Thbd

Summary

Gene Symbol: Thbd
Description: thrombomodulin
Alias: thrombomodulin, thrombomdulin
Species: rat
Products:     Thbd

Top Publications

  1. Yao A, Wang J, Fink L, Hardin J, Hauer Jensen M. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the Sprague-Dawley rat thrombomodulin gene. DNA Seq. 1999;10:55-60 pubmed
    The 5'-flanking region of the rat thrombomodulin gene was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of adaptor-ligated rat genomic DNA fragment libraries, using primers derived from the coding sequences of the thrombomodulin ..
  2. Bosco C, Parra M, Barja P, Rodrigo R, Fernandez V, Suarez M, et al. Increased immunohistochemical expression of thrombomodulin at placental perivascular myofibroblast in severe preeclampsia (PE). Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:1045-55 pubmed publisher
    ..endothelium prevents blood clot formation in vivo by involving a cell surface thrombin-binding glycoprotein, thrombomodulin (TM), that activates plasma anti-coagulant protein C...
  3. Uygur F, Noyan N, Celikoz B, Hahaoğlu A. Expression of the endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) on the ischemic rat flap model: preliminary study. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;62:693-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM), a cell surface-expressed glycoprotein predominantly synthesized by vascular endothelial cells, is a critical cofactor for thrombin-medicated activation of protein C...
  4. Delvaeye M, Noris M, De Vriese A, Esmon C, Esmon N, Ferrell G, et al. Thrombomodulin mutations in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic factors in the remaining cases are unknown. We studied the role of thrombomodulin, an endothelial glycoprotein with anticoagulant, antiinflammatory, and cytoprotective properties, in atypical ..
  5. Nagato M, Okamoto K, Abe Y, Higure A, Yamaguchi K. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin decreases the plasma high-mobility group box-1 protein levels, whereas improving the acute liver injury and survival rates in experimental endotoxemia. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (ART-123) administration on the production of inflammatory cytokines and the plasma level of HMGB1 was ..
  6. Su E, Geyer M, Wahl M, Mann K, Ginsburg D, Brohmann H, et al. The thrombomodulin analog Solulin promotes reperfusion and reduces infarct volume in a thrombotic stroke model. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:1174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Solulin is a soluble analog of the endothelial cell receptor thrombomodulin, able to bind free thrombin and convert it to an activator of the anticoagulant, protein C...
  7. Cao Y, Zhang Z, Xu J, Yuan W, Wang J, Huang X, et al. The association of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes. Gene. 2013;530:248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..study were to investigate the effects of polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes antithrombin (SERPINC1), thrombomodulin (THBD), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), factor V, factor II and annexin A5 (ANXA5), involved in ..
  8. Gracia Sancho J, Russo L, García Calderó H, García Pagán J, Garcia Cardena G, Bosch J. Endothelial expression of transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 and its vasoprotective target genes in the normal and cirrhotic rat liver. Gut. 2011;60:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..by a parallel increase in portal pressure and an increase in the expression of its target genes eNOS, thrombomodulin and CNP. Simvastatin administration further increased hepatic KLF2 and target genes expression...
  9. Kaija H, Pakanen L, Uusitalo J, Nikkilä S, Kortelainen M, Porvari K. Changes in cardiac thrombomodulin and heat shock transcription factor 1 expression and peripheral thrombomodulin and catecholamines during hypothermia in rats. Stress. 2014;17:504-11 pubmed publisher
    Effects of hypothermia and rewarming on thrombomodulin, catecholamines and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) were studied in rats...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Aso Y, Fujiwara Y, Tayama K, Takanashi K, Inukai T, Takemura Y. Relationship between plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels and insulin resistance syndrome in type 2 diabetes: a comparison with von Willebrand factor. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109:210-6 pubmed
    ..resistance syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the correlation between plasma soluble thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), measures of endothelial dysfunction, and the degree of insulin ..
  2. Pilarska E, Lemka M, Bakowska A. Thrombomodulin and antibeta2-glycoprotein I in stroke in children. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:CR348-51 pubmed
    A quantitative systematic review recently discussed the role of thrombomodulin (Thm) and antibeta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) in cerebral strokes in adults. Little is known about the problem in children...
