Txnrd1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Txnrd1
Description: thioredoxin reductase 1
Alias: NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase, selenoprotein oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic, thioredoxin reductase TR1
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. ncbi High-level expression in Escherichia coli of selenocysteine-containing rat thioredoxin reductase utilizing gene fusions with engineered bacterial-type SECIS elements and co-expression with the selA, selB and selC genes
    E S Arner
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 292:1003-16. 1999
  2. pmc Mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1: roles in redox homoeostasis and characterization of cellular targets
    Anton A Turanov
    Department of Biochemistry and Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, U S A
    Biochem J 430:285-93. 2010
  3. ncbi Thioredoxin reductase 1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques: specific induction of the promoter in human macrophages by oxidized low-density lipoproteins
    C Furman
    INSERM U 545, and Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59019 Lille, France
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:71-85. 2004
  4. doi Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset
    John Mitchell
    Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Department of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:202-11. 2009
  5. doi Crystal structure and catalysis of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1
    Qing Cheng
    Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 284:3998-4008. 2009
  6. ncbi Mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin-glutathione reductase. Roles in disulfide bond formation and sperm maturation
    Dan Su
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:26491-8. 2005
  7. ncbi Rat and calf thioredoxin reductase are homologous to glutathione reductase with a carboxyl-terminal elongation containing a conserved catalytically active penultimate selenocysteine residue
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 273:8581-91. 1998
  8. ncbi Thioredoxin reductase is irreversibly modified by curcumin: a novel molecular mechanism for its anticancer activity
    Jianguo Fang
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 280:25284-90. 2005
  9. ncbi Rapid induction of cell death by selenium-compromised thioredoxin reductase 1 but not by the fully active enzyme containing selenocysteine
    Karin Anestål
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:15966-72. 2003
  10. ncbi The mammalian cytosolic selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase reduces ubiquinone. A novel mechanism for defense against oxidative stress
    Ling Xia
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Immunology, Division of Pathology, F46, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:2141-6. 2003

Scientific Experts

  • Jianyong Wang
  • Nicoletta Vesentini
  • F Usuki
  • Cristina M L Carvalho
  • Nelly Aranibar
  • Ruiyan Shan
  • P Christian Schulze
  • E S Arner
  • Karin Anestål
  • Qing Cheng
  • Jun Lu
  • Arne Holmgren
  • L Zhong
  • Joshua D Chandler
  • Suvd Erkhembayar
  • Maria Laura Aon-Bertolino
  • Shusuke Yamauchi
  • Suzana G Leoni
  • Jiashu Yu
  • Ye Peng
  • Megan L Jones
  • Anna Hodková
  • Xiao qin Zhao
  • Anton A Turanov
  • Yi Hua Jan
  • Isuzu Hama
  • Jie Jia
  • Joseph Caprioli
  • Lei Wang
  • John Mitchell
  • Olle Rengby
  • Xun Li
  • Lennart C Eriksson
  • Vadim N Gladyshev
  • Dolph L Hatfield
  • Pedro Iñarrea
  • L K Crosley
  • Seyed Isaac Hashemy
  • A K Rundlöf
  • Jianguo Fang
  • Dan Su
  • Kylie Venardos
  • A Holmgren
  • C Furman
  • Woojin Jeong
  • Ling Xia
  • Jerry A Nick
  • Brian J Day
  • Robert J Hondal
  • David P Nichols
  • Annelie Mollbrink
  • T Sandalova
  • Weiping Teng
  • Edna T Kimura
  • Chenling Fan
  • Qian Xing
  • Kazumi Ito
  • Kyoko Watanabe
  • Weiwei Wang
  • Eva Maria Hanschmann
  • Atsushi Sanbuissho
  • Gustavo Ezequiel Saraceno
  • Takashi Yamoto
  • Naoki Kiyosawa
  • Zhongyan Shan
  • Antonio De La Vieja
  • Yuxiu Geng
  • Mariana Holubiec
  • Pablo Galeano
  • Francisco Capani
  • Ningna Li
  • Maria Sol Badorrey
  • Yosuke Ando
  • Caixia Zhang
  • Christopher Horst Lillig
  • Hong Wang
  • Sunao Manabe
  • Wei Chong
  • Pilar Santisteban
  • Hongmei Zhang
  • Noriyo Niino
  • Jinyuan Mao
  • Juan Ignacio Romero
  • Haiyan Zheng
  • Hiroyuki Konishi
  • Diane E Heck
  • Jeffrey D Laskin
  • Xiang Ying Jiao
  • Bradley A Carlson
  • Joshua P Gray

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. ncbi High-level expression in Escherichia coli of selenocysteine-containing rat thioredoxin reductase utilizing gene fusions with engineered bacterial-type SECIS elements and co-expression with the selA, selB and selC genes
    E S Arner
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 292:1003-16. 1999
    ..These results show that with the strategy utilized here, the capacity of selenoprotein synthesis in E. coli is more than sufficient for making possible the use of the bacteria for production of recombinant selenoproteins...
