tumor necrosis factor alpha


Gene Symbol: tumor necrosis factor alpha
Description: tumor necrosis factor
Alias: RATTNF, TNF-alpha, Tnfa, tumor necrosis factor, cachectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2), tumor necrosis factor alpha, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
Species: rat
Products:     tumor necrosis factor alpha

Top Publications

  1. Mahmoud M, El Shazly S, Barakat W. Inhibition of TNF-? protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via NF-?B dependent pathway. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present investigation, the effect of inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) using pentoxifylline or infliximab against hepatic I/R injury induced in rats by 45-min ..
  2. Oberst A, Dillon C, Weinlich R, McCormick L, Fitzgerald P, Pop C, et al. Catalytic activity of the caspase-8-FLIP(L) complex inhibits RIPK3-dependent necrosis. Nature. 2011;471:363-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Zhang D, Shao J, Lin J, Zhang N, Lu B, Lin S, et al. RIP3, an energy metabolism regulator that switches TNF-induced cell death from apoptosis to necrosis. Science. 2009;325:332-6 pubmed publisher
    Necrosis can be induced by stimulating death receptors with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other agonists; however, the underlying mechanism differentiating necrosis from apoptosis is largely unknown...
  4. Badiola N, Malagelada C, Llecha N, Hidalgo J, Comella J, Sabriá J, et al. Activation of caspase-8 by tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 is necessary for caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in oxygen-glucose deprived cultured cortical cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;35:438-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results show that apoptosis of cortical neurons after OGD is mediated by TNF-alpha/TNF-alpha receptor 1. ..
  5. Gieseke F, Kruchen A, Tzaribachev N, Bentzien F, Dominici M, Müller I. Proinflammatory stimuli induce galectin-9 in human mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and also ligands of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 elicited similar ..
  6. Choi J, Svensson C, Koehrn F, Bhuskute A, Sorkin L. Peripheral inflammation induces tumor necrosis factor dependent AMPA receptor trafficking and Akt phosphorylation in spinal cord in addition to pain behavior. Pain. 2010;149:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..was reduced and biochemical changes blocked by spinal pretreatment, but not post-treatment, with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist, Etanercept (100microg)...
  7. Bai Y, Shi Z, Zhuo Y, Liu J, Malakhov A, Ko E, et al. In glaucoma the upregulated truncated TrkC.T1 receptor isoform in glia causes increased TNF-alpha production, leading to retinal ganglion cell death. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Risk factors for glaucomatous RGC death are elevated intraocular pressure and glial production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)...
  8. Steelman A, Li J. Poly(I:C) promotes TNF?/TNFR1-dependent oligodendrocyte death in mixed glial cultures. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:89 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of microglia by poly(I:C) promotes TNF?/TNFR1-dependent oligodendroglial cell death. These data indicate that during an ongoing viral infection of the CNS, microglial TNF? may be detrimental to oligodendrocytes. ..
  9. Vanlangenakker N, Vanden Berghe T, Bogaert P, Laukens B, Zobel K, Deshayes K, et al. cIAP1 and TAK1 protect cells from TNF-induced necrosis by preventing RIP1/RIP3-dependent reactive oxygen species production. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that cells depleted of the IAPs by treatment with the IAP antagonist BV6 are greatly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necrosis, but not to necrotic death induced by anti-Fas, poly(I:C) oxidative stress...

More Information


  1. De Lella Ezcurra A, Chertoff M, Ferrari C, Graciarena M, Pitossi F. Chronic expression of low levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the substantia nigra elicits progressive neurodegeneration, delayed motor symptoms and microglia/macrophage activation. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:630-40 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to exert toxic or no effects on the ..
  2. Sakao S, Tatsumi K, Igari H, Shino Y, Shirasawa H, Kuriyama T. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene promoter polymorphism with the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:420-2 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, may be involved in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The production of TNF-alpha is elevated in the airways of these patients...