  3. Hjerkinn E, Seljeflot I, Sandvik L, Hjermann I, Arnesen H. Markers of endothelial cell activation in elderly men at high risk for coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2005;65:201-9 pubmed
    ..In the haemostatic system, elevated levels of thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (tPAag) have likewise been ..
  4. Lu Z, He X, Hong G, He F, Liang H, Qiu Q, et al. [Expression of thrombomodulin, endothelial protein C receptor in lung tissue of acute paraquat poisoned rats and intervention of sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:453-6 pubmed
    To observe the expression and effect of thrombomodulin (TM) mRNA and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) mRNA in lung tissue of acute paraquat poisoned rats, and intervention of sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS)...
  5. Sunagawa M, Shimada S, Hanashiro K, Nakamura M, Kosugi T. Elevation of intracellular cAMP up-regulated thrombomodulin mRNA in cultured vascular endothelial cells derived from spontaneous type-II diabetes mellitus model rat. Endothelium. 2006;13:325-33 pubmed
    ..model rats, the mRNA expressions of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (t-PA and u-PA), thrombomodulin (TM), PA inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and phosphodiesterases (type 3A, 3B, and 4D PDEs) were quantitated by the ..
  6. Scaldaferri F, Sans M, Vetrano S, Graziani C, De Cristofaro R, Gerlitz B, et al. Crucial role of the protein C pathway in governing microvascular inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1951-60 pubmed
    Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and thrombomodulin (TM) are expressed at high levels in the resting microvasculature and convert protein C (PC) into its activated form, which is a potent anticoagulant and antiinflammatory molecule...
  7. Ozbalkan Z, Ozturk M, Onat A, Ureten K, Haznedaroglu I, Kiraz S, et al. Circulating thrombomodulin levels in familial Mediterranean fever. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006;24:S95-8 pubmed
    Increments in circulating thrombomodulin levels reflect endothelial cell injury...
  8. Thorand B, Baumert J, Herder C, Meisinger C, Koenig W. Soluble thrombomodulin as a predictor of type 2 diabetes: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study, 1984-1998. Diabetologia. 2007;50:545-8 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown an inverse association between soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and incident CHD, but there is a lack of data on the association between sTM and type 2 diabetes...
  9. Ogura H, Tanaka H, Koh T, Fujita K, Fujimi S, Nakamori Y, et al. Enhanced production of endothelial microparticles with increased binding to leukocytes in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Trauma. 2004;56:823-30; discussion 830-1 pubmed
    ..Soluble E-selectin, thrombomodulin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the blood, variables representing systemic vascular ..
  10. Ramachandran A, Ranpura S, Gong E, Mulone M, Cannon G, Adam R. An Akt- and Fra-1-dependent pathway mediates platelet-derived growth factor-induced expression of thrombomodulin, a novel regulator of smooth muscle cell migration. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that bladder wall distension leads to PDGFR activation and identify thrombomodulin (TM) as an Akt and AP-1 target in SMC...
  11. Haidara M, Khloussy H, Ammar H, Aal Kassem L. Impact of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C on endothelial markers in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:BR41-6 pubmed
    ..Plasma soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been found to be important markers of endothelial dysfunction...
  12. Raife T, Dwyre D, Stevens J, Erger R, Leo L, Wilson K, et al. Human thrombomodulin knock-in mice reveal differential effects of human thrombomodulin on thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2509-17 pubmed publisher
    We sought to develop a murine model to examine the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory functions of human thrombomodulin in vivo. Knock-in mice that express human thrombomodulin from the murine thrombomodulin gene locus were generated...
  13. Cone J, Ferrer T, Wallace B, Wang J, Hauer Jensen M. Alterations in endothelial thrombomodulin expression in zymosan-induced lung injury. J Trauma. 2003;54:731-6; discussion 736 pubmed
    ..This study assessed the changes in lung tissue endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) expression in a rat model of zymosan-induced remote lung injury...
  14. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Goto K, Ochi Y, Mizunaga S, Saikawa T, et al. Recombinant thrombomodulin prevents heatstroke by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 protein in sera of rats. Shock. 2010;34:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein C anticoagulant system inhibits inflammation resulting from various causes. Thrombomodulin (TM), a widely expressed glycoprotein originally identified in vascular endothelium, is an important cofactor ..
