Gene Symbol: Vcam1
Description: vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
Alias: VCAM1B, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, V-CAM 1, VCAM-1
Species: rat
Products:     Vcam1

Top Publications

  1. Hu Y, Cheng P, Xue Y, Liu Y. Glioma cells promote the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a possible mechanism for their tropism toward gliomas. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that glioma-induced change in VCAM-1 expression of BMSCs may play an important role in their tropism towards glioma, and PI3K is associated with the signal transduction of this process. ..
  2. Osborn L, Hession C, Tizard R, Vassallo C, Luhowskyj S, Chi Rosso G, et al. Direct expression cloning of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, a cytokine-induced endothelial protein that binds to lymphocytes. Cell. 1989;59:1203-11 pubmed
    ..VCAM-1, which belongs to the immunoglobulin gene super-family, may be central to recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes into inflammatory sites in vivo. ..
  3. Kwee L, Baldwin H, Shen H, Stewart C, Buck C, Buck C, et al. Defective development of the embryonic and extraembryonic circulatory systems in vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) deficient mice. Development. 1995;121:489-503 pubmed
    ..These data suggest important roles for VCAM-1 and alpha 4 in the development of the placenta and the heart. ..
  4. Agarwal P, van den Born J, van Goor H, Navis G, Gans R, Bakker S. Renoprotective effects of long-term oral nicotine in a rat model of spontaneous proteinuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We further suggest evaluating nicotine as a potential additional therapeutic option for treating proteinuric kidney diseases. ..
  5. Arrizabalaga P, Sole M, Abellana R, Ascaso C. Renal expression of adhesion molecules in anca-associated disease. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:411-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Gurtner G, Davis V, Li H, McCoy M, Sharpe A, Cybulsky M. Targeted disruption of the murine VCAM1 gene: essential role of VCAM-1 in chorioallantoic fusion and placentation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1-14 pubmed
    ..The murine VCAM1 gene was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination, and a distinct phenotype was found in VCAM-1-deficient ..
  7. Manning A, Bell F, Rosenbloom C, Chosay J, Simmons C, Northrup J, et al. NF-kappa B is activated during acute inflammation in vivo in association with elevated endothelial cell adhesion molecule gene expression and leukocyte recruitment. J Inflamm. 1995;45:283-96 pubmed
    ..NF-kappa B activation is therefore an early event in the initiation of acute inflammation in vivo. This molecular pathway may be of consequence in the pathogenesis of acute inflammatory disease. ..
  8. Tikellis C, Jandeleit Dahm K, Sheehy K, Murphy A, Chin Dusting J, Kling D, et al. Reduced plaque formation induced by rosiglitazone in an STZ-diabetes mouse model of atherosclerosis is associated with downregulation of adhesion molecules. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:55-64 pubmed
  9. Biaggio V, Pérez Chaca M, Valdez S, Gomez N, Gimenez M. Alteration in the expression of inflammatory parameters as a result of oxidative stress produced by moderate zinc deficiency in rat lung. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:31-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Perhaps, zinc deficiency implications must be taken into account in health interventions because inflammation and prooxidant environment are associated with ZD in lung. ..

More Information


  1. Pepinsky B, Hession C, Chen L, Moy P, Burkly L, Jakubowski A, et al. Structure/function studies on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:17820-6 pubmed
    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily which interacts with the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA4)...
  2. Hession C, Moy P, Tizard R, Chisholm P, Williams C, Wysk M, et al. Cloning of murine and rat vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;183:163-9 pubmed
    Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily which interacts with the integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA4)...
  3. Barreiro O, Yanez Mo M, Serrador J, Montoya M, Vicente Manzanares M, Tejedor R, et al. Dynamic interaction of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 with moesin and ezrin in a novel endothelial docking structure for adherent leukocytes. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:1233-45 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first characterization of an endothelial docking structure that plays a key role in the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium during inflammation. ..