  3. Nakazawa T, Nakazawa C, Matsubara A, Noda K, Hisatomi T, She H, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates oligodendrocyte death and delayed retinal ganglion cell loss in a mouse model of glaucoma. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12633-41 pubmed
    ..Previous studies suggest that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute to the disease process, although its role in vivo and its mechanism of ..
  4. LaMarca B, Bennett W, Alexander B, Cockrell K, Granger J. Hypertension produced by reductions in uterine perfusion in the pregnant rat: role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Hypertension. 2005;46:1022-5 pubmed
    Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are elevated in preeclamptic women and are thought to be an important link between placental ischemia and endothelial dysfunction...
  5. Wang Y, Ng M, So W, Ma R, Ko G, Tong P, et al. Association between tumour necrosis factor-alpha G-308A polymorphism and risk of nephropathy in obese Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:2733-8 pubmed
    The G-308A polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and obesity, both of which may increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy...
  6. Korn T, Magnus T, Jung S. Autoantigen specific T cells inhibit glutamate uptake in astrocytes by decreasing expression of astrocytic glutamate transporter GLAST: a mechanism mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. FASEB J. 2005;19:1878-80 pubmed
    ..experiments using neutralizing antibodies and by incubation of astrocytes with recombinant cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was identified as being responsible for the down-modulation of GLAST...
  7. Kuo N, Lympany P, Menezo V, Lagan A, John S, Yeo T, et al. TNF-857T, a genetic risk marker for acute anterior uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1565-71 pubmed
    To determine the association between 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lymphotoxin-alpha, and the TNF-receptors genes (TNF, LTA, and TNFRSF1A and -B) and idiopathic acute anterior uveitis (IAU) and ..
  8. Zou J, Crews F. TNF alpha potentiates glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate uptake in organotypic brain slice cultures: neuroprotection by NF kappa B inhibition. Brain Res. 2005;1034:11-24 pubmed
    Glutamate and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), have been suggested to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
  9. Behl Y, Krothapalli P, Desta T, DiPiazza A, Roy S, Graves D. Diabetes-enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production promotes apoptosis and the loss of retinal microvascular cells in type 1 and type 2 models of diabetic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:1411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..diabetic rats and type 2 Zucker diabetic fatty rats were treated by intravitreal injection of the tumor necrosis factor-specific inhibitor pegsunercept, and the impact was measured by analysis of retinal trypsin digests...
  10. Holler N, Zaru R, Micheau O, Thome M, Attinger A, Valitutti S, et al. Fas triggers an alternative, caspase-8-independent cell death pathway using the kinase RIP as effector molecule. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:489-95 pubmed
    ..RIP is also required for necrotic death induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)...
  11. Beattie E, Stellwagen D, Morishita W, Bresnahan J, Ha B, von Zastrow M, et al. Control of synaptic strength by glial TNFalpha. Science. 2002;295:2282-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a protein produced by glia, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), enhances synaptic efficacy by increasing surface expression of AMPA receptors...
  12. Sacerdote P, Franchi S, Trovato A, Valsecchi A, Panerai A, Colleoni M. Transient early expression of TNF-alpha in sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia in a mouse model of painful peripheral neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2008;436:210-3 pubmed publisher
    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important mediator in neuropathic pain...
  13. Cabrera M, Shaw M, Sharples C, Williams H, Castes M, Convit J, et al. Polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor genes associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. J Exp Med. 1995;182:1259-64 pubmed
    ..ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis infection, is accompanied by high circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha...
  14. Keatings V, Collins P, Scott D, Barnes P. Differences in interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153:530-4 pubmed
    ..We found a significant increase in neutrophils and increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the patients with COPD compared with the smoking and ..
  15. Xu J, Xin W, Zang Y, Wu C, Liu X. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the neuropathic pain induced by Lumbar 5 ventral root transection in rat. Pain. 2006;123:306-21 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays an important role in neuropathic pain...
  16. Takeuchi O, Hoshino K, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Takada H, Ogawa T, et al. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity. 1999;11:443-51 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition. ..