  15. Collard H, Calfee C, Wolters P, Song J, Hong S, Brady S, et al. Plasma biomarker profiles in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L3-7 pubmed publisher
    ..D, KL-6, von Willebrand factor), systemic inflammation (IL-6), and coagulation/fibrinolysis (protein C, thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1)...
  16. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Matsumoto S, Hasegawa A, Yasuda N, Noguchi T. In vivo and in vitro effects of the anticoagulant, thrombomodulin, on the inflammatory response in rodent models. Shock. 2010;33:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether the use of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), which has activity comparable with antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and activated protein ..
  17. Wang J, Yao A, Wang J, Sung C, Fink L, Hardin J, et al. cDNA cloning and sequencing, gene expression, and immunolocalization of thrombomodulin in the Sprague-Dawley rat. DNA Res. 1999;6:57-62 pubmed
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM), in addition to its significance in the protein C anticoagulant pathway and cardiovascular diseases, has recently been shown to play important roles in normal embryonic development, several inflammatory conditions, as ..
  18. Uehara S, Gotoh K, Handa H. Separation and characterization of the molecular species of thrombomodulin in the plasma of diabetic patients. Thromb Res. 2001;104:325-32 pubmed
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM) and its molecular species have been identified as markers of vascular endothelial cells (EC)...
  19. Bouton M, Venisse L, Richard B, Pouzet C, Arocas V, Jandrot Perrus M. Protease nexin-1 interacts with thrombomodulin and modulates its anticoagulant effect. Circ Res. 2007;100:1174-81 pubmed
    The endothelial cell membrane glycoprotein thrombomodulin (TM) plays a critical role in the regulation of coagulation...
  20. Miyamoto S, Eguchi S, Sugiyama N, Kawazoe Y, Kamohara Y, Fujioka H, et al. Hepatic expression and serum levels of thrombomodulin reflect the extent of liver injury in rats with fulminant hepatic failure and extensive hepatectomy. Hepatol Res. 2002;22:206-213 pubmed
    In order to evaluate the biological significance of thrombomodulin (TM) in the serum and its expression in the liver, changes in TM were investigated in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) or after extensive hepatectomy...
  21. Ding B, Hong N, Christofidou Solomidou M, Gottstein C, Albelda S, Cines D, et al. Anchoring fusion thrombomodulin to the endothelial lumen protects against injury-induced lung thrombosis and inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:247-56 pubmed publisher
    Endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) regulates thrombosis and inflammation. Diverse forms of pulmonary and vascular injury are accompanied by down-regulation of TM, which aggravates tissue injury...
  22. Li Y, Qiao Y, Wu Z, Qian F, Yao Y, Yu Y, et al. [Effects of Xuebijing injection on thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor in septic rats]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2007;19:365-8 pubmed
    To investigate effects of the integrated traditional Chinese medicine Xuebijing injection on thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) in septic rats...
  23. Zoja C, Locatelli M, Pagani C, Corna D, Zanchi C, Isermann B, et al. Lack of the lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin worsens Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in mice. J Immunol. 2012;189:3661-8 pubmed
    ..Based on evidence that abnormalities in thrombomodulin (TM), an anticoagulant endothelial glycoprotein that modulates complement and inflammation, predispose to ..
  24. Kume M, Hayashi T, Yuasa H, Tanaka H, Nishioka J, Ido M, et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide decreases thrombomodulin expression in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of rats -- a possible mechanism of intrasinusoidal microthrombus formation and liver dysfunction. J Hepatol. 2003;38:9-17 pubmed
    ..in patients with sepsis, we evaluated the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of thrombomodulin (TM) in rat sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and the therapeutic efficacy of exogenous recombinant TM...
  25. Yamashita T, Sekiguchi A, Iwasaki Y, Sagara K, Hatano S, Iinuma H, et al. Thrombomodulin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in endocardium of rapidly paced rat atria. Circulation. 2003;108:2450-2 pubmed
    ..by disturbing the atrial endocardial function, the gene expression of intrinsic anticoagulant factors, thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), were determined by means of ribonuclease protection assay, ..
