Txn1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Txn1
Description: thioredoxin 1
Alias: Txn, thioredoxin, trx
Species: rat
Products:     Txn1

Top Publications

  1. Nivet Antoine V, Cottart C, Lemarechal H, Vamy M, Margaill I, Beaudeux J, et al. trans-Resveratrol downregulates Txnip overexpression occurring during liver ischemia-reperfusion. Biochimie. 2010;92:1766-71 pubmed publisher
    Txnip (thioredoxin-interacting protein) is a protein with multifunctional roles in cellular responses and stress-related diseases...
  2. Luo F, Feng Y, Zhao L, Li K, Wang S, Song J, et al. Thioredoxin-1 expression regulated by morphine in SH-SY5Y cells. Neurosci Lett. 2012;523:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is beneficial for developing new treatments that alleviate side-effects of morphine. Thioredoxin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein that has various biological activities, such as the control of redox balance, ..
  3. Zhang D, Zhao N, Ma B, Wang Y, Zhang G, Yan X, et al. Procaspase-9 induces its cleavage by transnitrosylating XIAP via the Thioredoxin system during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24203 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induces a transnitrosylation from procaspase-9 to XIAP via the Trx system to consequently cause apoptosis. Additionally, Cys325 is a critical S-nitrosylation site of procaspase-9.
  4. Aon Bertolino M, Romero J, Galeano P, Holubiec M, Badorrey M, Saraceno G, et al. Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin system proteins-immunolocalization in the rat central nervous system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:93-110 pubmed publisher
    The oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin (Trx) family of proteins play a major role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Redox imbalance is a major feature of brain damage...
  5. Wu X, Li L, Zhang L, Wu J, Zhou Y, Zhou Y, et al. Inhibition of thioredoxin-1 with siRNA exacerbates apoptosis by activating the ASK1-JNK/p38 pathway in brain of a stroke model rats. Brain Res. 2015;1599:20-31 pubmed publisher
    Apoptosis is critical for the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thioredoxin-1(Trx-1) protein has been reported to have anti-apoptotic effects in a variety of cell types, and it has been implicated in brain injury after ..
  6. Jones M, Mark P, Lewis J, Mori T, Keelan J, Waddell B. Antioxidant defenses in the rat placenta in late gestation: increased labyrinthine expression of superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase 3, and uncoupling protein 2. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Sod1, Sod2, Sod3, Cat, Gpx3, Txn1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3) and Ucp2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in the labyrinth (LZ) and junctional ..
  7. Schulze P, Yoshioka J, Takahashi T, He Z, King G, Lee R. Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin function by thioredoxin-interacting protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30369-74 pubmed
    ..A ubiquitous antioxidative mechanism for regulating cellular redox balance is thioredoxin, a highly conserved thiol reductase that interacts with an endogenous inhibitor, thioredoxin-interacting ..
  8. Folda A, Citta A, Scalcon V, Calì T, Zonta F, Scutari G, et al. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin System as a Modulator of Cyclophilin D Redox State. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23071 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial thioredoxin system (NADPH, thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin) is a major redox regulator. Here we have investigated the redox correlation between this system and the mitochondrial enzyme cyclophilin D...
  9. Zeng X, Jia J, Ma L. Gensenoside Rb1 protects rat PC12 cells from oxidative stress-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress: the involvement of thioredoxin-1. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;410:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..reticulum stress pathway was also suppressed after gensenoside Rb1 pretreatment, which was related with thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) induction. Trx-1 siRNA abolished the protective effects of gensenoside Rb1...

More Information

Publications58

  1. Soejima H, Suefuji H, Miyamoto S, Kajiwaram I, Kojima S, Hokamaki J, et al. Increased plasma thioredoxin in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Clin Cardiol. 2003;26:583-7 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin is an important biomarker for oxidative stress. We investigated whether thioredoxin levels were elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and were associated with the results of coronary reperfusion...
