Gene Symbol: Tlr3
Description: toll-like receptor 3
Alias: toll-like receptor 3
Species: rat
Products:     Tlr3

Top Publications

  1. Zhu W, Meng L, Jiang C, He X, Hou W, Xu P, et al. Arthritis is associated with T-cell-induced upregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 on synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R103 pubmed publisher
    ..Synovial TLR3 was detected by immunohistochemical staining...
  2. Jeon S, Oh S, Park H, Kim Y, Shim E, Lee H, et al. TH2 and TH1 lung inflammation induced by airway allergen sensitization with low and high doses of double-stranded RNA. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:803-12 pubmed
    ..Targeting both T(H)1 and T(H)2 lung inflammation might be important in the treatment of virus-associated asthma. ..
  3. Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H, Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Sanjo H, et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science. 2003;301:640-3 pubmed
    ..activation of a common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway as well as a MyD88-independent pathway that is unique to TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways leading to interferon (IFN)-beta production...
  4. Alexopoulou L, Holt A, Medzhitov R, Flavell R. Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature. 2001;413:732-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mammalian TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, and that activation of the receptor induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of ..
  5. Meng L, Zhu W, Jiang C, He X, Hou W, Zheng F, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 upregulation in macrophages participates in the initiation and maintenance of pristane-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R103 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C, a ligand of TLR3) or TLR3 specific short-hairpin RNA plasmid for RNA interference was administrated to PIA rats in vivo...
  6. Tabeta K, Georgel P, Janssen E, Du X, Hoebe K, Crozat K, et al. Toll-like receptors 9 and 3 as essential components of innate immune defense against mouse cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3516-21 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 --> MyD88 and TLR3 --> Trif signaling pathways are activated in vivo on viral inoculation, and that each pathway contributes to ..
  7. Matsumoto M, Kikkawa S, Kohase M, Miyake K, Seya T. Establishment of a monoclonal antibody against human Toll-like receptor 3 that blocks double-stranded RNA-mediated signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:1364-9 pubmed
    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 was established and its effect on TLR3-mediated responses was tested using human fibroblast cell lines expressing TLR3 on the cell surface...
  8. Olson J, Miller S. Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs. J Immunol. 2004;173:3916-24 pubmed
    ..microglia with various TLR agonists, including LPS (TLR4), peptidoglycan (TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3), CpG DNA (TLR9), and infection with viable Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, activated the cells to up-..
  9. Noguchi E, Nishimura F, Fukai H, Kim J, Ichikawa K, Shibasaki M, et al. An association study of asthma and total serum immunoglobin E levels for Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:177-83 pubmed
    ..We screened the 5' flanking and coding regions of the TLR2,TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 genes for polymorphisms by direct sequencing of DNA from 32 asthmatics, and analysed the effect of ..

More Information


  1. Leonard J, Ghirlando R, Askins J, Bell J, Margulies D, Davies D, et al. The TLR3 signaling complex forms by cooperative receptor dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the mechanism by which TLR3 recognizes its ligand, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and forms an active signaling complex...
  2. Biswas B, Narmadha G, Choudhary M, French F, Hall S, Yenugu S. Identification of Toll-like receptors in the rat (Rattus norvegicus): messenger RNA expression in the male reproductive tract under conditions of androgen variation. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Tlrs seem to be expressed during male reproductive tract development and under conditions of androgen ablation, suggesting the preparedness of the male reproductive tract to detect an infection under all conditions of androgen status. ..
  3. Aplin A, Ligresti G, Fogel E, Zorzi P, Smith K, Nicosia R. Regulation of angiogenesis, mural cell recruitment and adventitial macrophage behavior by Toll-like receptors. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:147-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the TLR system participates in the angiogenic response of the vessel wall to injury and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory angiogenesis in reactive and pathologic processes. ..
  4. Greidinger E, Zang Y, Jaimes K, Hogenmiller S, Nassiri M, Bejarano P, et al. A murine model of mixed connective tissue disease induced with U1 small nuclear RNP autoantigen. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:661-9 pubmed
    ..Of note, changes in innate immune signaling can cause the same trigger to lead to the development of SLE-like nephritis rather than MCTD-like lung disease. ..