  26. De Angelis L, Marfella M, Siniscalchi M, Marino L, Nappo F, Giugliano F, et al. Erectile and endothelial dysfunction in Type II diabetes: a possible link. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1155-60 pubmed
    ..Endothelial functions were assessed with the L-arginine test, plasma thrombomodulin and cell adhesion molecules circulating concentrations...
  27. Tanaka J, Seki Y, Ishikura H, Tsubota M, Sekiguchi F, Yamaguchi K, et al. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin prevents peripheral HMGB1-dependent hyperalgesia in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;170:1233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM), a medicine for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), sequesters HMGB1 and ..
  28. Rajashekhar G, Gupta A, Marin A, Friedrich J, Willuweit A, Berg D, et al. Soluble thrombomodulin reduces inflammation and prevents microalbuminuria induced by chronic endothelial activation in transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), a cofactor in the activation of protein C, has been shown to protect endothelial function in models of ..
  29. el Gamal Y, Heshmat N, El Kerdany T, Fawzy A. Serum thrombomodulin in systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004;15:270-7 pubmed
    b>Thrombomodulin is a thrombin receptor on the vascular endothelial cell surface which is likely released upon endothelial cell damage...
  30. Ikezoe T, Takeuchi A, Chi S, Takaoka M, Anabuki K, Kim T, et al. Effect of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin on clinical outcomes of patients with coagulopathy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eur J Haematol. 2013;91:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients who developed DIC after 2008 (n = 23) were treated by recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM), and the others (n = 11) were treated by either heparin and/or antithrombin III concentrate...
  31. Yamakawa K, Fujimi S, Mohri T, Matsuda H, Nakamori Y, Hirose T, et al. Treatment effects of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in patients with severe sepsis: a historical control study. Crit Care. 2011;15:R123 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) binds to thrombin to inactivate coagulation, and the thrombin-rhTM complex activates protein C to ..
  32. Esmon C. The protein C pathway. Chest. 2003;124:26S-32S pubmed
    ..The essential components of the pathway involve thrombin, thrombomodulin, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), protein C, and protein S...
  33. Wang J, Zheng H, Ou X, Fink L, Hauer Jensen M. Deficiency of microvascular thrombomodulin and up-regulation of protease-activated receptor-1 in irradiated rat intestine: possible link between endothelial dysfunction and chronic radiation fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:2063-72 pubmed
    ..We examined radiation-induced changes in endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in irradiated intestine, and their relationship to structural, ..
  34. Shen G, Lv H, Bi H, Zhang W, Yao S, Yuan Y. Reduction expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in dermatomyositis. Neuropathology. 2007;27:309-13 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in microvessels of DM patients...
  35. Vegh J, Szodoray P, Kappelmayer J, Csipo I, Udvardy M, Lakos G, et al. Clinical and immunoserological characteristics of mixed connective tissue disease associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Scand J Immunol. 2006;64:69-76 pubmed
    ..Anti-U1RNP autoantibodies, anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and serum thrombomodulin (TM) as well as von Willebrand factor antigen (vWFAg) concentrations were measured in 25 patients with MCTD ..
  36. Aue G, Nelson Lozier J, Tian X, Cullinane A, Soto S, Samsel L, et al. Inflammation, TNFα and endothelial dysfunction link lenalidomide to venous thrombosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:835-40 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin, soluble vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and thrombomodulin (p < 0.001)...
  37. Yokota H, Atsumi T, Araki T, Fuse A, Sato H, Kushimoto S, et al. Cerebral endothelial injury in elderly patients with severe head injury measured by serum thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2007;47:383-8; discussion 388 pubmed
    Elevated serum levels of thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) are good indicators of injury and activation of cerebral endothelium in patients with severe simple head injury...
  38. Bouwens E, Stavenuiter F, Mosnier L. Mechanisms of anticoagulant and cytoprotective actions of the protein C pathway. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11 Suppl 1:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These discoveries increasingly develop our understanding of the protein C pathway, which will conceivably expand its physiological implications to many areas in the future. ..
  39. Giwa M, Williams J, Elderfield K, Jiwa N, Bridges L, Kalaria R, et al. Neuropathologic evidence of endothelial changes in cerebral small vessel disease. Neurology. 2012;78:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..possible causal factor, and circulating markers of endothelial activation (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6) are elevated in patients with SVD...