  4. Adamiec Mroczek J, Oficjalska Młyńczak J, Misiuk Hojło M. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy-The influence of diabetes control on the activation of the intraocular molecule system. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;84:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant positive correlation of VCAM-1 increase in the vitreous with HbA(1)c is an important argument for the influence of diabetes on immuno-inflammatory activation in the retinal microcirculation. ..
  5. Wilder R, Griffiths M, Remmers E, Cannon G, Caspi R, Kawahito Y, et al. Localization in rats of genetic loci regulating susceptibility to experimental erosive arthritis and related autoimmune diseases. Transplant Proc. 1999;31:1585-8 pubmed
  6. Hu Y, Cheng P, Ma J, Xue Y, Liu Y. Platelet-derived growth factor BB mediates the glioma-induced migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by promoting the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through the PI3K, P38 MAPK and NF-?B pathways. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:2755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K, p38 MAPK and NF-?B were involved in the signal transduction of this process. ..
  7. Halacheva K, Gulubova M, Manolova I, Petkov D. Expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and TNF-alpha on the endothelium of femoral and iliac arteries in thromboangiitis obliterans. Acta Histochem. 2002;104:177-84 pubmed
    ..The preferential expression of inducible adhesion molecules in microvessels and mononuclear inflammatory cells suggests that angiogenesis contributes to the persistence of the inflammatory process in TAO. ..
  8. Osborn L, Vassallo C, Benjamin C. Activated endothelium binds lymphocytes through a novel binding site in the alternately spliced domain of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. J Exp Med. 1992;176:99-107 pubmed
    ..Therefore both sites must be blocked in clinical, animal, or in vitro studies depending on the use of anti-VCAM-1 antibodies to inactivate the VCAM-1/VLA-4 adhesion pathway. ..
  9. Bruno C, Valenti M, Bertino G, Ardiri A, Bruno F, Cunsolo M, et al. Plasma ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. Minerva Med. 2008;99:1-5 pubmed
    ..Circulating VCAM-1 has increased only in microalbuminuria patients. Therefore, these two molecules have different ability to assess temporal relationship between inflammatory activity and microvascular complications. ..
  10. Sawada H, Mitani Y, Maruyama J, Jiang B, Ikeyama Y, Dida F, et al. A nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in rats. Chest. 2007;132:1265-74 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the NF-kappaB nuclear localization and VCAM-1 expression is temporally and spatially associated with the development of MCT-induced PH in rats, which was ameliorated by administering a NF-kappaB inhibitor, PDTC. ..
  11. Toba M, Nagaoka T, Morio Y, Sato K, Uchida K, Homma N, et al. Involvement of Rho kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pulmonary embolism-induced polystyrene microspheres in rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..1 +/- 8.5 Torr, PE, PE+HA1077, PE+Y27632) in the PE rats. These results suggest that pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and activation of Rho kinase may contribute to the potentiation of vasoconstriction and hypoxemia in the PE rats. ..
  12. Graham D, McBride M, Gaasenbeek M, Gilday K, Beattie E, Miller W, et al. Candidate genes that determine response to salt in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat: congenic analysis. Hypertension. 2007;50:1134-41 pubmed
    ..Examination of expression data within the minimal congenic interval identified the positional candidates Edg1 and Vcam1, demonstrating significantly elevated renal RNA expression levels in the SHRSP compared with WKY and SP...
  13. Li Q, Zhang X, Zhu F, Zhang Z. [Study of regulation of Puerarin on blood P-selectin and the expression of aorta VCAM mRNA in diabetes]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2007;36:581-3, 595 pubmed
    ..05). Puerarin have a certain in preventing aorta by inhibiting expression of adhesion molecule. ..
  14. Tang L, Ni W, Cai M, Ding H, Liu S, Zhang S. Renoprotective effects of berberine and its potential effect on the expression of β-arrestins and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in streptozocin-diabetic nephropathy rats. J Diabetes. 2016;8:693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Berberine exhibited renoprotective effects in DN rats. The underlying molecular mechanisms may be associated with changes in the levels and regulation of β-arrestin expression, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in the rat kidney. ..
