Ucp3

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ucp3
Description: uncoupling protein 3
Alias: mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, UCP 3, Uncoupling protein 3, mitochondrial, solute carrier family 25 member 9, uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)
Species: rat
Products:     Ucp3

Top Publications

  1. Echtay K, Roussel D, St Pierre J, Jekabsons M, Cadenas S, Stuart J, et al. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Nature. 2002;415:96-9 pubmed
    ..The functions of its homologues, UCP2 and UCP3, in other tissues are debated...
  2. Echtay K, Esteves T, Pakay J, Jekabsons M, Lambert A, Portero Otin M, et al. A signalling role for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. EMBO J. 2003;22:4103-10 pubmed
    ..and other 2-alkenals) specifically induce uncoupling of mitochondria through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)...
  3. Hsu Y, Niu T, Song Y, Tinker L, Kuller L, Liu S. Genetic variants in the UCP2-UCP3 gene cluster and risk of diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Diabetes. 2008;57:1101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants in the UCP2-UCP3 gene cluster, located on chromosome 11q13, may play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes...
  4. Vaisy M, Szlufcik K, Maris M, De Bock K, Hesselink M, Eijnde B, et al. Hyperglycemic diet and training alter insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipid content but not UCP3 protein expression in rat skeletal muscles. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25:905-13 pubmed
    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) have been implicated in the development of muscular insulin resistance...
  5. Casas F, Pessemesse L, Grandemange S, Seyer P, Baris O, Gueguen N, et al. Overexpression of the mitochondrial T3 receptor induces skeletal muscle atrophy during aging. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5631 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these data underline the importance of a tight control of p43 expression and suggest that a deregulation of the direct T3 mitochondrial pathway could be one of the parameters involved in the occurrence of sarcopenia. ..
  6. Sun X, Wray C, Tian X, Hasselgren P, Lu J. Expression of uncoupling protein 3 is upregulated in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E512-20 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle...
  7. Hamada T, Kotani K, Fujiwara S, Sano Y, Domichi M, Tsuzaki K, et al. The common -55 C/T polymorphism in the promoter region of the uncoupling protein 3 gene reduces prevalence of obesity and elevates serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the general Japanese population. Metabolism. 2008;57:410-5 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is considered to be associated with obesity, given its function in the regulation of energy and lipid metabolism...
  8. Clapham J, Arch J, Chapman H, Haynes A, Lister C, Moore G, et al. Mice overexpressing human uncoupling protein-3 in skeletal muscle are hyperphagic and lean. Nature. 2000;406:415-8 pubmed
    ..This provides evidence that skeletal muscle UCP-3 has the potential to influence metabolic rate and glucose homeostasis in the whole animal. ..
  9. Zungu M, Alcolea M, García Palmer F, Young M, Essop M. Genomic modulation of mitochondrial respiratory genes in the hypertrophied heart reflects adaptive changes in mitochondrial and contractile function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2819-25 pubmed
    ..b>UCP3 transcript levels were significantly reduced in the hypertrophied right ventricle vs. normoxic controls...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sprague J, Yang X, Sommers J, Gilman T, Mills E. Roles of norepinephrine, free Fatty acids, thyroid status, and skeletal muscle uncoupling protein 3 expression in sympathomimetic-induced thermogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;320:274-80 pubmed
    ..Expression of UCP3 is regulated by TH...
  2. Stavinoha M, Rayspellicy J, Essop M, Graveleau C, Abel E, Hart Sailors M, et al. Evidence for mitochondrial thioesterase 1 as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-regulated gene in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E888-95 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that ucp3 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha)-regulated gene, allowing induction when FA ..
  3. Putman C, Kiricsi M, Pearcey J, Maclean I, Bamford J, Murdoch G, et al. AMPK activation increases uncoupling protein-3 expression and mitochondrial enzyme activities in rat muscle without fibre type transitions. J Physiol. 2003;551:169-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, the metabolic and MHC-based fibre types do not appear to be regulated in a co-ordinated way, but may be independently modified by different signalling pathways. ..
  4. Bryner R, Donley D, Cutlip R, Wirth O, Alway S. Effects of downhill treadmill running on uncoupling protein 3 mRNA expression. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:433-7 pubmed
    ..Increased oxidative stress has been shown to up-regulate the expression of UCP3 mRNA...
