (Xdh) expression in the placenta, which gene is related to the ischemic condition of tissues...
  43. Beigi F, Oskouei B, Zheng M, Cooke C, Lamirault G, Hare J. Cardiac nitric oxide synthase-1 localization within the cardiomyocyte is accompanied by the adaptor protein, CAPON. Nitric Oxide. 2009;21:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..NOS1, CAPON, xanthine oxidoreductase and Dexras1, a CAPON binding partner, were all present and enriched in isolated cardiac sarcoplasmic ..
  44. Nanduri J, Vaddi D, Khan S, Wang N, Makarenko V, Semenza G, et al. HIF-1α activation by intermittent hypoxia requires NADPH oxidase stimulation by xanthine oxidase. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0119762 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms by which IH activates Nox2 are not known. We recently reported that IH activates xanthine oxidase (XO) and the resulting increase in ROS elevates intracellular calcium levels...
  45. Elsayed N, Tierney D. Hyperoxia and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase activities in rat lung and heart. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;273:281-6 pubmed
    ..One potential source for O2- radicals is the reduction of molecular O2 catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XO)...
  46. Yang J, Kamide K, Kokubo Y, Takiuchi S, Horio T, Matayoshi T, et al. Associations of hypertension and its complications with variations in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:931-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) produces urate and, in its oxidase isoform, reactive oxygen species...
  47. Yi L, Li J, Su D, Dong J, Li C. Hypouricemic effect of the methanol extract from Prunus mume fruit in mice. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..o.) administrated for 7 days on the serum, liver, urinary uric acid levels and liver xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were assessed in mice...
  48. Baker J, Su J, Fu X, Hsu A, Gross G, Tweddell J, et al. Nitrite confers protection against myocardial infarction: role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase and K(ATP) channels. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;43:437-44 pubmed
    ..protection against myocardial infarction in two rat models of ischemia/reperfusion injury and the role of xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channels in mediating nitrite-induced cardioprotection...
  49. Schimpl G, Pesendorfer P, Kuesz A, Ratschek M, Hollwarth M. The impact of hepatic xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activities on liver function in chronic cholestasis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16:297-301 pubmed
    Activities of hepatic xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XD), serum liver enzymes, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined in livers of chronic cholestatic rats...
  50. Roberts L, Fini M, Derkash N, Wright R. PD98059 enhanced insulin, cytokine, and growth factor activation of xanthine oxidoreductase in epithelial cells involves STAT3 and the glucocorticoid receptor. J Cell Biochem. 2007;101:1567-87 pubmed
    ..In the present work, promoter activation analyses of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in epithelial cells uncovered the unexpected opposite effect of these inhibitors on activation of ..
  51. Newaz M, Yousefipour Z, Oyekan A. Oxidative stress-associated vascular aging is xanthine oxidase-dependent but not NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;48:88-94 pubmed
    ..This study compared the NAD(P)H and xanthine oxidase (XO) systems as sources of superoxide and impaired vascular function in aging...
  52. Kou B, Ni J, Vatish M, Singer D. Xanthine oxidase interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor in human endothelial cell angiogenesis. Microcirculation. 2008;15:251-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidant stress is implicated in endothelial apoptosis. We investigated the effects of xanthine oxidase (XO) on endothelial survival signaling: protein kinase B/Akt, its cross-talk with p38 MAPK and apoptosis ..
  53. Das J, Sil P. Taurine ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury, oxidative stress-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in rats. Amino Acids. 2012;43:1509-23 pubmed
    ..elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, reduced renal oxidative stress (via decrease in xanthine oxidase activity, AGEs formation and inhibition of p47phox/CYP2E1 pathways), improved renal function and protected ..
  54. Ogura J, Kuwayama K, Sasaki S, Kaneko C, Koizumi T, Yabe K, et al. Reactive oxygen species derived from xanthine oxidase interrupt dimerization of breast cancer resistance protein, resulting in suppression of uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015;97:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In middle-aged rats, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the ileum was significantly higher than that in young rats...
  55. Huang H, Ma M. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134764 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney ..
  56. Tuboly E, Szabo A, Garab D, Bartha G, Janovszky A, Eros G, et al. Methane biogenesis during sodium azide-induced chemical hypoxia in rats. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Methane generation, the hepatic microcirculatory changes, and the increased tissue myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase activities were reduced by GPC treatment...
