Traf6

Summary

Gene Symbol: Traf6
Description: TNF receptor associated factor 6
Alias: TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRAF6, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase TRAF6, TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
Species: rat
Products:     Traf6

Top Publications

  1. Elzinga B, Twomey C, Powell J, Harte F, McCarthy J. Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 is a substrate for gamma-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1394-409 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we report the characterization of a highly conserved tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6) consensus-binding site within the hydrophilic loop domain of presenilin-1 (PS-1)...
  2. Chen J, Wu X, Shao B, Zhao W, Shi W, Zhang S, et al. Increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 after rat traumatic brain injury. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:269-75 pubmed publisher
    b>TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors family was identified as a molecule that binds to the cytoplasmic domain of CD40...
  3. Inoue J, Gohda J, Akiyama T. Characteristics and biological functions of TRAF6. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;597:72-9 pubmed
    b>TRAF6 is divergent from other members of the TRAF family. Therefore, TRAF6 was expected to play physiological roles distinct from those of other TRAFs...
  4. Lamothe B, Besse A, Campos A, Webster W, Wu H, Darnay B. Site-specific Lys-63-linked tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 auto-ubiquitination is a critical determinant of I kappa B kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4102-12 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key mediator in proximal signaling of the interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor and the TNF receptor superfamily...
  5. Sun L, Deng L, Ea C, Xia Z, Chen Z. The TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1 in T lymphocytes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:289-301 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 protein kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1...
  6. Ando K, Hasegawa K, Shindo K, Furusawa T, Fujino T, Kikugawa K, et al. Human lactoferrin activates NF-kappaB through the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway while it interferes with the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TLR4 signaling. FEBS J. 2010;277:2051-66 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAF5 are deficient, hLF causes NF-kappaB activation at a level comparable to that seen in wild-type MEFs, whereas TRAF6-deficient MEFs show significantly impaired NF-kappaB activation in response to hLF...
  7. Wei J, Wang J, Zhou Y, Yan S, Li K, Lin H. MicroRNA-146a Contributes to SCI Recovery via Regulating TRAF6 and IRAK1 Expression. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:4013487 pubmed
    ..assay was performed to demonstrate that miRNA-146a could directly target the mRNAs of IRAK1 and TRAF6...
  8. Ninomiya Tsuji J, Kishimoto K, Hiyama A, Inoue J, Cao Z, Matsumoto K. The kinase TAK1 can activate the NIK-I kappaB as well as the MAP kinase cascade in the IL-1 signalling pathway. Nature. 1999;398:252-6 pubmed
    ..cascade that leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and is relayed through the protein TRAF6 and a succession of kinase enzymes, including NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and I kappaB kinases (IKKs)...
  9. Weber A, Wasiliew P, Kracht M. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway. Sci Signal. 2010;3:cm1 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, most intracellular components that participate in the cellular response to IL-1 also mediate responses to other cytokines (IL-18 and IL-33), Toll-like-receptors (TLRs), and many forms of cytotoxic stresses. ..

More Information

Publications58

  1. Tan E, Li L, Indran I, Chew N, Yong E. TRAF6 Mediates Suppression of Osteoclastogenesis and Prevention of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by a Novel Prenylflavonoid. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32:846-860 pubmed publisher
    ..ICT, by inhibiting the TRAF6/c-Src/PI3K pathway, suppressed NADPH oxidase-1 activation to attenuate intracellular ROS production and ..
  2. Akiyama T, Maeda S, Yamane S, Ogino K, Kasai M, Kajiura F, et al. Dependence of self-tolerance on TRAF6-directed development of thymic stroma. Science. 2005;308:248-51 pubmed
    ..Engraftment of thymic stroma of TRAF6(-/-) embryos into athymic nude mice induced autoimmunity...
  3. Zheng C, Geetha T, Gearing M, Babu J. Amyloid β-abrogated TrkA ubiquitination in PC12 cells analogous to Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem. 2015;133:919-25 pubmed publisher
    ..tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and its association with p75(NTR), p62, and TRAF6 induced by nerve growth factor...
