Gene Symbol: Thbs1
Description: thrombospondin 1
Alias: TSP-1, Tsp1, thrombospondin-1
Species: rat
Products:     Thbs1

Top Publications

  1. Ohtani Y, Kijima H, Dowaki S, Kashiwagi H, Tobita K, Tsukui M, et al. Stromal expression of thrombospondin-1 is correlated with growth and metastasis of human gallbladder carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 1999;15:453-7 pubmed
    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is one of the extracellular matrix glycoproteins that affect cell adhesion, motility and growth. Based on its effects on tumors, TSP1 is thought to be a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis...
  2. Olfert I, Breen E, Gavin T, Wagner P. Temporal thrombospondin-1 mRNA response in skeletal muscle exposed to acute and chronic exercise. Growth Factors. 2006;24:253-9 pubmed
  3. Zhou H, Zhang H, Tang T, Zhong J, Qi Y, Luo J, et al. Alteration of thrombospondin-1 and -2 in rat brains following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..After the induction of ICH, some TSP1- or TSP2-immunoreactive microvessels resided around the hematoma for ~ 7 days and extended into a clot thereafter...
  4. Yu K, Ge J, Summers J, Li F, Liu X, Ma P, et al. TSP-1 secreted by bone marrow stromal cells contributes to retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth and survival. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2470 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insights into the potential reparative mechanisms of neural cell repair. ..
  5. Giehl K, Graness A, Goppelt Struebe M. The small GTPase Rac-1 is a regulator of mesangial cell morphology and thrombospondin-1 expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F407-13 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that tissue remodeling activates gene expression of pathophysiologically relevant proteins such as TSP-1. ..
  6. Martin Manso G, Galli S, Ridnour L, Tsokos M, Wink D, Roberts D. Thrombospondin 1 promotes tumor macrophage recruitment and enhances tumor cell cytotoxicity of differentiated U937 cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7090-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that overexpression of TSP1 in melanoma cells increases macrophage recruitment into xenograft tumors grown in nude or beige/nude mice...
  7. Tran M, Neary J. Purinergic signaling induces thrombospondin-1 expression in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9321-6 pubmed
  8. Crawford S, Stellmach V, Murphy Ullrich J, Ribeiro S, Lawler J, Hynes R, et al. Thrombospondin-1 is a major activator of TGF-beta1 in vivo. Cell. 1998;93:1159-70 pubmed
  9. Eroglu C, Allen N, Susman M, O Rourke N, Park C, Ozkan E, et al. Gabapentin receptor alpha2delta-1 is a neuronal thrombospondin receptor responsible for excitatory CNS synaptogenesis. Cell. 2009;139:380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify alpha2delta-1 as a receptor involved in excitatory synapse formation and suggest that gabapentin may function therapeutically by blocking new synapse formation. ..

More Information


  1. Bale M, Westrick L, Mosher D. Incorporation of thrombospondin into fibrin clots. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:7502-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that thrombospondin specifically co-polymerizes with fibrin during blood coagulation and may be an important modulator of clot structure. ..
  2. Tang M, Zhou F, Zhang W, Guo Z, Shang Y, Lu H, et al. The role of thrombospondin-1-mediated TGF-?1 on collagen type III synthesis induced by high glucose. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;346:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the TSP-1 participates in the upregulation of TGF-?1, collagen type III by high glucose and may provide new therapeutic strategies for diabetic cardiomyopathy. ..
  3. Jayakumar A, Tong X, Shamaladevi N, Barcelona S, Gaidosh G, Agarwal A, et al. Defective synthesis and release of astrocytic thrombospondin-1 mediates the neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy, resulting in defects in neuronal integrity associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy: in vitro studies. J Neurochem. 2017;140:645-661 pubmed publisher
    ..Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 531. ..
  4. Chen Y, Wang X, Weng D, Tao S, Lv L, Chen J. A TSP-1 functional fragment inhibits activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 derived from rat alveolar macrophage after bleomycin treatment. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009;61:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..05 or P<0.01). These findings suggest that TSP-1 functional fragments could inhibit the activation of L-TGF-beta1 secreted by activated alveolar macrophages through blocking the binding of TSP-1 to CD36. ..