  57. Schimpl G, Pabst M, Feierl G, Kuesz A, Ozbey H, Takahashi S, et al. A tungsten supplemented diet attenuates bacterial translocation in chronic portal hypertensive and cholestatic rats: role of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. Gut. 1999;45:904-10 pubmed
    ..The enzymes xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are often implicated as a significant source of oxidants which have a major impact on the impairment of ..
  58. Wu X, Wang M. Dietary nicotinamide supplementation increases xanthine oxidoreductase activity in the kidney and heart but not liver of obese Zucker rats. J Nutr. 1995;125:1841-6 pubmed
    The conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase that produces oxygen radicals has been implicated in the ischemic injury to the myocardium and to the kidney...
  59. Jankov R, Kantores C, Pan J, Belik J. Contribution of xanthine oxidase-derived superoxide to chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in neonatal rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L233-45 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidase (XO)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation contributes to experimental chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in adults, but its role in neonatal pulmonary hypertension has received little attention...
  60. Kramkowski K, Leszczynska A, Przyborowski K, Kaminski T, Rykaczewska U, Sitek B, et al. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo. Platelets. 2016;27:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo...
  61. Singh D, Kumar V, Singh C. IFN-? regulates xanthine oxidase-mediated iNOS-independent oxidative stress in maneb- and paraquat-treated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;427:133-143 pubmed publisher
    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) provoke oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. Role of xanthine oxidase (XO) in oxidative stress and its association with nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) have been widely reported...
  62. Tsuda H, Kawada N, Kaimori J, Kitamura H, Moriyama T, Rakugi H, et al. Febuxostat suppressed renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via reduced oxidative stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:266-72 pubmed publisher
    Febuxostat is a novel selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO), approved for treating hyperuricemia. XO inhibits the generation of uric acid (UA) as well as the resulting generation of superoxide...
  63. Mordente A, Meucci E, Silvestrini A, Martorana G, Giardina B. New developments in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:1656-72 pubmed
  64. Yamaguchi Y, Matsumura T, Ichida K, Okamoto K, Nishino T. Human xanthine oxidase changes its substrate specificity to aldehyde oxidase type upon mutation of amino acid residues in the active site: roles of active site residues in binding and activation of purine substrate. J Biochem. 2007;141:513-24 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidase (oxidoreductase; XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) are similar in protein structure and prosthetic group composition, but differ in substrate preference...
  65. Torres R, Prior C, Puig J. Efficacy and safety of allopurinol in patients with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Metabolism. 2007;56:1179-86 pubmed
    ..Allopurinol, which inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase and reduces uric acid synthesis, is widely used for the treatment of gout and uric acid overproduction...
  66. Jackson R, Hunt B, MacDonald P. The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients ?65 years of age. BMC Geriatr. 2012;12:11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated. clinicaltrials.gov NCT#00430248. ..
  67. Demling R, Lalonde C, Youn Y, Daryani R, Campbell C, Knox J. Lung oxidant changes after zymosan peritonitis: relationship between physiologic and biochemical changes. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:1272-8 pubmed
    ..The ongoing oxidant stress corresponded with marked mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial thickening, which persisted over the 30-day period even after peritonitis had completely resolved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  68. Anderson B, Moore E, Moore F, Leff J, Terada L, Harken A, et al. Hypovolemic shock promotes neutrophil sequestration in lungs by a xanthine oxidase-related mechanism. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991;71:1862-5 pubmed
    Our results suggest that xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to lung neutrophil sequestration in hypovolemic shock...
  69. Amaya Y, Yamazaki K, Sato M, Noda K, Nishino T. Proteolytic conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase from the NAD-dependent type to the O2-dependent type. Amino acid sequence of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and identification of the cleavage sites of the enzyme protein during irreversible conversi. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14170-5 pubmed
    ..Hydropathy analysis around the cysteine residues suggests that the 2Fe/2S sites are associated with the 20-kDa fragment portion of the enzyme. ..
  70. Thom S. Leukocytes in carbon monoxide-mediated brain oxidative injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1993;123:234-47 pubmed
    ..in the brains of sham-treated rats: conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) to sulfhydryl-irreversible xanthine oxidase (XO), and lipid peroxidation, at 90 min following CO poisoning...
  71. Roth S, Park S, Sikorski C, Osinski J, Chan R, Loomis K. Concentrations of adenosine and its metabolites in the rat retina/choroid during reperfusion after ischemia. Curr Eye Res. 1997;16:875-85 pubmed
    ..The functional effects of pre-ischemic inhibition of xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase were assessed by measurement of the electroretinogram before, during, and up to 7 days following 60 min ..