  5. Kariko K, Buckstein M, Ni H, Weissman D. Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll-like receptors: the impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA. Immunity. 2005;23:165-75 pubmed
    ..We show that RNA signals through human TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8, but incorporation of modified nucleosides m5C, m6A, m5U, s2U, or pseudouridine ablates activity...
  6. Pitzler L, Auler M, Probst K, Frie C, Bergmeier V, Holzer T, et al. miR-126-3p Promotes Matrix-Dependent Perivascular Cell Attachment, Migration and Intercellular Interaction. Stem Cells. 2016;34:1297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis showed that miR-126-3p inhibits SPRED1 and PLK2 expression, induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and stimulates TLR3 expression to modulate cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts of PVC...
  7. Rudd B, Smit J, Flavell R, Alexopoulou L, Schaller M, Gruber A, et al. Deletion of TLR3 alters the pulmonary immune environment and mucus production during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:1937-42 pubmed
    ..In these studies we have investigated the role of TLR3, which recognizes dsRNA, in Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) infection using B6 background mice with a TLR3 ..
  8. Rasschaert J, Ladriere L, Urbain M, Dogusan Z, Katabua B, Sato S, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 and STAT-1 contribute to double-stranded RNA+ interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis in primary pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33984-91 pubmed
    ..analysis that PIC induces expression of several mRNAs encoding for genes downstream of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling pathway...
  9. Biswas I, Garg I, Singh B, Khan G. A key role of toll-like receptor 3 in tissue factor activation through extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in a murine hypoxia model. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2012;49:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..cells due to hypoxia are identified by various pattern-recognition receptors (PRR), including Toll-like receptor3 (TLR3). In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of TF activation during acute hypoxia in a rat model...
  10. Khalil O, Forrest C, Pisar M, Smith R, Darlington L, Stone T. Prenatal activation of maternal TLR3 receptors by viral-mimetic poly(I:C) modifies GluN2B expression in embryos and sonic hedgehog in offspring in the absence of kynurenine pathway activation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:581-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxidation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway is not involved in these effects. ..
  11. Kang J, Koh E, Lee S. Melatonin protects liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury through inhibition of toll-like receptor signaling pathway. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of TLR3 and TLR4 protein expression induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were attenuated by melatonin...
  12. Meng L, He X, Zhu W, Yang X, Jiang C, Sun Q, et al. TLR3 and TLR7 modulate IgE production in antigen induced pulmonary inflammation via influencing IL-4 expression in immune organs. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17252 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR7 expression was found to be significantly down-regulated in spleen while TLR3 and TLR8 expression was up-regulated in mLN of AIPI rats...
  13. Wood L, Simpson J, Wark P, Powell H, Gibson P. Characterization of innate immune signalling receptors in virus-induced acute asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:640-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Selected sputum was also used for quantitative real-time PCR for TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, IL-10 and IP-10mRNA expression...
  14. Chen W, Lu Z. Upregulated TLR3 Promotes Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Autophagy in Rat With L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation Model. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:634-643 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the role of TLR3 in regulating neuropathic pain after PNI...
  15. Wu J, Wang Z, Guo Y, Dong L. [Activation of TLR3 pathway in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome induced by respiratory syncytial virus in rat model]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;41:600-3, 625 pubmed
    To explore the activation of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway on the process of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induced nephropathy...
  16. Gieseke F, Kruchen A, Tzaribachev N, Bentzien F, Dominici M, Müller I. Proinflammatory stimuli induce galectin-9 in human mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and also ligands of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 elicited similar induction of galectin-9 in activated PBMCs...
  17. Redfern R, Patel N, Hanlon S, Farley W, Gondo M, Pflugfelder S, et al. Toll-like receptor expression and activation in mice with experimental dry eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..DTS modulates the expression of TLR and CRAMP and topical application of TLR agonists in EDE mice resulted in corneal epithelial loss and thinning. These results suggest that TLRs are involved in DTS inflammation. ..
