Gene Symbol: Vegfd
Description: vascular endothelial growth factor D
Alias: Figf, Vegf-d, vascular endothelial growth factor D, c-fos-induced growth factor
Species: rat
Products:     Vegfd

Top Publications

  1. Baldwin M, Roufail S, Halford M, Alitalo K, Stacker S, Achen M. Multiple forms of mouse vascular endothelial growth factor-D are generated by RNA splicing and proteolysis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:44307-14 pubmed
    ..The isoforms are differently glycosylated when expressed in vitro. This study demonstrates that RNA splicing, protein glycosylation, and proteolysis are mechanisms for generating structural diversity of mouse VEGF-D. ..
  2. Olsson A, Dimberg A, Kreuger J, Claesson Welsh L. VEGF receptor signalling - in control of vascular function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7:359-71 pubmed
    ..Recent insights have shed light onto VEGFR signal transduction and the interplay between different VEGFRs and VEGF co-receptors in development, adult physiology and disease. ..
  3. Detoraki A, Staiano R, Granata F, Giannattasio G, Prevete N, de Paulis A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factors synthesized by human lung mast cells exert angiogenic effects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:1142-9, 1149.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and VEGFC, whereas an adenosine analog (5'-[N-ethylcarboxamido] adenosine [NECA]) increased VEGFA, VEGFC, and VEGFD expression...
  4. Byzova T, Goldman C, Jankau J, Chen J, Cabrera G, Achen M, et al. Adenovirus encoding vascular endothelial growth factor-D induces tissue-specific vascular patterns in vivo. Blood. 2002;99:4434-42 pubmed
  5. Yu H, Zhang S, Zhang R, Zhang L. The role of VEGF-C/D and Flt-4 in the lymphatic metastasis of early-stage invasive cervical carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009;28:98 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF-C/D and Flt-4 may play an important role in the process of lymphatic metastasis of early-stage invasive cervical carcinoma through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. ..
  6. Moffat B, Chen M, Kariaapper M, Hamstra D, Hall D, Stojanovska J, et al. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A causes a paradoxical increase in tumor blood flow and up-regulation of VEGF-D. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1525-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of VEGF-A expression on tumor growth, perfusion, and chemotherapeutic efficacy in orthotopic 9L gliosarcomas...
  7. Lee J, Hwan Kim K, Kim H. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) on IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1095:129-33 pubmed
    ..Cerulein-induced VEGF-D expression may have a role in AP-1 activation and IL-6 expression in pancreatic acinar cells. ..
  8. McColl B, Stacker S, Achen M. Molecular regulation of the VEGF family -- inducers of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. APMIS. 2004;112:463-80 pubmed
    ..An understanding of these mechanisms offers broader opportunities to manipulate expression and activity of the VEGFs for treatment of disease. ..
  9. van Iterson V, Leidenius M, von Smitten K, Bono P, Heikkila P. VEGF-D in association with VEGFR-3 promotes nodal metastasis in human invasive lobular breast cancer. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:759-66 pubmed