  5. Chu X, He X, Shi Z, Li C, Guo F, Li S, et al. Ursolic acid increases energy expenditure through enhancing free fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation via an UCP3/AMPK-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59:1491-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, upregulated uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) by UA contributed to AMPK activation via elevating adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio...
  6. Guo J, Liu Y, Li M, Yang Y, Recker R, Deng H. Linkage exclusion analysis of two candidate regions on chromosomes 7 and 11: leptin and UCP2/UCP3 are not QTLs for obesity in US Caucasians. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:602-8 pubmed
    Leptin (LEP) and the uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2/UCP3) are key molecules involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure...
  7. Moreno M, Lombardi A, de Lange P, Silvestri E, Ragni M, Lanni A, et al. Fasting, lipid metabolism, and triiodothyronine in rat gastrocnemius muscle: interrelated roles of uncoupling protein 3, mitochondrial thioesterase, and coenzyme Q. FASEB J. 2003;17:1112-4 pubmed
    We investigated the role of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) during fasting and examined the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) administration in such a condition...
  8. Cadenas S, Echtay K, Harper J, Jekabsons M, Buckingham J, Grau E, et al. The basal proton conductance of skeletal muscle mitochondria from transgenic mice overexpressing or lacking uncoupling protein-3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2773-8 pubmed
    The ability of native uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is controversial...
  9. Putman C, Dixon W, Pearcey J, Maclean I, Jendral M, Kiricsi M, et al. Chronic low-frequency stimulation upregulates uncoupling protein-3 in transforming rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R1419-26 pubmed
    ..However, during exposure to long-term CLFS, mitochondria were generated with a lower complement of UCP-3 and coincided with the emergence of a growing population of oxidative type IIA fibers. ..
  10. Silvestri E, Moreno M, Lombardi A, Ragni M, de Lange P, Alexson S, et al. Thyroid-hormone effects on putative biochemical pathways involved in UCP3 activation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1639-45 pubmed
    In vitro, uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3)-mediated uncoupling requires cofactors [e.g...
  11. Almendro V, Fuster G, Busquets S, Ametller E, Figueras M, Argiles J, et al. Effects of IL-15 on rat brown adipose tissue: uncoupling proteins and PPARs. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In BAT, an important upregulation of the mRNA content of thermogenic proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), lipid-related transcription factors (PPARdelta and PPARalpha) and other proteins implicated in membrane transport ..
  12. Gomez Ambrosi J, Fruhbeck G, Martinez J. Interactions between an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist and a beta3-adrenergic agonist on the expression of UCP2 and UCP3 in rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2002;58:17-23 pubmed
    ..05) by trecadrine, while yohimbine had no effect. White adipose tissue UCP2 and muscle UCP3 were not modified by either trecadrine or yohimbine administration...
  13. Costford S, Chaudhry S, Salkhordeh M, Harper M. Effects of the presence, absence, and overexpression of uncoupling protein-3 on adiposity and fuel metabolism in congenic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1304-12 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a poorly understood mitochondrial inner membrane protein expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle...
  14. Harper M, Dent R, Monemdjou S, Bezaire V, Van Wyck L, Wells G, et al. Decreased mitochondrial proton leak and reduced expression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle of obese diet-resistant women. Diabetes. 2002;51:2459-66 pubmed
    ..overweight women and compared the expression and gene characteristics of uncoupling protein (UCP)2 and UCP3. Of 1,129 overweight women who completed the University of Ottawa Weight Management Clinic program, 353 met ..
  15. Ochoa M, Santos J, Azcona C, Moreno Aliaga M, Martinez Gonzalez M, Martinez J, et al. Association between obesity and insulin resistance with UCP2-UCP3 gene variants in Spanish children and adolescents. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;92:351-8 pubmed
    A number of studies have yielded controversial results on the association between polymorphisms in UCP2 and UCP3 genes with obesity and its comorbidities...
  16. Carroll A, Porter R. Starvation-sensitive UCP 3 protein expression in thymus and spleen mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1700:145-50 pubmed
    To date, UCP 3 has only been associated with skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Using RT-PCR/PCR methodology, we show that human spleen and human thymus contain UCP 3...