  18. Shi H, Gabarin N, Hickey E, Askalan R. TLR-3 receptor activation protects the very immature brain from ischemic injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:104 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to show that TLR-3 is expressed in the immature brain and mediates preconditioning against ischemic injury. ..
  19. Feoktistova M, Geserick P, Kellert B, Dimitrova D, Langlais C, Hupe M, et al. cIAPs block Ripoptosome formation, a RIP1/caspase-8 containing intracellular cell death complex differentially regulated by cFLIP isoforms. Mol Cell. 2011;43:449-63 pubmed publisher
    ..RIP1 is the core component of the complex. As exemplified by our studies for TLR3 activation, our data argue that the Ripoptosome critically influences the outcome of membrane-bound receptor ..
  20. Zhu Y, Liang L, Qian D, Yu H, Yang P, Lei B, et al. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell Toll-like receptor 2/3 expression and reactivity to their ligands in a cohort of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1826-33 pubmed
    ..TLR2 and TLR3 protein levels in PBMCs from six patients with wet AMD and six controls were measured with flow cytometry...
  21. Zhu W, Jiang C, Xu J, Geng M, Wu X, Sun J, et al. Pristane primed rat T cells enhance TLR3 expression of fibroblast-like synoviocytes via TNF-α initiated p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Clin Immunol. 2015;156:141-53 pubmed publisher
    Based on pristane-induced arthritis (PIA), we found that T cells mediate TLR3 overexpression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The aim of this study is to determine key factors by which T cells induce TLR3 expression...
  22. Guo L, Guo K, Wendel H, Schluesener H. Combinations of TLR and NOD2 ligands stimulate rat microglial P2X4R expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1156-62 pubmed
    ..Thus TLRs and NOD2 combinations are contributors to the signaling cascades resulting in purinergic microglial activation. ..
  23. Joshi A, Schaller M, Lukacs N, Kunkel S, Hogaboam C. TLR3 modulates immunopathology during a Schistosoma mansoni egg-driven Th2 response in the lung. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3436-49 pubmed publisher
    We examined the role of TLR3 in Th2-driven pulmonary granulomatous disease, using wildtype (TLR3(+/+)) and TLR3 gene-deficient (TLR3(-/-)) mice in a well-established model of Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced pulmonary granuloma...
  24. Pan L, Zhu W, Li Y, Xu X, Guo L, Lu Q, et al. Astrocytic Toll-like receptor 3 is associated with ischemic preconditioning-induced protection against brain ischemia in rodents. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99526 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects brain against ischemic injury. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling can induce neuroprotective mediators, but whether astrocytic TLR3 signaling is involved in IPC-induced ..
  25. Liu Y, Zhu L, Fatheree N, Liu X, Pacheco S, Tatevian N, et al. Changes in intestinal Toll-like receptors and cytokines precede histological injury in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We found selective induction of mRNA levels in NEC compared with dam-fed controls for TLR2 > TLR4 > TLR1 = TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 > TLR6 (P < 0.01); TLR5 was downregulated (P < 0.01)...
  26. Jiang C, Zhu W, Xu J, Wang B, Hou W, Zhang R, et al. MicroRNA-26a negatively regulates toll-like receptor 3 expression of rat macrophages and ameliorates pristane induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to determine the relationship between miR-26a and TLR3 in rat macrophages and to observe effects of miR-26a mimic on pristane induced arthritis (PIA) in rats...
  27. Murray L, Knight D, McAlonan L, Argentieri R, Joshi A, Shaheen F, et al. Deleterious role of TLR3 during hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:1227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of TLR3 in ARDS. TLR3 expression and signaling was determined in airway epithelial cells after in vitro hyperoxia challenge...
  28. Forrest C, Khalil O, Pisar M, Smith R, Darlington L, Stone T. Prenatal activation of Toll-like receptors-3 by administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) changes synaptic proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neurogenesis markers in offspring. Mol Brain. 2012;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (poly(I:C); 10 mg/kg) which mimics immune activation occurring after activation of Toll-like receptors-3 (TLR3) by viral infection...