  4. Schneider M, Zimmermann A, Roberts R, Zhang L, Swanson K, Wen H, et al. The innate immune sensor NLRC3 attenuates Toll-like receptor signaling via modification of the signaling adaptor TRAF6 and transcription factor NF-?B. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR)-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF-?B by interacting with the TLR signaling adaptor TRAF6 to attenuate Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and activation of NF-?B...
  5. Lomaga M, Yeh W, Sarosi I, Duncan G, Furlonger C, Ho A, et al. TRAF6 deficiency results in osteopetrosis and defective interleukin-1, CD40, and LPS signaling. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1015-24 pubmed
    ..Here we report that mice deficient in TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are osteopetrotic with defects in bone remodeling and tooth eruption due to impaired osteoclast function...
  6. Dou Y, Shen H, Feng D, Li H, Tian X, Zhang J, et al. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 participates in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats through inhibiting autophagy and promoting oxidative stress. J Neurochem. 2017;142:478-492 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a member of the TRAF family and an important multifunctional intracellular adaptin of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily...
  7. Pham L, Zhou H, Lin Lee Y, Tamayo A, Yoshimura L, Fu L, et al. Nuclear tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 in lymphoid cells negatively regulates c-Myb-mediated transactivation through small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 modification. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5081-9 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor/scaffold protein that mediates several important signaling pathways, including the tumor necrosis factor-R:NF-kappaB pathway, involved in immune surveillance, ..
  8. Wooten M, Geetha T, Seibenhener M, Babu J, Diaz Meco M, Moscat J. The p62 scaffold regulates nerve growth factor-induced NF-kappaB activation by influencing TRAF6 polyubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35625-9 pubmed
    ..1/p62 is a scaffolding protein with several interaction modules that include a PB1 dimerization domain, a TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) binding site, and a ubiquitin-associating (UBA) domain...
  9. Zhou L, Ma Q, Shi H, Huo K. NUMBL interacts with TRAF6 and promotes the degradation of TRAF6. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:409-14 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential adaptor protein for IL-1R or TLR-mediated NF-kappaB signaling pathway activation...
  10. Kawai T, Sato S, Ishii K, Coban C, Hemmi H, Yamamoto M, et al. Interferon-alpha induction through Toll-like receptors involves a direct interaction of IRF7 with MyD88 and TRAF6. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:1061-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the adaptor molecule TRAF6 also bound and activated IRF7. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TRAF6 was required for IRF7 activation...
  11. Geetha T, Kenchappa R, Wooten M, Carter B. TRAF6-mediated ubiquitination regulates nuclear translocation of NRIF, the p75 receptor interactor. EMBO J. 2005;24:3859-68 pubmed
    b>TRAF6 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates signaling from members of the tumor necrosis factor and Toll-like receptor superfamilies, including the p75 neurotrophin receptor...
  12. Chandrasekar B, Mummidi S, Valente A, Patel D, Bailey S, Freeman G, et al. The pro-atherogenic cytokine interleukin-18 induces CXCL16 expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells via MyD88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26263-77 pubmed
    ..Thus IL-18 induced CXCL16 expression via a MyD88 --> IRAK1-IRAK4-TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) --> c-Src--> PI3K --> Akt --> JNK --> AP-1 ..
  13. Doyon P, Servant M. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 and ribosomal S6 kinase intracellular pathways link the angiotensin II AT1 receptor to the phosphorylation and activation of the IkappaB kinase complex in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..factor ?-activating kinase-1 (TAK1), the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and RSK isoforms, demonstrates the requirement of two distinct signaling pathway for the phosphorylation of IKK? ..
  14. Yang W, Wang J, Chan C, Lee S, Campos A, Lamothe B, et al. The E3 ligase TRAF6 regulates Akt ubiquitination and activation. Science. 2009;325:1134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TRAF6 was found to be a direct E3 ligase for Akt and was essential for Akt ubiquitination, membrane recruitment, and ..