  5. Anderson C, Hastings N, Blackman B, Price R. Capillary sprout endothelial cells exhibit a CD36 low phenotype: regulation by shear stress and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced mechanism for attenuating anti-proliferative thrombospondin-1 signaling. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, CD36 was shown to function as a potential molecular linkage through which wall shear stress may regulate both microvessel sprouting and quiescence. ..
  6. Okada Tsuchioka M, Segawa M, Kajitani N, Hisaoka Nakashima K, Shibasaki C, Morinobu S, et al. Electroconvulsive seizure induces thrombospondin-1 in the adult rat hippocampus. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;48:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that repeated ECS, but not chronic treatment with antidepressants, induces TSP-1 expression partially via the activation of astrocytes. Therefore, TSP-1 is possibly involved in the synaptogenic effects of ECS. ..
  7. Motegi K, Harada K, Ohe G, Jones S, Ellis I, Crouch D, et al. Differential involvement of TGF-beta1 in mediating the motogenic effects of TSP-1 on endothelial cells, fibroblasts and oral tumour cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:2323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the effects of TSP-1 on endothelial cell migration are mediated by TGF-beta1, whereas the effects on fibroblast and tumour cell migration are TGF-beta1-independent. ..
  8. Ueki T, Toyota M, Sohn T, Yeo C, Issa J, Hruban R, et al. Hypermethylation of multiple genes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2000;60:1835-9 pubmed
    ..The genes analyzed included RARbeta (methylated in 20%), p16 (18%), CACNA1G (16%), TIMP-3 (11%), E-cad (7%), THBS1 (7%), hMLH1 (4%), DAP kinase (2%), and MGMT (0%)...
  9. Kuznetsov G, Chen L, Nigam S. Multiple molecular chaperones complex with misfolded large oligomeric glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3057-63 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that these ER chaperones complex together with a variety of large oligomeric secretory glycoproteins as they fold and assemble in the ER. ..
  10. Silverstein R, Leung L, Harpel P, Nachman R. Complex formation of platelet thrombospondin with plasminogen. Modulation of activation by tissue activator. J Clin Invest. 1984;74:1625-33 pubmed
    ..These studies support the hypothesis that TSP, acting as a multifunctional regulator in focal areas of active hemostasis, could serve as a prothrombotic influence, leading to increased deposition of fibrin. ..
  11. Pan X, Peng L, Han Z, Yin G, Song Y, Huang J. Hirudin promotes angiogenesis by modulating the cross-talk between p38 MAPK and ERK in rat ischemic skin flap tissue. Tissue Cell. 2015;47:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these observations suggest that hirudin exerts its angiogenesis effect by regulating the expression of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors via a cross-talk of p38 MAPK-ERK pathway. ..
  12. Aishima S, Taguchi K, Sugimachi K, Asayama Y, Nishi H, Shimada M, et al. The role of thymidine phosphorylase and thrombospondin-1 in angiogenesis and progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol. 2002;10:47-56 pubmed
    ..The TP and TSP-1 expression in ICC may enhance tumor aggressiveness. ..
  13. Volpert O, Pili R, Sikder H, Nelius T, Zaichuk T, Morris C, et al. Id1 regulates angiogenesis through transcriptional repression of thrombospondin-1. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:473-83 pubmed
    ..This decrease was completely reversed by a TSP-1 neutralizing antibody. We conclude that TSP-1 is a major target for Id1 effects on angiogenesis. ..
  14. Rico M, Manns J, Driban J, Uknis A, Kunapuli S, DeLa Cadena R. Thrombospondin-1 and transforming growth factor beta are pro-inflammatory molecules in rheumatoid arthritis. Transl Res. 2008;152:95-8 pubmed publisher
    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1/THBS1) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, its interface with the cytokine network involved in RA has not been delineated...
  15. Feng N, Wang Z, Zhang Z, He X, Wang C, Zhang L. miR-487b promotes human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation through regulating THBS1. Neurosci Lett. 2015;591:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using bioinformatic analysis, we found a putative binding site of miR-487b in the 3' untranslated regions of Thrombospondin 1 mRNA, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. This direct binding was confirmed by luciferase assay...
  16. Rege T, Stewart J, Dranka B, Benveniste E, Silverstein R, Gladson C. Thrombospondin-1-induced apoptosis of brain microvascular endothelial cells can be mediated by TNF-R1. J Cell Physiol. 2009;218:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a novel mechanism whereby TSP-1 can inhibit angiogenesis-through induction of apoptosis in a process mediated by TNF-R1. ..