  2. Jia J, Zeng X, Yang L, Bai J. The epinephrine increases tyrosine hydroxylase expression through upregulating thioredoxin-1 in PC12 cells. Biochimie. 2015;115:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and is induced under various stresses...
  3. Araujo A, Fernandes T, Ribeiro M, Khaper N, Bello Klein A. Redox regulation of myocardial ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in experimental hyperthyroidism: role of thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prx-6), phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2)/..
  4. Cao W, Li Y, Li M, Zhang X, Liao M. Txn1, Ctsd and Cdk4 are key proteins of combination therapy with taurine, epigallocatechin gallate and genistein against liver fibrosis in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;85:611-619 pubmed publisher
    ..Three differentially expressed proteins (Txn1, Ctsd and Cdk4) involved in antioxidant defense system and the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate ..
  5. Im J, Lee K, Woo J, Junn E, Mouradian M. DJ-1 induces thioredoxin 1 expression through the Nrf2 pathway. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3013-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that wild-type DJ-1 induces the expression of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), a protein disulfide oxidoreductase, whereas pathogenic mutant isoforms L166P and M26I cannot...
  6. Zhu X, Xiong L, Wang Q, Liu Z, Ma X, Zhu Z, et al. Therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine on transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2009;449:24-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase were examined at 6h and at 24h after reperfusion...
  7. Matsuura T, Harrison R, Westwell A, Nakamura H, Martynyuk A, Sumners C. Basal and angiotensin II-inhibited neuronal delayed-rectifier K+ current are regulated by thioredoxin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C211-7 pubmed
    ..MIF has recently been recategorized as a member of the thioredoxin (Trx) superfamily of small proteins...
  8. Shan R, Chang L, Li W, Liu W, Rong Z, Chen Y, et al. Effects of hyperoxia on cytoplasmic thioredoxin system in alveolar type epithelial cells of premature rats. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:258-263 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the effects of hyperoxia on dynamic changes of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) in alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) of premature rats...
  9. Romero J, Hanschmann E, Gellert M, Eitner S, Holubiec M, Blanco Calvo E, et al. Thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 2 contribute to maintain the phenotype and integrity of neurons following perinatal asphyxia. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:1274-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin (Trx) family proteins are crucial mediators of cell functions via regulation of the thiol redox state of various key proteins and the levels of the intracellular second messenger hydrogen peroxide...
  10. Grattagliano I, Caraceni P, Calamita G, Ferri D, Gargano I, Palasciano G, et al. Severe liver steatosis correlates with nitrosative and oxidative stress in rats. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating and hepatic redox active and nitrogen regulating molecules thioredoxin, glutathione, protein thiols (PSH), mixed disulfides (PSSG), NO metabolites nitrosothiols, nitrite plus nitrate ..
  11. Hsieh M, Zhong W, Yu S, Lin J, Chi W, Lee H. Dipyridamole suppresses high glucose-induced osteopontin secretion and mRNA expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Circ J. 2010;74:1242-50 pubmed
    ..of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), and increased thioredoxin expression to inhibit the reactive oxygen species (ROS) system...
  12. Khomenko T, Deng X, Jadus M, Szabo S. Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:910-6 pubmed
    ..Egr-1 transcriptional activity and on other thiol-containing proteins such as redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and thioredoxin (Trx)...
  13. Lappalainen Z, Lappalainen J, Oksala N, Laaksonen D, Khanna S, Sen C, et al. Diabetes impairs exercise training-associated thioredoxin response and glutathione status in rat brain. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thiol antioxidants including thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione (GSH) have a crucial role in controlling cellular redox status...
  14. Ago T, Liu T, Zhai P, Chen W, Li H, Molkentin J, et al. A redox-dependent pathway for regulating class II HDACs and cardiac hypertrophy. Cell. 2008;133:978-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) facilitates the reduction of signaling molecules and transcription factors by cysteine thiol-disulfide exchange, thereby regulating cell growth and death...