  15. Ibrahim A, Aziz M, Hassan A, Mbodji K, Collasse E, Coeffier M, et al. Dietary ?-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces adhesion molecules in rats with experimental colitis. Nutrition. 2012;28:799-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to evaluate its therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease as an alternative to fish oil. ..
  16. Totoson P, Maguin Gaté K, Nappey M, Prati C, Wendling D, Demougeot C. Microvascular abnormalities in adjuvant-induced arthritis: relationship to macrovascular endothelial function and markers of endothelial activation. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:1203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither the ICAM-1 level nor the CRP level is a good marker of micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. ..
  17. Wu J, Sun M, Lin J, He Z, Ou B, Guo H. [Impact of fenofibrate on NO and endothelial VCAM-1 expression in hyperlipidemic rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:1872-4 pubmed
  18. Gatica L, Oliveros L, Pérez Díaz M, Domínguez N, Fornes M, Gimenez M. Implication of vitamin A deficiency on vascular injury related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Effects on the ultrastructure of rat aorta. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin A deficiency produces histoarchitectural alterations in aorta, which can be associated, at least in part, to the oxidative stress and inflammation induced by vitamin A deficiency. ..
  19. Krauss T, Kuhn W, Lakoma C, Augustin H. Circulating endothelial cell adhesion molecules as diagnostic markers for the early identification of pregnant women at risk for development of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:443-9 pubmed
  20. Jung K, Lee E, Kim J, Zou Y, Sung B, Heo H, et al. Effect of short term calorie restriction on pro-inflammatory NF-kB and AP-1 in aged rat kidney. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We report for the first time that 10-day CR can attenuate the altered signaling transduction for inflammatory processes which is mediated through RS-induced NF-kB and AP-1 in aged kidney. ..
  21. Shirpoor A, Salami S, Khadem Ansari M, Heshmatian B, Ilkhanizadeh B. Long-term ethanol consumption initiates atherosclerosis in rat aorta through inflammatory stress and endothelial dysfunction. Vascul Pharmacol. 2012;57:72-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Amoli M, Mattey D, Calviño M, Garcia Porrua C, Thomson W, Hajeer A, et al. Polymorphism at codon 469 of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 locus is associated with protection against severe gastrointestinal complications in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:1014-8 pubmed
    ..The R/G polymorphism at codon 241 may reduce the risk of renal sequelae in the development of HSP in adulthood. ..
  23. Ran J, Xiong X, Liu W, Guo S, Li Q, Zhang R, et al. Increased plasma adiponectin closely associates with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;88:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..397, P<0.01) and NID (r=-0.413, P<0.01). These results suggest that increased plasma adiponectin may predict co-existing vascular endothelial dysfunction in DN patients. ..
  24. Wingerd K, Goodman N, Tresser J, Smail M, Leu S, Rohan S, et al. Alpha 4 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 play a role in sympathetic innervation of the heart. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10772-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the interaction between alpha4 integrin and VCAM-1 is important for sympathetic innervation of the heart. ..
  25. Zhou X, Liao Y, Li H, Zhao Z, Liu Q. Dendritic cell vaccination enhances antiangiogenesis induced by endostatin in rat glioma. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the combination therapy inhibited glioma stem-cell-like cells. DC vaccination enhances antiangiogenesis induced by endostatin in rat glioma. ..
  26. Ryan D, Nuccie B, Abboud C, Winslow J. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the integrin VLA-4 mediate adhesion of human B cell precursors to cultured bone marrow adherent cells. J Clin Invest. 1991;88:995-1004 pubmed
  27. Ito T, Kumamoto T, Horinouchi H, Yukishige K, Sugihara R, Fujimoto S, et al. Adhesion molecule expression in experimental myositis. Muscle Nerve. 2002;25:409-18 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 increase in the early stage of EAM, and function in the initiation of the inflammatory process of myositis...