  15. Qiu W, Zhang Y, Liu X, Zhou J, Li Y, Zhou Y, et al. Sublytic C5b-9 complexes induce proliferative changes of glomerular mesangial cells in rat Thy-1 nephritis through TRAF6-mediated PI3K-dependent Akt1 activation. J Pathol. 2012;226:619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..notably increased, and that PI3K/Akt1 activation and its regulation, such as TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-mediated Akt1 ubiquitination and PI3K-dependent Akt1 phosphorylation, were involved in the process of Thy-1N ..
  16. Dong L, Li L, Song Y, Duan Z, Sun S, Lin Y, et al. TRAF6-Mediated SM22α K21 Ubiquitination Promotes G6PD Activation and NADPH Production, Contributing to GSH Homeostasis and VSMC Survival In Vitro and In Vivo. Circ Res. 2015;117:684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of TRAF6 decreased the membrane translocation and activity of G6PD, in parallel with reduced SM22α K21 ubiquitination...
  17. Shin J, Kim I, Lee J, Koh G, Lee Z, Kim H. A novel zinc finger protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis and the function of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8346-53 pubmed
    ..In search of new intracellular molecules that bind TRAF6, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library screening with an N-terminal segment of TRAF6 as the bait...
  18. Dong W, Liu Y, Peng J, Chen L, Zou T, Xiao H, et al. The IRAK-1-BCL10-MALT1-TRAF6-TAK1 cascade mediates signaling to NF-kappaB from Toll-like receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26029-40 pubmed
    ..that recruits BCL10 to the TLR4 signaling complex and mediates signaling to NF-kappaB through the BCL10-MALT1-TRAF6-TAK1 cascade...
  19. Wiley S, Cassiano L, Lofton T, Davis Smith T, Winkles J, Lindner V, et al. A novel TNF receptor family member binds TWEAK and is implicated in angiogenesis. Immunity. 2001;15:837-46 pubmed
    ..Soluble TweakR inhibits endothelial cell migration in vitro and corneal angiogenesis in vivo. ..
  20. Sukhotnik I, Haj B, Pollak Y, Dorfman T, Bejar J, Matter I. Effect of bowel resection on TLR signaling during intestinal adaptation in a rat model. Surg Endosc. 2016;30:4416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of TLR4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
  21. Liu Z, He D, Zhang X, Li Y, Zhu C, Dong L, et al. Neuroprotective effect of early and short-time applying sophoridine in pMCAO rat brain: down-regulated TRAF6 and up-regulated p-ERK1/2 expression, ameliorated brain infaction and edema. Brain Res Bull. 2012;88:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of TRAF6 and ERK1/2 were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting...
  22. Naito A, Azuma S, Tanaka S, Miyazaki T, Takaki S, Takatsu K, et al. Severe osteopetrosis, defective interleukin-1 signalling and lymph node organogenesis in TRAF6-deficient mice. Genes Cells. 1999;4:353-62 pubmed
    b>TRAF6, a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family, was first identified as a transducer of CD40 and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signals based on the interaction of TRAF6 with the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 ..
  23. Yin Y, Li F, Shi J, Li S, Cai J, Jiang Y. MiR-146a Regulates Inflammatory Infiltration by Macrophages in Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis by Targeting TRAF6 and Affecting IL-17/ICAM-1 Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40:486-498 pubmed
    ..inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) through targeting TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which may further down-regulate the Interleukin-17 (IL-17)/Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 ..
  24. Liu S, Lutz J, Chang J, Liu D, Heemann U, Baumann M. TRAF6 knockdown promotes survival and inhibits inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharides in rat primary renal proximal tubule cells. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;199:339-46 pubmed publisher
    b>TRAF6 is a unique adaptor protein of the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family that mediates both tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) signalling...