  15. Kitaoka Y, Munemasa Y, Hayashi Y, Kuribayashi J, Koseki N, Kojima K, et al. Axonal protection by 17?-estradiol through thioredoxin-1 in tumor necrosis factor-induced optic neuropathy. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed the presence of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) in the optic nerve axons and found that the levels of Trx1 protein were significantly decreased in ..
  16. Kobayashi M, Nakamura H, Yodoi J, Shiota K. Immunohistochemical localization of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in mouse embryos and fetuses. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2000;2:653-63 pubmed
    ..enzymes in rodent embryos have not been investigated systematically, we examined the ontogenesis of thioredoxin (TRX) and glutaredoxin (GRX) in mouse embryos and fetuses by using immunohistochemical methods...
  17. Drechsel D, Patel M. Respiration-dependent H2O2 removal in brain mitochondria via the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin system. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase, including auranofin and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, attenuated H(2)O(2) removal rates in ..
  18. Wei S, Botero A, Hirota K, Bradbury C, Markovina S, Laszlo A, et al. Thioredoxin nuclear translocation and interaction with redox factor-1 activates the activator protein-1 transcription factor in response to ionizing radiation. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6688-95 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is a cytoplasmic, redox-sensitive signaling factor believed to participate in the regulation of nuclear transcription factors mediating cellular responses to environmental stress...
  19. Zhao X, Zhao J, Li X, Zhang Y, Jiao X. [The change of thioredoxin system in myocardial tissue of type 2 diabetic rats undergoing myocardial injury]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2010;62:261-8 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to investigate the change of thioredoxin (Trx) system in myocardial tissue of type 2 diabetic rats after myocardial injury and the underlying mechanism...
  20. Tonissen K, Robins A, Wells J. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding rat thioredoxin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:3973 pubmed
  21. Schulze P, Liu H, Choe E, Yoshioka J, Shalev A, Bloch K, et al. Nitric oxide-dependent suppression of thioredoxin-interacting protein expression enhances thioredoxin activity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:2666-72 pubmed
    ..We show the NO-dependent transcriptional regulation of the antioxidative thioredoxin system...
  22. Hokamaki J, Kawano H, Soejima H, Miyamoto S, Kajiwara I, Kojima S, et al. Plasma thioredoxin levels in patients with unstable angina. Int J Cardiol. 2005;99:225-31 pubmed
    Plasma levels of human thioredoxin are indicative of the responses against oxidative stress...
  23. Tang C, Hwang C, Chen S, Yang D. Neuroprotective mechanisms of minocycline against sphingomyelinase/ceramide toxicity: Roles of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:710-21 pubmed publisher
    ..that minocycline restored the expression levels of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)-1, antioxidative thioredoxin-1, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 that were down-regulated by bacterial sphingomyelinase...
  24. Bobba A, Casalino E, Petragallo V, Atlante A. Thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system involvement in cerebellar granule cell apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2014;19:1497-508 pubmed publisher
    The involvement of thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system has been investigated in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs), a cellular system in which neurons are induced in apoptosis by the physiological stimulus of lowering extracellular ..
  25. Nimata M, Kishimoto C, Shioji K, Ishizaki K, Kitaguchi S, Hashimoto T, et al. Upregulation of redox-regulating protein, thioredoxin, in endomyocardial biopsy samples of patients with myocarditis and cardiomyopathies. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;248:193-6 pubmed
    An important role of redox regulation in myocardial diseases and heart failure has been postulated. Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox-regulating protein...
  26. Yoshioka J, Schulze P, Cupesi M, Sylvan J, MacGillivray C, Gannon J, et al. Thioredoxin-interacting protein controls cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of thioredoxin activity. Circulation. 2004;109:2581-6 pubmed
    ..Because thioredoxin is a major intracellular antioxidant and can also regulate redox-dependent transcription, we explored the role ..
  27. Li L, Zhu K, Liu Y, Wu X, Wu J, Zhao Y, et al. Targeting thioredoxin-1 with siRNA exacerbates oxidative stress injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Neuroscience. 2015;284:815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an endogenous antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects...