  2. pmc Mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1: roles in redox homoeostasis and characterization of cellular targets
    Anton A Turanov
    Department of Biochemistry and Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, U S A
    Biochem J 430:285-93. 2010
    ..Diminished hepatic TR1 function was associated with elevated Trx1 levels, but this protein was mostly in the oxidized state. Overall, this study provides evidence for the key role of the TR1-Trx1 pair in redox homoeostasis...
  3. ncbi Thioredoxin reductase 1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques: specific induction of the promoter in human macrophages by oxidized low-density lipoproteins
    C Furman
    INSERM U 545, and Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59019 Lille, France
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:71-85. 2004
    ....
  4. doi Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset
    John Mitchell
    Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Department of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:202-11. 2009
    ..The gene TXNRD1 was therefore screened for association with FALS...
  5. doi Crystal structure and catalysis of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1
    Qing Cheng
    Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 284:3998-4008. 2009
    ....
  6. ncbi Mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin-glutathione reductase. Roles in disulfide bond formation and sperm maturation
    Dan Su
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:26491-8. 2005
    ..Together, TGR and GPx4 can serve as a novel disulfide bond formation system. Both enzymes contain a catalytic selenocysteine consistent with the role of selenium in male reproduction...
  7. ncbi Rat and calf thioredoxin reductase are homologous to glutathione reductase with a carboxyl-terminal elongation containing a conserved catalytically active penultimate selenocysteine residue
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 273:8581-91. 1998
    ..This showed that the carboxyl-terminal motif was essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme...
  8. ncbi Thioredoxin reductase is irreversibly modified by curcumin: a novel molecular mechanism for its anticancer activity
    Jianguo Fang
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 280:25284-90. 2005
    ..Modification of TrxR by curcumin provides a possible mechanistic explanation for its cancer preventive activity, shifting the enzyme from an antioxidant to a prooxidant...
  9. ncbi Rapid induction of cell death by selenium-compromised thioredoxin reductase 1 but not by the fully active enzyme containing selenocysteine
    Karin Anestål
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:15966-72. 2003
    ..The direct cellular effects of selenium-compromised forms of TrxR1 may be important for the pathophysiology of selenium deficiency as well as for the efficacy of antiproliferative drugs targeting the selenocysteine moiety of this enzyme...
  10. ncbi The mammalian cytosolic selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase reduces ubiquinone. A novel mechanism for defense against oxidative stress
    Ling Xia
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Immunology, Division of Pathology, F46, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:2141-6. 2003
    ..These data demonstrate that the selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase is an important selenium-dependent ubiquinone reductase and can explain how selenium and ubiquinone, by a combined action, may protect the cell from oxidative damage...
  11. pmc Three-dimensional structure of a mammalian thioredoxin reductase: implications for mechanism and evolution of a selenocysteine-dependent enzyme
    T Sandalova
    Division of Molecular Structural Biology and Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9533-8. 2001
    ..Our results suggest that mammalian TrxR evolved from the GR scaffold rather than from its prokaryotic counterpart. This evolutionary switch renders cell growth dependent on selenium...
  12. ncbi Essential role of selenium in the catalytic activities of mammalian thioredoxin reductase revealed by characterization of recombinant enzymes with selenocysteine mutations
    L Zhong
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 275:18121-8. 2000
    ..Thus selenium is required for the catalytic activities of TrxR explaining the essential role of this trace element in cell growth...
  13. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial selenocysteine-containing thioredoxin reductase from rat liver
    S R Lee
    Laboratory of Cell Signaling, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:4722-34. 1999
    ....
  14. ncbi Differential regulation of expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in rat liver and kidney
    L K Crosley
    Vascular Health Programme, Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    Arch Biochem Biophys 459:178-88. 2007
    ....
  15. pmc Selective metabolism of hypothiocyanous acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase promotes lung innate immunity and antioxidant defense
    Joshua D Chandler
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:18421-8. 2013
    ..These data support a novel selective mechanism of host defense in mammals wherein HOSCN formation simultaneously inhibits pathogens while sparing host tissue...