  25. Sato S, Sugiyama M, Yamamoto M, Watanabe Y, Kawai T, Takeda K, et al. Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and TANK-binding kinase 1, and activates two distinct transcription factors, NF-kappa B and IFN-regulatory factor-3, in the Toll-li. J Immunol. 2003;171:4304-10 pubmed
    ..TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)6 interacted with TRIF through the TRAF domain of TRAF6 and TRAF6-binding motifs found in the N-terminal portion of TRIF...
  26. Fernandes A, Barateiro A, Falcão A, Silva S, Vaz A, Brito M, et al. Astrocyte reactivity to unconjugated bilirubin requires TNF-? and IL-1? receptor signaling pathways. Glia. 2011;59:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..not TNFR2, as well as their activation, observed by augmented binding of receptors' molecular adaptors, TRAF2 and TRAF6, respectively...
  27. Eftekhar E, Doustaki Zaboli M, Katebi M, Soufi F. MicroRNA-146a and its adapter proteins are affected by diabetes in rat's heart. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2016;117:166-70 pubmed
    ..was conducted to explore whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins (TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)) are affected by diabetes in the rat heart...
  28. Hostager B, Haxhinasto S, Rowland S, Bishop G. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-deficient B lymphocytes reveal novel roles for TRAF2 in CD40 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45382-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that TRAF2 and TRAF6 have overlapping functions in CD40-mediated NF-kappaB activation and CD80 up-regulation...
  29. Hu Y, Wang J, Yang B, Zheng N, Qin M, Ji Y, et al. Guanylate binding protein 4 negatively regulates virus-induced type I IFN and antiviral response by targeting IFN regulatory factor 7. J Immunol. 2011;187:6456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that overexpression of GBP4 disrupts the interactions between TRAF6 and IRF7, resulting in impaired TRAF6-mediated IRF7 ubiquitination...
  30. Kobayashi T, Walsh P, Walsh M, Speirs K, Chiffoleau E, King C, et al. TRAF6 is a critical factor for dendritic cell maturation and development. Immunity. 2003;19:353-63 pubmed
    ..Several signaling pathways associated with each family utilize the adapter molecule, TRAF6, but its role in DCs is unclear...
  31. Liu S, He X, Zhang X, Zeng F, Wang F, Zhou X. Ischemic Preconditioning-Induced SOCS-1 Protects Rat Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Degradation of TRAF6. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:105-114 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), known as a key adaptor protein downstream of TLR4, is involved in the inflammatory response by activating ..
  32. Lomaga M, Henderson J, Elia A, Robertson J, Noyce R, Yeh W, et al. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) deficiency results in exencephaly and is required for apoptosis within the developing CNS. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7384-93 pubmed
    ..We report here that targeted deletion of traf6 greatly increases the frequency of failure of neural tube closure and exencephaly in traf6 (-/-) mice...
  33. Wang Y, Tang Y, Teng L, Wu Y, Zhao X, Pei G. Association of beta-arrestin and TRAF6 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:139-47 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is critical for mediating Toll-like receptor (TLR)-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling and subsequent activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, transcriptional activators of innate ..
  34. Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S. Pathogen recognition by the innate immune system. Int Rev Immunol. 2011;30:16-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we comprehensively review the recent progress in the field of PAMP recognition by PRRs and the signaling pathways activated by PRRs. ..
  35. Rong J, Chen L, Toth J, Tcherpakov M, Petroski M, Reed J. Bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates BI-1 protein stability and function in ER Stress. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that post-translational regulation of the BI-1 protein by E3 ligase BAR contributes to the dynamic control of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. ..
  36. Zhong S, Xu J, Li P, Tsukamoto H. Caveosomal oxidative stress causes Src-p21ras activation and lysine 63 TRAF6 protein polyubiquitination in iron-induced M1 hepatic macrophage activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32078-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Fe(2+) stimulates Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination (polyUb) of TRAF6 in caveosomes, and a dominant negative K63R mutant of ubiquitin or SOD prevents iron-induced TRAF6 polyUb and TAK1 ..