  72. Bayraktar N, Kilic S, Bayraktar M, Aksoy N. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in cancerous bladder tissue and their relation with bacterial infection: a controlled clinical study. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010;24:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and catalase (CAT) in cancerous tissues of ..
  73. Granell S, Bulbena O, Genesca M, Sabater L, Sastre J, Gelpi E, et al. Mobilization of xanthine oxidase from the gastrointestinal tract in acute pancreatitis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2004;4:1 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase has been proposed to play a role in the development of local and systemic effects of acute pancreatitis...
  74. Budhiraja R, Kayyali U, Karamsetty M, Fogel M, Hill N, Chalkley R, et al. Estrogen modulates xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase activity by a receptor-independent mechanism. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2003;5:705-11 pubmed
    Hypoxia causes up-regulation and activation of xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) in vitro and in the lungs in vivo...
  75. Chung H, Song S, Kim H, Ikeno Y, Yu B. Modulation of renal xanthine oxidoreductase in aging: gene expression and reactive oxygen species generation. J Nutr Health Aging. 1999;3:19-23 pubmed
    b>Xanthine oxidoreductase (XD: xanthine dehydrogenase + xanthine oxidase) is a complex enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of hypoxathine to xanthine, subsequently producing uric acid...
  76. Zhang Y, Hu S, Chen Y, Guo M, Wang S. Hepatocyte growth factor inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced activation of xanthine oxidase in endothelial cells through the JAK2 signaling pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38:1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..a protective effect in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) subjected to H/R by inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO) by reducing the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increased in response to H/R...
  77. Asai R, Nishino T, Matsumura T, Okamoto K, Igarashi K, Pai E, et al. Two mutations convert mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase to highly superoxide-productive xanthine oxidase. J Biochem. 2007;141:525-34 pubmed
    Reactive oxygen species are generated by various systems, including NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, and contribute to many physiological and pathological phenomena...
  78. Kanczler J, Millar T, Bodamyali T, Blake D, Stevens C. Xanthine oxidase mediates cytokine-induced, but not hormone-induced bone resorption. Free Radic Res. 2003;37:179-87 pubmed
    ..b>Xanthine oxidase (XO) a ubiquitous enzyme is widely known for its production of these ROS...
  79. Zhang Y, Lv Y, Liu Y, Yang C, Hu H, Meng X, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in rats attenuates ischemia-reperfusion testicular injury through blockade of oxidative stress, suppression of inflammation, and reduction of nitric oxide formation. Urology. 2013;82:489.e9-489.e15 pubmed publisher
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    ..Oxygen extraction decreased (P<0.05) during PNP in all pressurized groups. Xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and reduced glutathione in the tissues increased (P<0...
  81. Skibba J, Powers R, Stadnicka A, Kalbfleisch J. The effect of hyperthermia on conversion of rat hepatic xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:4592-5 pubmed
  82. Cui J, Liu L, Zou J, Qiao W, Liu H, Qi Y, et al. Protective effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide against oxidative stress in gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury. Exp Ther Med. 2013;5:689-694 pubmed
    ..Western blot analysis revealed that the increases of malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD), and decreases of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the restriction of superoxide (O(2) ..
  83. Oliveira Paula G, Pinheiro L, Guimaraes D, Tella S, Blanco A, Angelis C, et al. Tempol improves xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated vascular responses to nitrite in experimental renovascular hypertension. Redox Biol. 2016;8:398-406 pubmed publisher
    Upregulation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) increases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and contributes to nitroso-redox imbalance...
  84. Kosugi T, Nakayama T, Heinig M, Zhang L, Yuzawa Y, Sanchez Lozada L, et al. Effect of lowering uric acid on renal disease in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that lowering uric acid with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor might reduce renal injury in the diabetic mouse...
  85. Maia L, Pereira V, Mira L, Moura J. Nitrite reductase activity of rat and human xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase: evaluation of their contribution to NO formation in vivo. Biochemistry. 2015;54:685-710 pubmed publisher
    ..The molybdoenzymes xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XO/XD) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) are two of the most promising mammalian nitrite reductases, ..
  86. Nishino T, Okamoto K, Kawaguchi Y, Matsumura T, Eger B, Pai E, et al. The C-terminal peptide plays a role in the formation of an intermediate form during the transition between xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. FEBS J. 2015;282:3075-90 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase can exist in both dehydrogenase and oxidase forms...
  87. Saksela M, Raivio K. Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. Biochem J. 1996;315 ( Pt 1):235-9 pubmed
    ..These products are compatible with the molecular sizes of XDH/XO, and these peptides also showed immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-hXDH antibodies...