  17. Lawler J, Slayter H, Coligan J. Isolation and characterization of a high molecular weight glycoprotein from human blood platelets. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:8609-16 pubmed
    ..7 as well as a relatively high degree of purity. Degradation of the intact molecule with trypsin yields a stable core particle of molecular weight 210,000 comprised of three 70,000 chains. ..
  18. Sun H, Zhao Y, Bi X, Li S, Su G, Miao Y, et al. Valsartan blocks thrombospondin/transforming growth factor/Smads to inhibit aortic remodeling in diabetic rats. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:18 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine whether an aberrant thrombospondin 1 (TSP1)-mediated TGFβ1/Smads signaling pathway specifically affects vascular fibrosis in diabetic rats and ..
  19. Pallero M, Talbert Roden M, Chen Y, Anderson P, Lemons J, Brott B, et al. Stainless steel ions stimulate increased thrombospondin-1-dependent TGF-beta activation by vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in-stent restenosis. J Vasc Res. 2010;47:309-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that SS ions induce the latent TGF-beta activator, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), through altered oxidative signaling to stimulate increased TGF-beta activation and VSMC phenotype change.
  20. McGray A, Gingerich T, Petrik J, LaMarre J. Rapid insulin-like growth factor-1-induced changes in granulosa cell thrombospondin-1 expression in vitro. J Reprod Dev. 2011;57:76-83 pubmed
    ..The decrease depends on an intrinsically short half-life of TSP-1 mRNA and protein. The short mRNA half life is due, at least in part, to AU-rich elements in the 3'UTR of the TSP-1 mRNA. ..
  21. Bigé N, Shweke N, Benhassine S, Jouanneau C, Vandermeersch S, Dussaule J, et al. Thrombospondin-1 plays a profibrotic and pro-inflammatory role during ureteric obstruction. Kidney Int. 2012;81:1226-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TSP-1 is an important profibrotic and inflammatory mediator of renal disease. Blockade of its action may be a treatment against the development of chronic kidney disease. ..
  22. Bhattacharyya S, Marinic T, Krukovets I, Hoppe G, Stenina O. Cell type-specific post-transcriptional regulation of production of the potent antiangiogenic and proatherogenic protein thrombospondin-1 by high glucose. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5699-707 pubmed
    ..The cell-specific regulation of TSP-1 suggests a potential mechanism for the aberrant angiogenesis in diabetics and TSP-1 involvement in development of various vascular diabetic complications. ..
  23. Asch A, Barnwell J, Silverstein R, Nachman R. Isolation of the thrombospondin membrane receptor. J Clin Invest. 1987;79:1054-61 pubmed
    ..Binding of TSP to the isolated membrane protein was specific and saturable. These studies identify an 88-kD membrane glycoprotein that reacts with the monoclonal antibody, OKM5, and may function as the cellular TSP receptor. ..
  24. Qabar A, Lin Z, Wolf F, O Shea K, Lawler J, Dixit V. Thrombospondin 3 is a developmentally regulated heparin binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1262-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, a combination of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry demonstrated TSP3 to be expressed in a temporal and spatial manner during murine embryogenesis, especially in the gut, cartilage, lung, and central nervous system. ..
  25. Elpek G, Gokhan G, Bozova S. Thrombospondin-1 expression correlates with angiogenesis in experimental cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2213-7 pubmed
  26. Mumby S, Raugi G, Bornstein P. Interactions of thrombospondin with extracellular matrix proteins: selective binding to type V collagen. J Cell Biol. 1984;98:646-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that both the extravascular distribution and function of TS in vivo may involve an interaction with type V collagen. ..
  27. Abu Farha M, Tiss A, Abubaker J, Khadir A, Al Ghimlas F, Al Khairi I, et al. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75342 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise...
  28. Hennekinne L, Colasse S, Triller A, Renner M. Differential control of thrombospondin over synaptic glycine and AMPA receptors in spinal cord neurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:11432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role of TSP-1 in controlling the balance between excitation and inhibition which could help the recovery of normal synaptic activity after injury responses. ..