  17. Ueki K, Kondo T, Kahn C. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 cause insulin resistance through inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins by discrete mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5434-46 pubmed
    ..By contrast, a reduction of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 by antisense treatment partially restores tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced downregulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS proteins in 3T3L1 adipocytes...
  18. Marchetti L, Klein M, Schlett K, Pfizenmaier K, Eisel U. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is enhanced by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Essential role of a TNF receptor 2-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent NF-kappa B path. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32869-81 pubmed
    We have previously shown that two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (TNFR) exhibit antagonistic functions during neurodegenerative processes in vivo with TNFR1 aggravating and TNFR2 reducing neuronal cell loss, respectively...
  19. Shames B, Barton H, Reznikov L, Cairns C, Banerjee A, Harken A, et al. Ischemia alone is sufficient to induce TNF-alpha mRNA and peptide in the myocardium. Shock. 2002;17:114-9 pubmed
    Over-production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion contributes to cardiac dysfunction, and anti-TNF-alpha has therapeutic potential for myocardial protection in cardiac surgery with ..
  20. Zheng L, Bidere N, Staudt D, Cubre A, Orenstein J, Chan F, et al. Competitive control of independent programs of tumor necrosis factor receptor-induced cell death by TRADD and RIP1. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3505-13 pubmed
    Stimulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) can initiate several cellular responses, including apoptosis, which relies on caspases, necrotic cell death, which depends on receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and NF-..
  21. Sasaki N, Kikuchi S, Konno S, Sekiguchi M, Watanabe K. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody reduces pain-behavioral changes induced by epidural application of nucleus pulposus in a rat model depending on the timing of administration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:413-6 pubmed
    ..Anti-TNF-alpha antibody reduced allodynia only when it was administered soon after the onset of allodynia. Late administration of anti-TNF-alpha antibody did not have an antiallodynic effect. ..
  22. Schäfers M, Geis C, Brors D, Yaksh T, Sommer C. Anterograde transport of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the intact and injured rat sciatic nerve. J Neurosci. 2002;22:536-45 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) appears as a key player at both central and peripheral terminals in early degenerative pathology and pain behavior after peripheral nerve injury...
  23. Steed P, TANSEY M, Zalevsky J, Zhukovsky E, Desjarlais J, Szymkowski D, et al. Inactivation of TNF signaling by rationally designed dominant-negative TNF variants. Science. 2003;301:1895-8 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and has been implicated in many pathological conditions...
  24. Abdo M, Hisheh S, Dharmarajan A. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the modulating effect of the caspases in rat corpus luteum apoptosis. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1241-8 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been implicated in apoptosis of many cell systems...
  25. Wajant H, Pfizenmaier K, Scheurich P. Tumor necrosis factor signaling. Cell Death Differ. 2003;10:45-65 pubmed
    A single mouse click on the topic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in PubMed reveals about 50,000 articles providing one or the other information about this pleiotropic cytokine or its relatives...
  26. Schäfers M, Svensson C, Sommer C, Sorkin L. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces mechanical allodynia after spinal nerve ligation by activation of p38 MAPK in primary sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:2517-21 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is implicated in the initiation of neuropathic pain. In vitro, TNF activates p38 mitogen-activated kinase...
  27. Sharma S, Sharma A, Kumar S, Sharma S, Ghosh B. Association of TNF haplotypes with asthma, serum IgE levels, and correlation with serum TNF-alpha levels. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:488-95 pubmed
    Both biochemical and genetic evidence have implicated the genes for TNF-alpha (TNFA) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) in atopic asthma...
  28. Knight J, Udalova I, Hill A, Greenwood B, Peshu N, Marsh K, et al. A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. Nat Genet. 1999;22:145-50 pubmed
  29. Schäfers M, Lee D, Brors D, Yaksh T, Sorkin L. Increased sensitivity of injured and adjacent uninjured rat primary sensory neurons to exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha after spinal nerve ligation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3028-38 pubmed
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is upregulated after nerve injury, causes pain on injection, and its blockade reduces pain behavior resulting from nerve injury; thus it is strongly implicated in neuropathic pain...