  40. Cole J, Roberts S, Gallagher M, Giles W, Mitchell B, Steinberg K, et al. Thrombomodulin Ala455Val Polymorphism and the risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population: the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study. BMC Neurol. 2004;4:21 pubmed
    The genes encoding proteins in the thrombomodulin-protein C pathway are promising candidate genes for stroke susceptibility because of their importance in thrombosis regulation and inflammatory response...
  41. Dahlback B, Villoutreix B. The anticoagulant protein C pathway. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3310-6 pubmed
    ..Protein C is activated on endothelium by the thrombin-thrombomodulin-EPCR (endothelial protein C receptor) complex...
  42. Boehme M, Gao I, Norden C, Lemmel E. Decrease in circulating endothelial cell adhesion molecule and thrombomodulin levels during oral iloprost treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients: preliminary results. Rheumatol Int. 2006;26:340-7 pubmed
    ..of iloprost by determining plasma adhesion molecules as markers of endothelial cell activation, and plasma thrombomodulin as a parameter of endothelial cell injury in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving oral iloprost ..
  43. Nakahara M, Ito T, Kawahara K, Yamamoto M, Nagasato T, Shrestha B, et al. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75961 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM)...
  44. Jin H, Yang X, Liu K, Gu Q, Xu X. Effects of a novel peptide derived from human thrombomodulin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in vitro and in vivo. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3457-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM) is a single-transmembrane glycoprotein receptor for thrombin, which is best known as a cofactor for thrombin-mediated activation of anticoagulant protein C...
  45. Friedrich V, Bi W, Sehba F. Sexual dimorphism in gene expression after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Res. 2015;37:1054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebral RNA was extracted at sacrifice 3 h after surgery and assayed for expression of thrombomodulin (Thbd), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos;Nos3), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (Icam1), vascular ..
  46. Healy A, Rayburn H, Rosenberg R, Weiler H. Absence of the blood-clotting regulator thrombomodulin causes embryonic lethality in mice before development of a functional cardiovascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:850-4 pubmed
    We have targeted the murine thrombomodulin (TM) gene in embryonic stem cells and generated embryos as well as mice with TM deficiency...
  47. Ruef J, März W, Winkelmann B. Markers for endothelial dysfunction, but not markers for oxidative stress correlate with classical risk factors and the severity of coronary artery disease. (A subgroup analysis from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study). Scand Cardiovasc J. 2006;40:274-9 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide (NO), thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vW), sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sL-selectin and C-reactive ..
  48. Daimon T, Kazama M, Miyajima Y, Nakano M. Immunocytochemical localization of thrombomodulin in the aqueous humor passage of the rat eye. Histochem Cell Biol. 1997;108:121-31 pubmed
    This report describes the distribution and localization of thrombomodulin (TM) in the rat eye by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry...
  49. Ozaki T, Anas C, Maruyama S, Yamamoto T, Yasuda K, Morita Y, et al. Intrarenal administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin ameliorates ischaemic acute renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:110-9 pubmed
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial anti-coagulant cofactor which also has anti-inflammatory properties...
  50. Sharfuddin A, Sandoval R, Berg D, McDougal G, Campos S, Phillips C, et al. Soluble thrombomodulin protects ischemic kidneys. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:524-34 pubmed publisher
    Altered coagulation and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic renal injury. Thrombomodulin is a necessary factor in the anticoagulant protein C pathway and has inherent anti-inflammatory properties...
  51. Daimon T, Okuma Y. Localization of thrombomodulin in pericryptal fibroblasts of the rat duodenum. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;121:311-7 pubmed
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM) contributes to the inactivation of thrombin which activates protein C, a major anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory protein...
  52. Meyer A, Kundt G, Steiner M, Schuff Werner P, Kienast W. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilation, carotid artery intima-media thickening, and elevated endothelial plasma markers in obese children: the impact of cardiovascular risk factors. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1560-7 pubmed
    ..IMT]) and to analyze plasma surrogate endothelial markers (von Willebrand factor [vWf], E-selectin, and thrombomodulin) in obese children as compared with controls...