  28. Anuncibay Soto B, Pérez Rodríguez D, Llorente I, Regueiro Purriños M, Gonzalo Orden J, Fernández López A. Age-dependent modifications in vascular adhesion molecules and apoptosis after 48-h reperfusion in a rat global cerebral ischemia model. Age (Dordr). 2014;36:9703 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences should be taken into account in searching for therapeutic targets. ..
  29. Hao G, Du Y, Zhou X, Guo J, Sun X, Mohan C, et al. Serial non-invasive assessment of antibody induced nephritis in mice using positron emission tomography. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57418 pubmed publisher
  30. Lutz J, Luong L, Strobl M, Deng M, Huang H, Anton M, et al. The A20 gene protects kidneys from ischaemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory activation. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:1329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that A20 maintains physiological homeostasis in kidneys exposed to I/R by protecting them from inflammation and injury. ..
  31. Wu R, Zhou Q, Lin S, Ao X, Chen X, Yang J. [Effect of Cordceps Sinensis on the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;35:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). CS may play a role in the protection and anti-fibrosis in the process of renal injury in SHR through reducing the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. ..
  32. Wang F, Li M, Cheng L, Zhang T, Hu J, Cao M, et al. Intervention with cilostazol attenuates renal inflammation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2008;83:828-35 pubmed publisher
  33. Song Y, Park Y, Yoon S, Kim K, Cho S, Lee W, et al. Black tea polyphenol theaflavin suppresses LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression via blockage of NF-?B and JNK activation in intestinal epithelial cells. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that black tea polyphenol theaflavin suppresses LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions through blockage of NF-?B and JNK activation in intestinal epithelial cells. ..
  34. Gavina M, Belicchi M, Rossi B, Ottoboni L, Colombo F, Meregalli M, et al. VCAM-1 expression on dystrophic muscle vessels has a critical role in the recruitment of human blood-derived CD133+ stem cells after intra-arterial transplantation. Blood. 2006;108:2857-66 pubmed
  35. Gulko P, Kawahito Y, Remmers E, Reese V, Wang J, Dracheva S, et al. Identification of a new non-major histocompatibility complex genetic locus on chromosome 2 that controls disease severity in collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:2122-31 pubmed
    ..This rat model should facilitate positional cloning and functional characterization of regulatory genes that may play a role in several forms of autoimmune disease, including rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  36. Sáenz Morales D, Conde E, Blanco Sánchez I, Ponte B, Aguado Fraile E, de Las Casas G, et al. Differential resolution of inflammation and recovery after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in Brown Norway compared with Sprague Dawley rats. Kidney Int. 2010;77:781-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The faster resolution of inflammation in Brown Norway rats suggests that this strain might be a useful experimental model to determine the mechanisms that promote repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ..
  37. Smeding L, Plötz F, Lamberts R, van der Laarse W, Kneyber M, Groeneveld A. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes attenuates myocardial dysfunction by decreasing cardiac edema in a rat model of LPS-induced peritonitis. Respir Res. 2012;13:23 pubmed publisher
    ..This was associated with a reduction in cardiac edema following a lower transmural coronary venous outflow pressure during LPS-induced coronary inflammation. ..
  38. Moriconi F, Malik I, Ahmad G, Dudas J, Rave Frank M, Vorwerk H, et al. Effect of irradiation on gene expression of rat liver adhesion molecules: in vivo and in vitro studies. Strahlenther Onkol. 2009;185:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be one reason for the lack of inflammation in the irradiated rat liver. ..
  39. Bartels E, Bang C, Nielsen L. Early atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in mice with diet-induced type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that diet-induced type 2 diabetes causes early atherosclerosis in the absence of dyslipidaemia, and that even a moderate level of LDL-C markedly augments this effect. ..
  40. Gao Z, Cheng P, Xue Y, Liu Y. Vascular endothelial growth factor participates in modulating the C6 glioma-induced migration of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and upregulates their vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Exp Ther Med. 2012;4:993-998 pubmed
  41. Wang C, Yang F, Xu Z, Shi D, Chen D, Dai J, et al. Intravenous release of NO from lipidic microbubbles accelerates deep vein thrombosis resolution in a rat model. Thromb Res. 2013;131:e31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The antithrombotic properties of NO microbubbles may be associated with reduced platelets and inflammatory cells aggregation, enhanced collagen turnover and stimulus to an anticoagulant condition of endothelium. ..