  16. doi Neuroprotective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on spinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
    Lei Wang
    Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Youyi Rd, Chongqing 400016, China wlei
    J Ethnopharmacol 124:219-23. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on spinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and explore the possible mechanism of the protective effect...
  17. pmc Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression
    Nicoletta Vesentini
    Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
    BMC Res Notes 5:124. 2012
    ..Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression...
  18. doi The effect of sodium selenite on liver growth and thioredoxin reductase expression in regenerative and neoplastic liver cell proliferation
    Suvd Erkhembayar
    Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Pharmacol 83:687-93. 2012
    ..Furthermore, the over expression of TrxR1 in liver neoplasia can only partly be explained by increased growth...
  19. doi Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticles
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Neurotoxicology 30:926-33. 2009
    ..The expression of Txnrd1 was up-regulated after the Cu-90 treatment and the expression of Gpx1 was down-regulated after Ag-15 or Cu-90 ..
  20. doi Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments via upregulation of thioredoxin reductases in stressed rats
    Ye Peng
    Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710032, China
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:1018-25. 2010
    ....
  21. doi Regulation of thyroid oxidative state by thioredoxin reductase has a crucial role in thyroid responses to iodide excess
    Suzana G Leoni
    Instituto de Investigaciones Biome dicas Alberto Sols Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Universidad Auto noma de Madrid, Spain
    Mol Endocrinol 25:1924-35. 2011
    ....
  22. doi The effect of iron(III) on the activity of selenoenzymes and oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Interaction with natural antioxidants and deferiprone
    Anna Hodková
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
    Hemoglobin 34:278-83. 2010
    ..Further studies including the combination of synthetic and natural compounds (e.g., flavonoids) are being considered for their possible development and clinical use in antioxidant therapies...
  23. ncbi [The change of thioredoxin system in myocardial tissue of type 2 diabetic rats undergoing myocardial injury]
    Xiao qin Zhao
    Department of Physiology, Key Laboratory of Cellular Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China
    Sheng Li Xue Bao 62:261-8. 2010
    ..These results suggest diabetes can decrease myocardial Trx, TR activity, inducing myocardial cell apoptosis and heart injury. The inhibitory effect of diabetes is mainly associated with TXNIP up-regulation and Trx nitration...
  24. doi Effects of hyperoxia on cytoplasmic thioredoxin system in alveolar type epithelial cells of premature rats
    Ruiyan Shan
    Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 31:258-63. 2011
    ....
  25. doi Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin system proteins-immunolocalization in the rat central nervous system
    Maria Laura Aon-Bertolino
    Universidad de Buenos Aires Facultad de Medicina and Comisión Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1810:93-110. 2011
    ....
  26. doi Effects of selenite and chelating agents on mammalian thioredoxin reductase inhibited by mercury: implications for treatment of mercury poisoning
    Cristina M L Carvalho
    Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    FASEB J 25:370-81. 2011
    ..These results stress the role of TrxR as a target of mercurials and provide the mechanism of selenite as a detoxification agent for mercury poisoning...
  27. pmc Post-transcriptional defects of antioxidant selenoenzymes cause oxidative stress under methylmercury exposure
    Fusako Usuki
    Department of Clinical Medicine, National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058 18 Hama, Minamata 867 0008, Japan
    J Biol Chem 286:6641-9. 2011
    ..Treatment with ebselen, a seleno-organic compound, effectively suppressed oxidative stress and protected cells against MeHg-induced relative selenium deficiency and cytotoxicity...
  28. doi Hepatic transcriptome and proteome responses against diethyl maleate-induced glutathione depletion in the rat
    Shusuke Yamauchi
    Medicinal Safety Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co, Ltd, Shizuoka, Japan
    Arch Toxicol 85:1045-56. 2011
    ..a number of glutathione depletion-responsive genes reported previously, such as Trib3, Srxn1, Myc, Asns, Igfbp1, Txnrd1, or Hmox1, suggesting that these genes are robust mRNA biomarkers for evaluating hepatic glutathione depletion...
  29. doi Vitamin E ameliorates iodine-induced cytotoxicity in thyroid
    Jiashu Yu
    The Endocrine Institute of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, People s Republic of China
    J Endocrinol 209:299-306. 2011
    ..These results show that excess iodine leads to thyroid damage and VE supplementation can partly ameliorate iodine-induced thyroid cytotoxicity...
  30. doi Antioxidant defenses in the rat placenta in late gestation: increased labyrinthine expression of superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase 3, and uncoupling protein 2
    Megan L Jones
    Schools of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    Biol Reprod 83:254-60. 2010
    ..Expression of several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Sod1, Sod2, Sod3, Cat, Gpx3, Txn1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3) and Ucp2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in the labyrinth (LZ) and junctional zones (JZ) ..