  30. de Alvaro C, Teruel T, Hernandez R, Lorenzo M. Tumor necrosis factor alpha produces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by activation of inhibitor kappaB kinase in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17070-8 pubmed
    ..b>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha caused insulin resistance on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation by impairing insulin ..
  31. Xiao H, Chen Z, Liao Y, Cheng X, Liu K, Wang Y, et al. Positive correlation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha early expression in myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Arch Med Res. 2008;39:285-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is found to play important roles in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ventricular arrhythmias arising from AMI are leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD)...
  32. Chiang C. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury. Chin J Physiol. 2006;49:266-74 pubmed
    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R)...
  33. Wang J, Song N, Jiang H, Wang J, Xie J. Pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate iron regulatory protein 1 expression and iron transportation through reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production in ventral mesencephalic neurons. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:618-25 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, we aimed to investigate whether the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) released by microglia, could affect cellular iron transportation in primary cultured ventral ..
  34. Hu Y, Chen X, Duan H, Hu Y, Mu X. Pulsatilla decoction and its active ingredients inhibit secretion of NO, ET-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 alpha in LPS-induced rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:284-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chinese medicine, Pulsatilla decoction (PD), the levels of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) secreted by cultured rat intestinal microvascular ..
  35. Jiang Y, An Y, Jiang D, Wu B, Yang Y, Sun D. TNF-α Regulating Interleukin-33 Induces Acute Pancreatic Inflammation in Rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016;46:54-9 pubmed
    ..IL-33 is elevated at the early stage of AP and correlated with AP severity. TNF-α stimulated IL-33/sST2 and subsequent increase of IL-6 may be the mechanism of IL-33 in AP. ..
  36. Salles von Held Ventura J, Mázala de Oliveira T, Cândida da Rocha Oliveira A, Granja M, Gonçalves de Albuquerque C, Castro Faria Neto H, et al. The trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cells is mediated by IL-1? and TNF-?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:378-384 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, TNF-? and IL-1? regulate each other intracellular levels. Our results suggest that ouabain treatment triggers the activation of TNF-? and IL-1? signaling pathways leading to an increase in retinal ganglion cell survival. ..
  37. Sapkota B, Macdonald M, Berrington W, Misch E, Ranjit C, Siddiqui M, et al. Association of TNF, MBL, and VDR polymorphisms with leprosy phenotypes. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:992-8 pubmed publisher
    Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes, these findings have not been extensively validated...
  38. Jesmin S, Gando S, Zaedi S, Sawamura A, Yamaguchi N. The expression of 4 protease-activated receptors is associated with increased levels of TNF-alpha, tissue factor, and fibrin in the frontal cortex of endotoxemic rats. Thromb Res. 2009;124:498-501 pubmed publisher
  39. Perez Gracia J, Prior C, Guillen Grima F, Segura V, Gonzalez A, Panizo A, et al. Identification of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 as potential baseline predictive serum markers of sunitinib activity in patients with renal cell carcinoma using a human cytokine array. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:1876-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline levels of TNF-alpha and MMP-9 warrant further study as predictive markers of sunitinib activity in MRCC. Selection of patients with extreme phenotypes seems a valid method to identify potential predictive factors of response. ..
  40. Song D, Li Y, Tang D, Huang L, Yuan Y. Neuron-glial communication mediated by TNF-? and glial activation in dorsal root ganglia in visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306:G788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether satellite glial cell (SGC) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) activation in DRG participates in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model ..
  41. Liu Y, Chen J, Dai M. Paeonol protects rat vascular endothelial cells from ox-LDL-induced injury in vitro via downregulating microRNA-21 expression and TNF-? release. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-21 is an important target of paeonol for its protective effects against ox-LDL-induced VEC injury, which may play critical roles in development of atherosclerosis. ..