  29. Baiersdörfer M, Schwarz M, Seehafer K, Lehmann C, Heit A, Wagner H, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 mediates expression of clusterin/apolipoprotein J in vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated with RNA released from necrotic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:3489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of TLR3 by the synthetic RNA analogue polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in CRL2018 VSMC and in mice led to ..
  30. Lee H, Jo E, Choi S, Oh S, Park K, Kim J, et al. Necrotic neuronal cells induce inflammatory Schwann cell activation via TLR2 and TLR3: implication in Wallerian degeneration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:742-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, NNC-induced proinflammatory gene expression was reduced in mouse Schwann cells derived from TLR2 or TLR3 knockout mice...
  31. Hayashida K, Eisenach J. A tropomyosine receptor kinase inhibitor blocks spinal neuroplasticity essential for the anti-hypersensitivity effects of gabapentin and clonidine in rats with peripheral nerve injury. J Pain. 2011;12:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that spinal trk signaling after nerve injury is important to neuroplasticity of these systems, which is critical for the analgesic action of common treatments for neuropathic pain. ..
  32. Iocca H, Plant S, Wang Y, Runkel L, O Connor B, Lundsmith E, et al. TNF superfamily member TWEAK exacerbates inflammation and demyelination in the cuprizone-induced model. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;194:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study identifies a primary role of TWEAK in promoting neuroinflammation and exacerbating demyelination during cuprizone-induced damage. ..
  33. Mansson A, Fransson M, Adner M, Benson M, Uddman R, Björnsson S, et al. TLR3 in human eosinophils: functional effects and decreased expression during allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to examine TLR3 expression in eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during symptomatic allergic rhinitis, and ..
  34. Dogusan Z, Garcia M, Flamez D, Alexopoulou L, Goldman M, Gysemans C, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by activation of the toll-like receptor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 pathways. Diabetes. 2008;57:1236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>TLR3 signaling mediated PICex-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and IRF-3 activation and beta-cell apoptosis...
  35. Hsu Y, Wang M, Ho L, Huang C, Lai J. Up-regulation of galectin-9 induces cell migration in human dendritic cells infected with dengue virus. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:1065-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study reveals the roles of Gal-9 in DV-induced migration of DCs. The findings indicate that Gal-9 might be a therapeutic target for preventing immunopathogenesis induced by DV infection. ..
  36. Mineev K, Goncharuk S, Arseniev A. Toll-like receptor 3 transmembrane domain is able to perform various homotypic interactions: an NMR structural study. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study the ability of the TLR3 transmembrane domain to form dimers and trimers in detergent micelles was shown by solution NMR spectroscopy...
  37. Kim Y, Park J, Shaw M, Franchi L, Inohara N, Nunez G. The cytosolic sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for bacterial recognition and host defense after exposure to Toll-like receptor ligands. Immunity. 2008;28:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes was critically dependent on Nod1 and Nod2 when mice were previously stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or E. coli. Thus, Nod1 and Nod2 are important for microbial recognition and host defense after TLR stimulation. ..
  38. He L, Peng X, Wang J, Tang C, Zhou X, Liu H, et al. Synthetic Double-Stranded RNA Poly(I:C) Aggravates IgA Nephropathy by Triggering IgA Class Switching Recombination through the TLR3-BAFF Axis. Am J Nephrol. 2015;42:185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical and ELISA western blotting examination revealed that the TLR3/BAFF axis is activated in IgAN patients when compared to controls...
  39. Yamato M, Tamura Y, Eguchi A, Kume S, Miyashige Y, Nakano M, et al. Brain interleukin-1? and the intrinsic receptor antagonist control peripheral Toll-like receptor 3-mediated suppression of spontaneous activity in rats. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90950 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicated that IL-1? is the key trigger of neuroinflammation and that IL-1ra prevents the neuroinflammation entering the chronic state. ..
  40. Kanneganti T, Body Malapel M, Amer A, Park J, Whitfield J, Franchi L, et al. Critical role for Cryopyrin/Nalp3 in activation of caspase-1 in response to viral infection and double-stranded RNA. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36560-8 pubmed
    ..These results identify a mechanism mediated by cryopyrin and ASC that links dsRNA and viral infection to caspase-1 activation resulting in IL-1beta and IL-18 production. ..