  28. Hama I, Nakagomi S, Konishi H, Kiyama H. Simultaneous expression of glutathione, thioredoxin-1, and their reductases in nerve transected hypoglossal motor neurons of rat. Brain Res. 2010;1306:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we examined changes in expression of glutathione reductase (GSHr), thioredoxins (TRX1 and TRX2), and thioredoxin reductases (TRXr1 and TRXr2), important constituents of anti-oxidative pathways, following rat hypoglossal ..
  29. Jia J, Zhang X, Hu Y, Wu Y, Wang Q, Li N, et al. Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanism. Thromb Res. 2009;123:727-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebrums were removed and cerebral infarction volume was measured. The expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase mRNA was determined at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion...
  30. Munemasa Y, Ahn J, Kwong J, Caprioli J, Piri N. Redox proteins thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 support retinal ganglion cell survival in experimental glaucoma. Gene Ther. 2009;16:17-25 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the neuroprotective effect of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) which play critical roles in the regulation of oxidative stress on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat glaucoma model...
  31. Miniard A, Middleton L, Budiman M, Gerber C, Driscoll D. Nucleolin binds to a subset of selenoprotein mRNAs and regulates their expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4807-20 pubmed publisher
    ..As selenoprotein transcript levels and localization did not change in siRNA-treated cells, our results suggest that nucleolin selectively enhances the expression of a subset of selenoproteins at the translational level. ..
  32. Stroev S, Tiul kova E, Samoilov M, Pelto Huikko M. [Comparison of effects of a single and thrice-repeated moderate hypobaric hypoxia upon expression of thioredoxine-1 in the rat hippocampus]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2011;97:889-97 pubmed
    ..that severe acute hypobaric hypoxia (SH) increases the expression of several endogenous antioxidants including thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in hippocampal neurons of rats...
  33. Wang X, Che H, Zhang W, Wang J, Ke T, Cao R, et al. Effects of Mild Chronic Intermittent Cold Exposure on Rat Organs. Int J Biol Sci. 2015;11:1171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we determined the expression levels of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (Cirbp) and thioredoxin (TRX) in rat tissues after 2 weeks of CIC exposure...
  34. Huh K, Cho Y, Kim B, Do J, Park Y, Joo D, et al. The role of thioredoxin 1 in the mycophenolic acid-induced apoptosis of insulin-producing cells. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e721 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the effects of MPA and the relation between MPA and Trx-1, we used various methods, including an Illumina microarray, to identify the genes regulated during pancreatic ?-..
  35. Luo F, Zhou J, Lv T, Qi L, Wang S, Nakamura H, et al. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the modulation of thioredoxin-1 in formaldehyde-induced neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that FA actually induces ER stress. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) has various biological activities, including the control of redox balance, the modulation of ER ..
  36. Turanov A, Kehr S, Marino S, Yoo M, Carlson B, Hatfield D, et al. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1: roles in redox homoeostasis and characterization of cellular targets. Biochem J. 2010;430:285-93 pubmed publisher
    The classical Trx (thioredoxin) system, composed of TR (Trx reductase), Trx and NADPH, defines a major pathway of cellular thiol-based redox regulation...
  37. Chen T, Tsai K, Lee T, Chiueh C, Lee W, Hsu C. Sex-specific role of thioredoxin in neuroprotection against iron-induced brain injury conferred by estradiol. Stroke. 2010;41:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen-mediated neuroprotective effect against iron-induced brain injury in vivo...
  38. Munemasa Y, Kwong J, Kim S, Ahn J, Caprioli J, Piri N. Thioredoxins 1 and 2 protect retinal ganglion cells from pharmacologically induced oxidative stress, optic nerve transection and ocular hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;664:355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The endogenous level of thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) and thioredoxin-2 (TRX2) in RGCs after axotomy and in RGC-5 cells after glutamate/buthionine ..