  42. Atan D, Heissigerova J, Kuffova L, Hogan A, Kilmartin D, Forrester J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor polymorphisms associated with tumor necrosis factor production influence the risk of idiopathic intermediate uveitis. Mol Vis. 2013;19:184-95 pubmed
    ..Twelve polymorphisms were genotyped, spanning the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL10 genomic regions, in 44 patients with IIU and 92 population controls from the UK and the ..
  43. Jiang Y, Steinle J. Regulation of IRS-2 signaling by IGF-1 receptor in the diabetic rat heart. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:553-61 pubmed publisher
  44. Garcia Rio F, Miravitlles M, Soriano J, Munoz L, Duran Tauleria E, Sánchez G, et al. Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study. Respir Res. 2010;11:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8), alpha1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen, albumin and nitrites/nitrates (..
  45. Cay H, Sezer I, Dogan S, Felek R, Aslan M. Polymorphism in the TNF-alpha gene promoter at position -1031 is associated with increased circulating levels of TNF-alpha, myeloperoxidase and nitrotyrosine in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:843-9 pubmed
    ..Polymorphism in the TNF-alpha gene promoter at position -1031 is associated with increased circulating levels of TNF-alpha which is correlated with increased plasma MPO activity and protein nitration in Sjögren's syndrome. ..
  46. Khaksari M, Keshavarzi Z, Gholamhoseinian A, Bibak B. The effect of female sexual hormones on the intestinal and serum cytokine response after traumatic brain injury: different roles for estrogen receptor subtypes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91:700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Intestinal tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) was increased by TBI (P < 0.001). Progesterone decreased serum TNF-? (P < 0.01)...
  47. Niewczas M, Gohda T, Skupien J, Smiles A, Walker W, Rosetti F, et al. Circulating TNF receptors 1 and 2 predict ESRD in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, elevated concentrations of circulating TNFRs in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline are very strong predictors of the subsequent progression to ESRD in subjects with and without proteinuria. ..
  48. El Ani D, Philipchik I, Stav H, Levi M, Zerbib J, Shainberg A. Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects heart cultures against hypoxic damage via activation of PKA and phospholamban to prevent calcium overload. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;92:917-25 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) provides protection from hypoxic damage to neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cultures...
  49. Jiang Y, Biswas S, Steinle J. Serine 307 on insulin receptor substrate 1 is required for SOCS3 and TNF-α signaling in the rMC-1 cell line. Mol Vis. 2014;20:1463-70 pubmed
    ..pathway, we investigated the effects of substituting alanine for serine 307 in IRS-1 on the ability of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and a related mediator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), to phosphorylate IRS-1 ..
  50. Yang H, Zhang M, Wang X, Zhang H, Zhang J, Jing L, et al. TNF Accelerates Death of Mandibular Condyle Chondrocytes in Rats with Biomechanical Stimulation-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Disease. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0141774 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF accelerated the unilateral anterior crossbite induced chondrocytes apoptosis via death-receptor pathway. However, anti-TNF therapy does not prevent cartilage loss in this model of temporomandibular joint. ..
  51. Pichu S, Krishnamoorthy S, Zhang B, Jing Y, Shishkov A, Ponnappa B. Dicer-substrate siRNA inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in Kupffer cells in vitro: in vivo targeting of Kupffer cells by siRNA-liposomes. Pharmacol Res. 2012;65:48-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Neutralizing TNF-? by antibodies or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, alleviate disease symptoms...
  52. Hagau N, Slavcovici A, Gonganau D, Oltean S, Dirzu D, Brezoszki E, et al. Clinical aspects and cytokine response in severe H1N1 influenza A virus infection. Crit Care. 2010;14:R203 pubmed publisher
    ..nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group, obesity and lymphocytopenia were more common and IP-10, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-9 were significantly increased versus control...
  53. Hanada R, Leibbrandt A, Hanada T, Kitaoka S, Furuyashiki T, Fujihara H, et al. Central control of fever and female body temperature by RANKL/RANK. Nature. 2009;462:505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify an entirely novel and unexpected function for the key osteoclast differentiation factors RANKL/RANK in female thermoregulation and the central fever response in inflammation. ..