  41. Wilson C, Mann J, Walsh M, Perrugoria M, Oakley F, Wright M, et al. Quiescent hepatic stellate cells functionally contribute to the hepatic innate immune response via TLR3. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e83391 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pathogen pattern recognition receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity. TLR3 signalling has numerous functions in liver, both in health and disease...
  42. Liu X, Wang C, Ye Z, Kijlstra A, Yang P. Higher expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, and 8 in ocular Behcet's disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:6012-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Total RNA was isolated from PBMCs to determine mRNA levels of TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR8. Cell surface receptor activity of these TLRs was investigated by FACS analysis...
  43. Yu N, Zhang S, Zuo F, Kang K, Guan M, Xiang L. Cultured human melanocytes express functional toll-like receptors 2-4, 7 and 9. J Dermatol Sci. 2009;56:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study indicates human melanocytes express a panel of functional TLRs. The ligation of TLRs can turn these cells into active players of the skin innate immunity. ..
  44. Smith G, Rocha E, Rooney T, Barneoud P, McLean J, Beagan J, et al. A Nurr1 agonist causes neuroprotection in a Parkinson's disease lesion model primed with the toll-like receptor 3 dsRNA inflammatory stimulant poly(I:C). PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121072 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocyte specific GFAP staining intensity and IL-6 levels were also reduced. We conclude that Nurr1 agonist treatment causes neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in an inflammation exacerbated 6-OHDA lesion model of PD. ..
  45. Scumpia P, Kelly K, Reeves W, Stevens B. Double-stranded RNA signals antiviral and inflammatory programs and dysfunctional glutamate transport in TLR3-expressing astrocytes. Glia. 2005;52:153-62 pubmed
    ..a byproduct of viral replication and serves as the signature molecule for viral infection via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) largely restricted to circulating peripheral dendritic cells...
  46. Cui G, Ye X, Zuo T, Zhao H, Zhao Q, Chen W, et al. Chloroquine pretreatment inhibits toll-like receptor 3 signaling after stroke. Neurosci Lett. 2013;548:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to sham operated rats, tGCI rats showed worsened learning and memory capacity and increased expression of TLR3, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and interferon ? (IFN-?) in the Hippocampus after stroke...
  47. Ranjith Kumar C, Miller W, Sun J, Xiong J, Santos J, Yarbrough I, et al. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms on Toll-like receptor 3 activity and expression in cultured cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17696-705 pubmed
    Recognition of double-stranded RNA by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) will increase the production of cytokines and chemokines through transcriptional activation by the NF-kappaB protein...
  48. Yan M, Zhu S, Duan C, Ji G. [Expression of TLR3 and IL-8, Eotaxin in the airway smooth muscle cells induced by PolyI:C]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:966-8, 972 pubmed
    to observe the effect of PolyI:C on the expression of TLR3 and inflammation cytokine in the airway smooth muscle cells ASMCs of rat, to investigate relationship between the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the airway smooth ..
  49. Sato A, Iizuka M, Nakagomi O, Suzuki M, Horie Y, Konno S, et al. Rotavirus double-stranded RNA induces apoptosis and diminishes wound repair in rat intestinal epithelial cells. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:521-30 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Rotaviruses, having a dsRNA genome, infect intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cause acute gastroenteritis in young children...
  50. Yang K, Puel A, Zhang S, Eidenschenk C, Ku C, Casrouge A, et al. Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses. Immunity. 2005;23:465-78 pubmed
    ..The TLR-7-, TLR-8-, and TLR-9-dependent induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda is strictly IRAK-4 dependent and paradoxically redundant for protective immunity to most viruses in humans. ..
  51. Le Goffic R, Balloy V, Lagranderie M, Alexopoulou L, Escriou N, Flavell R, et al. Detrimental contribution of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 to influenza A virus-induced acute pneumonia. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e53 pubmed
    ..In view of these data and the fact that the functional role of TLR3 in vivo is still debated, we designed an investigation to better understand the role of TLR3 in the mechanisms of ..