  17. Murray A, Cole M, Lygate C, Carr C, Stuckey D, Little S, et al. Increased mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, respiratory uncoupling and decreased efficiency in the chronically infarcted rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;44:694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten weeks after infarction, cardiac levels of UCP3 were increased by 53% in infarcted, failing hearts that had ejection fractions less than 45%...
  18. Boss O, Samec S, Paoloni Giacobino A, Rossier C, Dulloo A, Seydoux J, et al. Uncoupling protein-3: a new member of the mitochondrial carrier family with tissue-specific expression. FEBS Lett. 1997;408:39-42 pubmed
    ..The novel UCP3 was 57% and 73% identical to human UCP1 and UCP2, respectively, highly skeletal muscle-specific and its expression ..
  19. Gong D, Monemdjou S, Gavrilova O, Leon L, Marcus Samuels B, Chou C, et al. Lack of obesity and normal response to fasting and thyroid hormone in mice lacking uncoupling protein-3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16251-7 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial protein that can diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential. Levels of muscle Ucp3 mRNA are increased by thyroid hormone and fasting...
  20. Du Z, Yang Y, Hu Y, Sun Y, Zhang S, Peng W, et al. A long-term high-fat diet increases oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the inner ear of D-galactose-induced aging rats. Hear Res. 2012;287:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that HFD may induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the inner ear, and it provided evidence regarding the link between HFD and an increased risk of age-related hearing loss. ..
  21. Kageyama H, Osaka T, Kageyama A, Kawada T, Hirano T, Oka J, et al. Fasting increases gene expressions of uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in brown adipose tissue of ventromedial hypothalamus-lesioned rats. Life Sci. 2003;72:3035-46 pubmed
    ..of bilateral ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned rats, we determined the gene expression of UCP1, UCP2 or UCP3 in BAT of VMH-lesioned rats and examined oxygen consumption in these rats under fed or 48-h fasted conditions...
  22. Jones T, Baar K, Ojuka E, Chen M, Holloszy J. Exercise induces an increase in muscle UCP3 as a component of the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;284:E96-101 pubmed
    Previous studies have indicated that exercise acutely induces large increases in uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in skeletal muscle, whereas endurance training results in marked decreases in muscle UCP3...
  23. McLeod C, Aziz A, Hoyt R, McCoy J, Sack M. Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 function in concert to augment tolerance to cardiac ischemia. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33470-6 pubmed
    ..In the cytoprotective hierarchy, uncoupling protein-2 appears to play a greater role than uncoupling protein-3 in modulating ischemia/anoxia tolerance in heart-derived cells. ..
  24. de Queiroz K, Rodovalho G, Guimarães J, de Lima D, Coimbra C, Evangelista E, et al. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet. Nutr Res. 2012;32:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on ..
  25. Frier B, Jacobs R, Wright D. Interactions between the consumption of a high-fat diet and fasting in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation enzyme gene expression: an evaluation of potential mechanisms. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the mRNA expression or protein content of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in the fed state...
  26. Son C, Hosoda K, Ishihara K, Bevilacqua L, Masuzaki H, Fushiki T, et al. Reduction of diet-induced obesity in transgenic mice overexpressing uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle. Diabetologia. 2004;47:47-54 pubmed
    It has been suggested that uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) can increase energy expenditure, thereby regulating body weight...
  27. Bevilacqua L, Ramsey J, Hagopian K, Weindruch R, Harper M. Long-term caloric restriction increases UCP3 content but decreases proton leak and reactive oxygen species production in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E429-38 pubmed
    ..Muscle UCP3 protein content increased with long-term CR, consistent with a role in protection from ROS but inconsistent with ..
  28. Amat R, Solanes G, Giralt M, Villarroya F. SIRT1 is involved in glucocorticoid-mediated control of uncoupling protein-3 gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34066-76 pubmed
    b>UCP3 (uncoupling protein-3) is a mitochondrial membrane transporter expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle...
  29. Wang S, Cawthorne M, Clapham J. Enhanced diabetogenic effect of streptozotocin in mice overexpressing UCP-3 in skeletal muscle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;967:112-9 pubmed
    ..UCP-3 transgenic mice treated with STZ (UCP3-STZ) showed a significant increase in blood glucose concentration 3 days after the last dose of STZ with a ..