  29. Martin Manso G, Navarathna D, Galli S, Soto Pantoja D, Kuznetsova S, Tsokos M, et al. Endogenous thrombospondin-1 regulates leukocyte recruitment and activation and accelerates death from systemic candidiasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48775 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, inhibitors of thrombospondin-1 may be useful drugs to improve patient recovery from disseminated candidiasis. ..
  30. Chen J, Zhan Y, Yang C, Tzeng S. Oxidative stress-induced attenuation of thrombospondin-1 expression in primary rat astrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This inhibition may occur after CNS injury and impair the supportive function of astrocytes on neurite growth in the injured CNS tissues. ..
  31. Wang J, Zhang X, Zhang H. [The study of thrombospondin-I (TSP1) expression in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy induced by streptozotocin]. Fen Zi Xi Bao Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;39:431-7 pubmed
    Thrombospondin1 (TSP1) is a known antiangiogenic factor, but its possible alteration during the early stages of diabetic retinopathy has not been explored yet...
  32. Yang Y, Cheng D, Zheng X, Li F, Yang G. [Expression of thrombospondin-1 in the lung of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;43:19-23 pubmed
    ..01). The expression of TSP-1 appears to be increased in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling. ..
  33. Lynch J, Maillet M, Vanhoutte D, Schloemer A, Sargent M, Blair N, et al. A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response. Cell. 2012;149:1257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Thbs can function inside the cell during disease remodeling to augment ER function and protect through a mechanism involving regulation of Atf6?. ..
  34. Cunha D, Cito M, Carlsson P, Vanderwinden J, Molkentin J, Bugliani M, et al. Thrombospondin 1 protects pancreatic β-cells from lipotoxicity via the PERK-NRF2 pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show a critical novel role for thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) in β-cell survival during lipotoxic stress in rat, mouse and human models...
  35. Tobita K, Kijima H, Dowaki S, Oida Y, Kashiwagi H, Ishii M, et al. Thrombospondin-1 expression as a prognostic predictor of pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2002;21:1189-95 pubmed
    ..These observations suggested that TSP-1 plays important roles in cancer cell growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer, and that stromal TSP-1 immunoreactivity is a good prognostic predictor of patients with pancreatic cancer. ..
  36. De Stefano D, Nicolaus G, Maiuri M, Cipolletta D, Galluzzi L, Cinelli M, et al. NF-kappaB blockade upregulates Bax, TSP-1, and TSP-2 expression in rat granulation tissue. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the blockade of NF-kappaB activation by WT ODN decoy prevents the development of granulation tissue induced by lambda-carrageenin-soaked sponge implant upregulating Bax as well as TSP-1 and TSP-2 expression. ..
  37. Colombel M, Filleur S, Fournier P, Merle C, Guglielmi J, Courtin A, et al. Androgens repress the expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 in normal and neoplastic prostate. Cancer Res. 2005;65:300-8 pubmed
    In order to understand why the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is often, although not always, associated with prostatic tumors, we have investigated its relationship with the testosterone and the vasculature on which both ..
  38. Garside S, Harlow C, Hillier S, Fraser H, Thomas F. Thrombospondin-1 inhibits angiogenesis and promotes follicular atresia in a novel in vitro angiogenesis assay. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1280-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, it may have potential as a therapeutic for abnormal ovarian angiogenesis and could facilitate the destruction of abnormal follicles observed in polycystic ovary syndrome. ..
  39. Isenberg J, Ridnour L, Perruccio E, Espey M, Wink D, Roberts D. Thrombospondin-1 inhibits endothelial cell responses to nitric oxide in a cGMP-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13141-6 pubmed
    ..explants in 3D culture, we found that explants from mice lacking the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) exhibit exaggerated angiogenic responses to an exogenous NO donor, which could be reversed by providing exogenous ..
  40. García Díaz D, Arellano A, Milagro F, Moreno Aliaga M, Portillo M, Martinez J, et al. Glucose and insulin modify thrombospondin 1 expression and secretion in primary adipocytes from diet-induced obese rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67:453-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), an antiangiogenic factor and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activity regulator, has been recently recognized as an adipokine that correlates with obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance processes...
  41. Yehualaeshet T, O CONNOR R, Green Johnson J, Mai S, Silverstein R, Murphy Ullrich J, et al. Activation of rat alveolar macrophage-derived latent transforming growth factor beta-1 by plasmin requires interaction with thrombospondin-1 and its cell surface receptor, CD36. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:841-51 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that activation of L-TGF-beta1 by plasmin occurs at the cell surface of activated alveolar macrophages and requires a TSP-1/CD36 interaction. ..