  52. Rojo Botello N, García Hernández A, Moreno Fierros L. Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 is increased in gingival tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the expression of these TLRS is positively regulated with the severity of periodontal disease. ..
  53. Xing W, Tan G, He C. [Enhanced expression of Toll-like receptor 3 in the basilar arteries and hippocampus of subarachnoid hemorrhage rats]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;31:740-3, 748 pubmed
    To observe the dynamic expression and significance of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. SAH model was established using blood injection into the prechiasmatic cistern...
  54. Qian N, Liao Y, Feng Q, Tang Y, Dou K, Tao K. Spinal toll like receptor 3 is involved in chronic pancreatitis-induced mechanical allodynia of rat. Mol Pain. 2011;7:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot showed that after TNBS infusion, TLR3, but not TLR2 or TLR4, was increased gradually and maintained at a very high level for up to 5 w, which correlated ..
  55. Harii N, Lewis C, Vasko V, McCall K, Benavides Peralta U, Sun X, et al. Thyrocytes express a functional toll-like receptor 3: overexpression can be induced by viral infection and reversed by phenylmethimazole and is associated with Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1231-50 pubmed
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate an innate immune response. TLR3 on dendritic cells recognize double-stranded (ds) RNA and then signal increases in cytokines and recognition molecules important for immune cell interactions...
  56. Masamune A, Kikuta K, Watanabe T, Satoh K, Satoh A, Shimosegawa T. Pancreatic stellate cells express Toll-like receptors. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..PSCs were treated with lipoteichoic acid (a ligand for TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (a ligand for TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (a ligand for TLR4), or flagellin (a ligand for TLR5)...
  57. Borysiewicz E, Fil D, Konat G. Rho proteins are negative regulators of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 signaling in astrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1565-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocyte cultures established from newborn rat brains were challenged with ligands of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4...
  58. Tinsley J, Chiasson V, Mahajan A, Young K, Mitchell B. Toll-like receptor 3 activation during pregnancy elicits preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:1314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral infections, sensed by TLR3, are associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy...
  59. Wang P, Fang H, Chen J, Lin S, Liu Y, Xiong X, et al. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid has therapeutic effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the downregulation of TLR4 signaling via TLR3. J Immunol. 2014;192:4783-94 pubmed publisher
    Recent reports have shown that preconditioning with the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  60. Kang M, Lee C, Lee J, Dela Cruz C, Chen Z, Enelow R, et al. Cigarette smoke selectively enhances viral PAMP- and virus-induced pulmonary innate immune and remodeling responses in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis using mice lacking specific proteins indicated a role for TLR3-dependent and -independent pathways as well as a pathway or pathways that are dependent on mitochondrial antiviral ..
  61. Shim J, Xiao C, Paschal A, Bailey S, Rao P, Hayden M, et al. TAK1, but not TAB1 or TAB2, plays an essential role in multiple signaling pathways in vivo. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2668-81 pubmed
    ..Using embryonic fibroblasts lacking TAK1, TAB1, or TAB2, we have found that TNFR1, IL-1R, TLR3, and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation are severely impaired in Tak1(m/m) cells, but they are normal in ..
  62. Chang M, Jin W, Sun S. Peli1 facilitates TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling and proinflammatory cytokine production. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..deficiency in Peli1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, attenuated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by ligands of TLR3 and TLR4 and rendered mice resistant to septic shock...
  63. Hutchens M, Luker K, Sottile P, Sonstein J, Lukacs N, Nunez G, et al. TLR3 increases disease morbidity and mortality from vaccinia infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:483-91 pubmed
    ..and the fact that functions of TLRs in immunity to DNA viruses remain controversial, we investigated effects of TLR3 on pathogenesis of vaccinia virus, a prototype poxvirus...
  64. Fransson M, Adner M, Erjefalt J, Jansson L, Uddman R, Cardell L. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis. Respir Res. 2005;6:100 pubmed
    ..The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation. ..
  65. Ank N, Iversen M, Bartholdy C, Staeheli P, Hartmann R, Jensen U, et al. An important role for type III interferon (IFN-lambda/IL-28) in TLR-induced antiviral activity. J Immunol. 2008;180:2474-85 pubmed
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