  30. Minnaard R, Schrauwen P, Schaart G, Hesselink M. UCP3 in muscle wasting, a role in modulating lipotoxicity?. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5172-6 pubmed
    b>UCP3 has been postulated to function in the defense against lipid-induced oxidative muscle damage (lipotoxicity)...
  31. Masanés R, Yubero P, Rafecas I, Remesar X. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content. J Physiol Biochem. 2002;58:135-41 pubmed
    ..HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
  32. Iossa S, Mollica M, Lionetti L, Crescenzo R, Botta M, Samec S, et al. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 in overeating rats with increased thermogenesis. Pflugers Arch. 2002;445:431-6 pubmed
    ..increased thermogenesis, we measured basal proton leak, fatty acid-induced uncoupling and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) content in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar skeletal muscle mitochondria...
  33. Clapham J, Coulthard V, Moore G. Concordant mRNA expression of UCP-3, but not UCP-2, with mitochondrial thioesterase-1 in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in db/db diabetic mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:1058-62 pubmed
    ..The present data contribute to the argument that UCP-3 and MTE-1 are linked within the same metabolic pathway either in response to, or as regulators of, fatty acid beta-oxidation. ..
  34. Larkin S, Mull E, Miao W, Pittner R, Albrandt K, Moore C, et al. Regulation of the third member of the uncoupling protein family, UCP3, by cold and thyroid hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;240:222-7 pubmed
    ..1997) Nature Genetics 15, 269-272) or UCP homolog (UCPH) (Gimeno, R. E., et al. (1997) Diabetes 46, 900-906) and UCP3 (Boss, O., et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 408, 39-42; Vidal-Puig, A., et al. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun...
  35. Vidal Puig A, Grujic D, Zhang C, Hagen T, Boss O, Ido Y, et al. Energy metabolism in uncoupling protein 3 gene knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16258-66 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily...
  36. Yang N, Wang C, Xu M, Hu X. [UCPs and PPARgamma2 mRNA in diet induced obesity resistant rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005;34:556-8 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of UCP2, UCP3, and PPARgamma2 mRNA in white adipose...
  37. Kitahara T, Li H, Balaban C. Localization of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein family in the rat inner ear. Hear Res. 2004;196:39-48 pubmed
    ..Neocortex, by contrast, contained UCP2 and UCP4 equally. Notably, UCP3 and UCP4 mRNAs were expressed in inner ear ganglia, but brain UCP3 mRNA expression level was undetectable by simple ..
  38. Rudofsky G, Schroedter A, Schlotterer A, Voron ko O, Schlimme M, Tafel J, et al. Functional polymorphisms of UCP2 and UCP3 are associated with a reduced prevalence of diabetic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:89-94 pubmed
    ..endonucleases for the promoter variants A-3826G in the UCP1 gene, G-866A in the UCP2 gene, and C-55T in the UCP3 gene. No effect of the A-3826G polymorphism in the UCP1 gene on diabetes complications was found...
  39. Ryu J, Kim M, Kim C, Song K, Park J, Lee J, et al. DHEA administration increases brown fat uncoupling protein 1 levels in obese OLETF rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:726-31 pubmed
    ..The decreased expression levels of UCP-1 and its upstream regulators, beta(3)AR and PGC-1, in BAT may contribute to inefficient energy utilization and obesity in OLETF rats, which was corrected by DHEA treatment. ..
  40. Essop M, Razeghi P, McLeod C, Young M, Taegtmeyer H, Sack M. Hypoxia-induced decrease of UCP3 gene expression in rat heart parallels metabolic gene switching but fails to affect mitochondrial respiratory coupling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:561-4 pubmed
    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) are postulated to contribute to antioxidant defense, nutrient partitioning, and energy efficiency in the heart...
  41. Boss O, Samec S, Desplanches D, Mayet M, Seydoux J, Muzzin P, et al. Effect of endurance training on mRNA expression of uncoupling proteins 1, 2, and 3 in the rat. FASEB J. 1998;12:335-9 pubmed
    ..in rat BAT was reported to be unmodified by exercise training, the newly described uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3 could be responsible for the decreased DIT in trained rats...