  37. Yang L, Zhang C, Peng B. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 in rat periapical lesions. J Endod. 2009;35:834-7 pubmed publisher
    ..destruction is associated with enhanced osteoclast activity; tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is suggested to contribute to the differentiation of osteoclasts...
  38. Yin Q, Lin S, Lamothe B, Lu M, Lo Y, Hura G, et al. E2 interaction and dimerization in the crystal structure of TRAF6. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the crystal structures of TRAF6 and its complex with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ubc13...
  39. Verstrepen L, Bekaert T, Chau T, Tavernier J, Chariot A, Beyaert R. TLR-4, IL-1R and TNF-R signaling to NF-kappaB: variations on a common theme. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:2964-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss our current knowledge of NF-kappaB signaling in response to TLR-4, TNF-R and IL-1R stimulation, with a special focus on the similarities and dissimilarities among these pathways. ..
  40. He X, Zheng Y, Liu S, Shi S, Liu Y, He Y, et al. MiR-146a protects small intestine against ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating TLR4/TRAF6/NF-?B pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Cleaved-caspase 3, TLR4, TRAF6, and nuclear NF-?B p65 were up-regulated accompanying reduced XIAP and SOCS3 expression in intestinal ischemia and ..
  41. Lee S, Han S, Kim H, Lee Z. TAK1-dependent activation of AP-1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase by receptor activator of NF-kappaB. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;35:371-6 pubmed
    ..the association of the MAPK kinase kinase, transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), with TRAF6 was shown to mediate the IL-1 signaling to NF-kappaB and JNK...
  42. Siednienko J, Jackson R, Mellett M, Delagic N, Yang S, Wang B, et al. Pellino3 targets the IRF7 pathway and facilitates autoregulation of TLR3- and viral-induced expression of type I interferons. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3 signaling induced Pellino3, which in turn interacted with and ubiquitinated TRAF6. This modification suppressed the ability of TRAF6 to interact with and activate IRF7, resulting in downregulation ..
  43. Yuan P, Liu Z, Liu M, Huang J, Li X, Zhou X. Up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 level is correlated with apoptosis in the rat cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:1133-8 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) performs critical roles in mediating apoptosis-associated inflammatory processes in multiple cell types, but its role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is still unclear...
  44. Ohazama A, Courtney J, Tucker A, Naito A, Tanaka S, Inoue J, et al. Traf6 is essential for murine tooth cusp morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:131-5 pubmed
    ..b>Traf6 is known to function as an intracellular adaptor protein for Troy and examination of Traf6 mutant mice revealed ..
  45. Gohda J, Matsumura T, Inoue J. Cutting edge: TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 6 is essential for MyD88-dependent pathway but not toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (TRIF)-dependent pathway in TLR signaling. J Immunol. 2004;173:2913-7 pubmed
    ..However, the precise role of TRAF6 in signaling from individual TLRs has not been appropriately addressed...
  46. Xia Z, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, et al. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009;461:114-9 pubmed publisher
    b>TRAF6 is a ubiquitin ligase that is essential for the activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases in several signalling pathways, including those emanating from the interleukin 1 and Toll-like receptors...
  47. Geetha T, Jiang J, Wooten M. Lysine 63 polyubiquitination of the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA directs internalization and signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;20:301-12 pubmed
    ..TrkA is a substrate of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), and expression of K63R mutant ubiquitin or an absence of TRAF6 abrogated TrkA polyubiquitination and ..
  48. Saitoh T, Satoh T, Yamamoto N, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, et al. Antiviral protein Viperin promotes Toll-like receptor 7- and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated type I interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunity. 2011;34:352-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Viperin interacted with the signal mediators IRAK1 and TRAF6 to recruit them to the lipid bodies and facilitated K63-linked ubiquitination of IRAK1 to induce the nuclear ..
  49. Cuadrado A, Nebreda A. Mechanisms and functions of p38 MAPK signalling. Biochem J. 2010;429:403-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss how genetic mouse models are facilitating the identification of physiological functions for p38 MAPKs, which may impinge on their eventual use as therapeutic targets. ..