More Information


  1. Herrmann E, Eltze E, Bierer S, Köpke T, Görge T, Neumann J, et al. VEGF-C, VEGF-D and Flt-4 in transitional bladder cancer: relationships to clinicopathological parameters and long-term survival. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:3127-33 pubmed
    ..041). In multivariate analysis, only tumor stage and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic parameters. Targeting VEGF-D and Flt-4 could be a useful tool to predict and control progression of bladder cancer. ..
  2. Green J, Shibata M, Shibata E, Moon R, Anver M, Kelloff G, et al. 2-difluoromethylornithine and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibit mammary tumor progression but not mammary or prostate tumor initiation in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7449-55 pubmed
    ..The tumor-inhibitory effects of DHEA and DFMO on mammary cancer growth appear to occur after the development of preinvasive lesions, suggesting that these agents inhibit tumor progression but not initiation. ..
  3. Kirkin V, Mazitschek R, Krishnan J, Steffen A, Waltenberger J, Pepper M, et al. Characterization of indolinones which preferentially inhibit VEGF-C- and VEGF-D-induced activation of VEGFR-3 rather than VEGFR-2. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5530-40 pubmed
    ..These tools should be useful in analysing the different activities and roles of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and their ligands, and in blocking VEGFR-3-mediated lymphangiogenesis. ..
  4. Zhao T, Zhao W, Chen Y, Liu L, Ahokas R, Sun Y. Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms and receptor subtypes in the infarcted heart. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2638-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of enhanced VEGF-C and VEGF-D along with its receptor, VEGFR-3, in various cell types of the infarcted heart suggest that these isoforms may regulate multiple responses during cardiac repair/remodeling. ..
  5. Orlandini M, Marconcini L, Ferruzzi R, Oliviero S. Identification of a c-fos-induced gene that is related to the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11675-80 pubmed
    ..screening of fibroblasts differing for the expression of c-fos we isolated a c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF)...
  6. Baldwin M, Catimel B, Nice E, Roufail S, Hall N, Stenvers K, et al. The specificity of receptor binding by vascular endothelial growth factor-d is different in mouse and man. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19166-71 pubmed
    ..This suggests that VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 may play a role in establishing vessels of the skin by a paracrine mechanism. Our study of receptor specificity suggests that VEGF-D may have different biological functions in mouse and man. ..
  7. Achen M, Jeltsch M, Kukk E, Makinen T, Vitali A, Wilks A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor 2 (Flk1) and VEGF receptor 3 (Flt4). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:548-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, VEGF-D is a mitogen for endothelial cells. The structural and functional similarities between VEGF-D and VEGF-C define a subfamily of the VEGFs. ..
  8. Mountain D, Singh M, Singh K. Downregulation of VEGF-D expression by interleukin-1beta in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells is mediated by MAPKs and PKCalpha/beta1. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:337-43 pubmed
    ..This is the first report to indicate inhibition of VEGF-D gene expression in response to IL-1beta in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, a cell type of central interest in angiogenesis. ..
  9. Tretter V, Hauer B, Nusser Z, Mihalek R, Hoger H, Homanics G, et al. Targeted disruption of the GABA(A) receptor delta subunit gene leads to an up-regulation of gamma 2 subunit-containing receptors in cerebellar granule cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10532-8 pubmed
    ..The availability of the delta subunit, thus, influences the level of expression or the extent of assembly of the gamma(2) subunit, although these two subunits do not occur in the same receptor. ..
  10. Yamada Y, Nezu J, Shimane M, Hirata Y. Molecular cloning of a novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-D. Genomics. 1997;42:483-8 pubmed
    ..The high level of conservation between mouse and human VEGF-D may emphasize the biological importance of this gene. Recently the murine gene, FIGF, which is identical to mouse VEGF-D, was reported.
  11. Ohnishi S, Yasuda T, Kitamura S, Nagaya N. Effect of hypoxia on gene expression of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:1166-77 pubmed
    ..Our results may provide information on the differential molecular mechanisms regulating the properties of MSC and MNC under ischemic conditions. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  12. Bolat F, Gumurdulu D, Erkanli S, Kayaselcuk F, Zeren H, Ali Vardar M, et al. Maspin overexpression correlates with increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D in human ovarian carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:379-87 pubmed publisher
    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, including VEGFA, VEGFC, and VEGFD, plays an essential role in the angiogenesis of both pathologic and nonpathologic conditions...
  13. Schwartz C, Tavakoli T, Jamias C, Park S, Maudsley S, Martin B, et al. Stromal factors SDF1α, sFRP1, and VEGFD induce dopaminergic neuron differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1367-81 pubmed publisher
    ..stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF1α), secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), and vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD) were identified, and their concentrations in PA6 CM were established by immunoaffinity ..