  39. Lappalainen Z, Lappalainen J, Laaksonen D, Oksala K, Khanna S, Sen C, et al. Acute exercise and thioredoxin-1 in rat brain, and alpha-lipoic acid and thioredoxin-interacting protein response, in diabetes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20:206-15 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is a protein disulfide reductase that plays an important role in many thiol-dependent cellular reductive processes, antioxidant protection, and signal transduction...
  40. Grattagliano I, Portincasa P, Palmieri V, Palasciano G. Mutual changes of thioredoxin and nitrosothiols during biliary cirrhosis: results from humans and cholestatic rats. Hepatology. 2007;45:331-9 pubmed
    Cholestasis is associated with changes in NO metabolism and thiol oxidation. Thioredoxin contributes to regulate vascular tone and intracellular redox status by cleaving nitrosothiols and maintaining -SH groups...
  41. Venardos K, Ashton K, Headrick J, Perkins A. Effects of dietary selenium on post-ischemic expression of antioxidant mRNA. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;270:131-8 pubmed
    ..Selenium deficiency down-regulates thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity, impairing recovery from ischemia-reperfusion...
  42. Huang C, Alapa M, Shu P, Nagarajan N, Wu C, Sadoshima J, et al. Guanylyl cyclase sensitivity to nitric oxide is protected by a thiol oxidation-driven interaction with thioredoxin-1. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14362-14370 pubmed publisher
    ..Because GC1 interacts with the oxidoreductase protein-disulfide isomerase, we hypothesized that thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), a cytosolic oxidoreductase, could be involved in restoring GC1 basal activity and NO sensitivity ..
  43. Connelly K, Advani A, Advani S, Zhang Y, Kim Y, Shen V, et al. Impaired cardiac anti-oxidant activity in diabetes: human and correlative experimental studies. Acta Diabetol. 2014;51:771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the latter is the major thiol reducing thioredoxin system, the activity of which may be diminished by high glucose-induced expression of its endogenous inhibitor, ..
  44. Wahlgren C, Pekkari K. Elevated thioredoxin after angioplasty in peripheral arterial disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;29:281-6 pubmed
    ..The role of the redox-active proteins, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, after angioplasty in patients with peripheral arterial disease has never been assessed before...
  45. Wang M, Zhu K, Zhang L, Li L, Zhao J. Thioredoxin 1 protects astrocytes from oxidative stress by maintaining peroxiredoxin activity. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:2864-70 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) exerts neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by oxidative stress...
  46. Kuster G, Pimentel D, Adachi T, Ido Y, Brenner D, Cohen R, et al. Alpha-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy in adult rat ventricular myocytes is mediated via thioredoxin-1-sensitive oxidative modification of thiols on Ras. Circulation. 2005;111:1192-8 pubmed
    ..This effect was abolished by adenoviral overexpression of thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) and potentiated by the TRX reductase inhibitor azelaic acid...
  47. Wang Y, De Keulenaer G, Lee R. Vitamin D(3)-up-regulated protein-1 is a stress-responsive gene that regulates cardiomyocyte viability through interaction with thioredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26496-500 pubmed
    The protein-disulfide reductase thioredoxin is critical for redox signaling during apoptosis and growth...
  48. Nagahara N, Yoshii T, Abe Y, Matsumura T. Thioredoxin-dependent enzymatic activation of mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. An intersubunit disulfide bond serves as a redox switch for activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1561-9 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli reduced thioredoxin (Trx) cleaved the intersubunit disulfide bond to activate MST to 2.3- and 4...
  49. Takagi Y, Gon Y, Todaka T, Nozaki K, Nishiyama A, Sono H, et al. Expression of thioredoxin is enhanced in atherosclerotic plaques and during neointima formation in rat arteries. Lab Invest. 1998;78:957-66 pubmed
    b>Thioredoxin (TRX) is an intracellular enzyme that has a variety of activities as a hydrogen donor for various intracellular molecules. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRX in atherosclerotic lesions...