  42. Wang J, Tao J, Chen D, Cai J, Irani K, Wang Q, et al. MicroRNA miR-27b rescues bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell function and accelerates wound healing in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-27b rescues impaired BMAC angiogenesis via TSP-1 suppression, semaphorin 6A expression, and p66shc-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress and improves BMAC therapy in wound healing in type 2 diabetic mice. ..
  43. Hugo C, Kang D, Johnson R. Sustained expression of thrombospondin-1 is associated with the development of glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the remnant kidney model. Nephron. 2002;90:460-70 pubmed
    ..In the remnant kidney model, the time course and localization of TSP-1 are consistent with its playing a role as a local activator of TGF-beta1, thereby potentially participating in the development of nephrosclerosis. ..
  44. Daniel C, Wiede J, Krutzsch H, Ribeiro S, Roberts D, Murphy Ullrich J, et al. Thrombospondin-1 is a major activator of TGF-beta in fibrotic renal disease in the rat in vivo. Kidney Int. 2004;65:459-68 pubmed
    ..b>Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein, has been identified as an activator of TGF-beta in in ..
  45. Venkatraman L, Chia S, Narmada B, White J, Bhowmick S, Forbes Dewey C, et al. Plasmin triggers a switch-like decrease in thrombospondin-dependent activation of TGF-?1. Biophys J. 2012;103:1060-8 pubmed
    ..Plasmin (PLS) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) have been studied individually as activators of TGF-?1, and in this work we used a systems-level approach with ..
  46. Tran M, Furones Alonso O, Sanchez Molano J, Bramlett H. Trauma-induced expression of astrocytic thrombospondin-1 is regulated by P2 receptors coupled to protein kinase cascades. Neuroreport. 2012;23:721-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Daniel C, Takabatake Y, Mizui M, Isaka Y, Kawashi H, Rupprecht H, et al. Antisense oligonucleotides against thrombospondin-1 inhibit activation of tgf-beta in fibrotic renal disease in the rat in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:1185-92 pubmed
    ..Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) has been identified as an activator of latent TGF-beta in in vitro systems and in pancreas and lung homeostasis in ..
  48. Lee S, Kim W, Jung H, Yang M, Kang G. Aberrant CpG island methylation of multiple genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1015-22 pubmed
    ..5% for 14-3-3sigma,26.6% for APC, 21.5% for E-cadherin, 17.7% for p16, 11.4% for MGMT, 11.4% for THBS1, 8.9% for p14, 8.9% for TIMP3, 7.6% for DAP-kinase,6.3% for GSTP1, 5.1% for COX-2, 50.6% for MINT12, 40...
  49. Kim D, Li K, Boroujerdi A, Peter Yu Y, Zhou C, Deng P, et al. Thrombospondin-4 contributes to spinal sensitization and neuropathic pain states. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of TSP4 antagonists has the therapeutic potential for target-specific neuropathic pain management. ..
  50. Hamakawa T, Sasaki S, Shibata Y, Imura M, Kubota Y, Kojima Y, et al. Interleukin-18 may lead to benign prostatic hyperplasia via thrombospondin-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells. Prostate. 2014;74:590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..TSP-1 promoted proliferation of the human prostate stromal cells (PrSC). IL-18 may act directly in BPH pathogenesis by inducing TSP-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells via Akt phosphorylation. ..
  51. Moralez A, Maile L, Clarke J, Busby W, Clemmons D. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) interacts with thrombospondin-1 to induce negative regulatory effects on IGF-I actions. J Cell Physiol. 2005;203:328-34 pubmed
  52. Fang X, Fang M, Fan S, Gu C. Protection of erythropoietin on experimental spinal cord injury by reducing the expression of thrombospondin-1 and transforming growth factor-beta. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1631-5 pubmed
    ..EPO treatment can effectively prevent pathological alterations from severe spinal cord injury by reduced expression of TSP-1 and TGF-beta. ..
  53. Garcia O, Torres M, Helguera P, Coskun P, Busciglio J. A role for thrombospondin-1 deficits in astrocyte-mediated spine and synaptic pathology in Down's syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14200 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), an astrocyte-secreted protein, possesses a potent modulatory effect on spine number and morphology, ..