  42. Markocka Maczka K. [Concentration of serum soluble forms of ICAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) in patients with chronic pancreatitis and in patients with pancreatic carcinoma]. Wiad Lek. 2003;56:147-51 pubmed
    ..Values of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations in serum of patients with pancreatic cancer demonstrate connection with a state of clinical progression of tumour. ..
  43. Baker O, Camden J, Rome D, Seye C, Weisman G. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [corrected] expression and enhances lymphocyte adherence to a human submandibular gland cell line. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:65-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS. ..
  44. Xing J, Peng K, Cao W, Lian X, Wang Q, Wang X. Effects of total flavonoids from Dracocephalum moldavica on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion molecule expression of rat vascular smooth muscle cells induced by TNF-?. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that total flavonoids from D. moldavica exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is probably one of the underlying mechanisms of D. moldavica for clinical treatment of atherosclerosis. ..
  45. Guo Y, Mishra A, Howland E, Zhao C, Shukla D, Weng T, et al. Platelet-derived Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is implicated in ICAM-1/VCAM-1-mediated neutrophilic acute lung inflammation. Blood. 2015;126:2220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the communication between platelets and AECs therefore represents potential therapeutic strategies to limit the damage of acute pulmonary inflammation. ..
  46. Day R, Cavaglieri R, Feliers D. Apelin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F788-800 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was independent of the activation of the renin angiotensin system but correlated with upregulation of the antioxidant catalase. Apelin may represent a novel tool to treat diabetic nephropathy. ..
  47. Sengbusch J, He W, Pinco K, Yang J. Dual functions of [alpha]4[beta]1 integrin in epicardial development: initial migration and long-term attachment. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:873-82 pubmed
    ..T., H. Rayburn, and R.O. Hynes. 1995. Development. 121:549-560). ..
  48. Crews G, Erickson L, Pan F, Fisniku O, Jang M, Wynn C, et al. Down-regulation of TGF-beta and VCAM-1 is associated with successful treatment of chronic rejection in rats. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:1926-8 pubmed
    ..Suppression of the expression levels of TGF-beta and VCAM-1 is associated with the amelioration of chronic rejection by various drugs, suggesting that these molecules are important key molecules in chronic rejection. ..
  49. Jiang B, Xu S, Hou X, Pimentel D, Cohen R. Angiotensin II differentially regulates interleukin-1-beta-inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression: role of p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20363-8 pubmed
  50. Zhiqing L, Zhuge X, Fuhuan C, Danfeng Y, Huashan Z, Bencheng L, et al. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rat aortic endothelial cells after single-walled carbon nanotube exposure. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2010;10:8562-74 pubmed
  51. Malmqvist K, Wallen H, Held C, Kahan T. Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertensive concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. J Hypertens. 2002;20:1563-9 pubmed
    ..This indicates perturbations at the vascular level, involving activation of the vascular endothelium in hypertensive patients with concentric LV hypertrophy. ..
  52. Luo X, Miao C, Ge B, Jiang H. [Effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in LPS-induced rat lung microvascular endothelial cells]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;39:464-9 pubmed
    ..Compared to isoflurane, 1.0 MAC sevoflurane and desflurane down-regulate the expression of ICAM-1, which may be the molecule mechanism of their protective effect in acute lung injury. ..
  53. Ekuni D, Tomofuji T, Irie K, Kasuyama K, Umakoshi M, Azuma T, et al. Effects of periodontitis on aortic insulin resistance in an obese rat model. Lab Invest. 2010;90:348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Under insulin-stimulated conditions, aorta in the periodontitis group altered the Akt phosphorylation. Periodontitis in obesity induced the initial stage of atherosclerosis and disturbed aortic insulin signaling. ..