  31. pmc Selective targeting of selenocysteine in thioredoxin reductase by the half mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in lung epithelial cells
    Yi Hua Jan
    Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 23:1045-53. 2010
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that sulfur mustard vesicants target TrxR and that this may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and tissue injury...
  32. ncbi Identification and characterization of TRP14, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa. New insights into the specificity of thioredoxin function
    Woojin Jeong
    Laboratory of Cell Signaling, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:3142-50. 2004
    ..These results suggest that TRP14 and Trx1 might act on distinct substrate proteins...
  33. ncbi Effects of dietary selenium on post-ischemic expression of antioxidant mRNA
    Kylie Venardos
    Heart Foundation Research Centre, School of Health Science, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Australia
    Mol Cell Biochem 270:131-8. 2005
    ..Our results show selenium modulates the cardiac mRNA expression of thioredoxin and glutathione related enzymes post ischemia-reperfusion, and impacts on tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion...
  34. ncbi Motexafin gadolinium, a tumor-selective drug targeting thioredoxin reductase and ribonucleotide reductase
    Seyed Isaac Hashemy
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 281:10691-7. 2006
    ..This may explain the effects of the drug on cancer cells, which often overproduce TrxR and have induced RNR for replication and repair...
  35. ncbi Nitric oxide-dependent suppression of thioredoxin-interacting protein expression enhances thioredoxin activity
    P Christian Schulze
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2666-72. 2006
    ..We show the NO-dependent transcriptional regulation of the antioxidative thioredoxin system...
  36. pmc Mitochondrial respiratory chain and thioredoxin reductase regulate intermembrane Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: implications for mitochondrial energy metabolism and apoptosis
    Pedro Iñarrea
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
    Biochem J 405:173-9. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that H2O2, superoxide and TxrR-1 regulate IMS SOD1 activity reversibly, and that the active enzyme is implicated in protecting vital mitochondrial functions...
  37. pmc Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cells
    Karin Anestål
    Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 3:e1846. 2008
    ..SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function...
  38. pmc Regulation of Kv4 channel expression in failing rat heart by the thioredoxin system
    Xun Li
    Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Univ of Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H416-24. 2008
    ..These data suggest that the expression of Kv4.x channels is redox-regulated by the thioredoxin system, which may be a novel therapeutic target to reverse or limit electrical remodeling of the failing heart...
  39. doi Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanism
    Jie Jia
    Department of Rehabilitation, Huashan Hospital, and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
    Thromb Res 123:727-30. 2009
    ..This study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine on temporary focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury...
  40. doi Highly active dimeric and low-activity tetrameric forms of selenium-containing rat thioredoxin reductase 1
    Olle Rengby
    Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:893-904. 2009
    ..The tetrameric forms of the protein could represent hitherto unknown regulatory states of the enzyme...
  41. pmc Penultimate selenocysteine residue replaced by cysteine in thioredoxin reductase from selenium-deficient rat liver
    Jun Lu
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    FASEB J 23:2394-402. 2009
    ..These results show a novel mechanism for decoding the UGA stop codon, inserting cysteine to make a full-length enzyme that may be required for selenium assimilation...
  42. doi Modulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by cytochrome P450 induction revealed by metabonomics and transcriptional profiling
    Nelly Aranibar
    Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Province Line Road and Route 206, Princeton, NJ 08543 4000, USA
    Magn Reson Chem 47:S12-9. 2009
    ..enzymes regulating ascorbic acid reutilization including glutaredoxin reductase (Glrx2) and thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1)...
  43. doi Simultaneous expression of glutathione, thioredoxin-1, and their reductases in nerve transected hypoglossal motor neurons of rat
    Isuzu Hama
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1 4 3 Asahimachi, Abeno Ku, Osaka 545 8585, Japan
    Brain Res 1306:1-7. 2010
    ..These data suggest that the two major redox systems, GSH/GSHr and TRX1/TRXr1, are simultaneously activated in injured neurons, and likely provide protection of injured neurons against oxidative stress...
  44. pmc Overexpression of thioredoxins 1 and 2 increases retinal ganglion cell survival after pharmacologically induced oxidative stress, optic nerve transection, and in experimental glaucoma
    Joseph Caprioli
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 107:161-5. 2009
    ....
  45. pmc Functional expression of rat thioredoxin reductase: selenocysteine insertion sequence element is essential for the active enzyme
    N Fujiwara
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Osaka University Medical School, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Biochem J 340:439-44. 1999
    ..These data clearly showed a requirement of selenium for the formation of functional TR protein...