  42. Gullicksen P, Flatt W, Dean R, Hartzell D, Baile C. Energy metabolism and expression of uncoupling proteins 1, 2, and 3 after 21 days of recovery from intracerebroventricular mouse leptin in rats. Physiol Behav. 2002;75:473-82 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the relationship between expressions of UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 in different adipose tissues and heat production (HP) was assessed...
  43. Guillet Deniau I, Mieulet V, Le Lay S, Achouri Y, Carré D, Girard J, et al. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c expression and action in rat muscles: insulin-like effects on the control of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes and UCP3 gene expression. Diabetes. 2002;51:1722-8 pubmed
    ..increases the expression of glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme genes and inhibits the 9-cis retinoic acid-induced UCP3 expression...
  44. Choi C, Fillmore J, Kim J, Liu Z, Kim S, Collier E, et al. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle protects against fat-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1995-2003 pubmed
    ..Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency...
  45. Anderson E, Yamazaki H, Neufer P. Induction of endogenous uncoupling protein 3 suppresses mitochondrial oxidant emission during fatty acid-supported respiration. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31257-66 pubmed
    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial...
  46. Xiao X, Grove K, Grayson B, Smith M. Inhibition of uncoupling protein expression during lactation: role of leptin. Endocrinology. 2004;145:830-8 pubmed
    ..Compared with control rats, mRNA expression of UCP1 and UCP3 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was dramatically reduced during lactation and fasting...
  47. Jiang N, Zhang G, Bo H, Qu J, Ma G, Cao D, et al. Upregulation of uncoupling protein-3 in skeletal muscle during exercise: a potential antioxidant function. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:138-45 pubmed publisher
    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression has been shown to increase dramatically in response to muscular contraction, but the physiological significance of UCP3 upregulation is still elusive...
  48. Rodriguez A, Roca P, Bonet M, Pico C, Oliver P, Palou A. Positive correlation of skeletal muscle UCP3 mRNA levels with overweight in male, but not in female, rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R880-8 pubmed
    ..A trend to higher induction of abdominal muscle UCP3 mRNA in male rats than in females after cafeteria diet was apparent (+116% increase vs. +26% increase)...
  49. Mori Y, Tokutate Y, Oana F, Matsuzawa A, Akahane S, Tajima N. Bezafibrate-induced changes over time in the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in the tissues: a study in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats with visceral obesity. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2004;11:224-31 pubmed
    ..On day 3 of BF administration, the levels of UCP2 mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles as well as UCP3 mRNA expression in the WAT were significantly increased in the high-dose BF group...
  50. Brunmair B, Gras F, Wagner L, Artwohl M, Zierhut B, Waldhausl W, et al. Expression of uncoupling protein-3 mRNA in rat skeletal muscle is acutely stimulated by thiazolidinediones: an exercise-like effect?. Diabetologia. 2004;47:1611-4 pubmed
    ..In healthy rats, a single dose of TZDs rapidly increases UCP-3 mRNA in skeletal muscle and plasma NEFA. This effect resembles the acute response to a bout of exercise. ..
  51. Fukunaga Y, Itoh H, Hosoda K, Doi K, Matsuda J, Son C, et al. Altered gene expression of uncoupling protein-2 and -3 in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2000;18:1233-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, we succeeded in cloning of rat UCP2 and UCP3. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of UCP2 and UCP3 in hypertension associated ..
  52. Hoshovs ka I, Lisovyĭ O, Shymans ka T, Sahach V. [UCP2 and UCP3 gene expression, heart function and oxygen cost of myocardial work changes during aging and ischemia-reperfusion]. Fiziol Zh. 2009;55:26-36 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the levels of mRNA of UCP2 in aging hearts were higher and mRNA levels of UCP3 were tended to increase...
  53. Santillo A, Burrone L, Senese R, Cioffi F, Lanni A, Chieffi Baccari G. Effect of D-aspartate uptake on uncoupling protein-3 and ?-tubulin expressions in rat Harderian gland. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:3344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we examined the effect of D-Asp uptake on the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), ?-actin, and ?-tubulin. In rat HG, elevated levels of D-Asp significantly increased hydroperoxide production...