  53. Davis R, Bansal V, Litinas E, Hoppensteadt D, Thethi I, Nelson K, et al. Upregulation of inflammatory mediators in end-stage renal disease as measured using biochip array technology. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2011;17:E218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); thrombomodulin (TM); neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and thrombosis-D-dimer (DD)...
  54. Konstantoulas C, Cooper J, Ohlin A, Humphries S, Goodall A, Toh C, et al. Low soluble thrombomodulin activity and antigen is associated with a family history of heart disease while a high level is associated with a personal history of heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:161-4 pubmed
  55. Sawada K, Naiki M, Yago H, Matsushita K, Ohtsuki T, Kitagawa K, et al. Hypertension associated with reduced plasma thrombomodulin levels and a hypercoagulable state in rats. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2003;25:73-84 pubmed
    The plasma thrombomodulin (TM) level, an indicator of systemic endothelial cell damage, was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), deoxycorticosteron acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) ..
  56. Georgieva A, Cate H, Keulen E, van Oerle R, Govers Riemslag J, Hamulyak K, et al. Prothrombotic markers in familial combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of endothelial cell activation and relation to metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2004;175:345-51 pubmed
    ..Within the subgroup of familial combined hyperlipidemia subjects, elevated PAI-1 activity and soluble Thrombomodulin levels were particularly associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, ..
  57. Festoff B, Ameenuddin S, Santacruz K, Morser J, Suo Z, Arnold P, et al. Neuroprotective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin in controlled contusion spinal cord injury implicates thrombin signaling. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:907-22 pubmed
    ..Protein C activation occurs when the serine protease thrombin binds to the cell surface proteoglycan thrombomodulin (TM) forming a complex that halts coagulation...
  58. Kuryliszyn Moskal A, Klimiuk P, Ciolkiewicz M, Sierakowski S. Clinical significance of selected endothelial activation markers in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:1307-13 pubmed
    ..Serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble E-selectin, and thrombomodulin (sTM) were determined by ELISA in 76 SLE patients and in 34 healthy controls...
  59. Taylan A, Sari I, Kozaci D, Yildiz Y, Bilge S, Coker I, et al. Evaluation of various endothelial biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), and urotensin (UT-II) were found to be significantly higher in the sera of the patients compared to the ..
  60. Starr M, Ueda J, Takahashi H, Weiler H, Esmon C, Evers B, et al. Age-dependent vulnerability to endotoxemia is associated with reduction of anticoagulant factors activated protein C and thrombomodulin. Blood. 2010;115:4886-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial cell membrane receptor, accelerates the conversion of PC to activated protein C (APC), ..
  61. Liu P, Tsai J, Chiu C, Hwang J, Chou S, Wang C, et al. Decreased expression of thrombomodulin is correlated with tumor cell invasiveness and poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:874-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Thrombomodulin (TM) plays a role in coagulation, inflammation, and cell adhesion...
  62. Ping C, Yongping Z, Minmin Q, Weiyan Y, Yaozong Y. Activated protein C improves the severity of severe acute pancreatitis via up-regulating the expressions of endothelial cell protein C receptor and thrombomodulin. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:1599-609 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of APC on expressions of thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), and its subsequent effect on the severity of SAP...
  63. Yamamoto R, Aso Y. Synergistic association of metabolic syndrome and overt nephropathy with elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine in serum and impaired cutaneous microvasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:928-30 pubmed
  64. Noris M, Caprioli J, Bresin E, Mossali C, Pianetti G, Gamba S, et al. Relative role of genetic complement abnormalities in sporadic and familial aHUS and their impact on clinical phenotype. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1844-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with CFH or THBD (thrombomodulin) mutations had the earliest onset and highest mortality...
  65. Alioglu B, Kilic N, Simsek E, Dallar Y. Increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thrombomodulin levels in children with hypothyroidism. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2012;4:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..PAI) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombomodulin (TM), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels in children with hypothyroidism...
  66. Borroni B, Agosti C, Martini G, Volpi R, Brambilla C, Caimi L, et al. Cholinesterase inhibitors exert a protective effect on endothelial damage in Alzheimer disease patients. J Neurol Sci. 2005;229-230:211-3 pubmed
    ..In mild AD patients, increased levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction, such as thrombomodulin (TM) and sE-selectin (sE-sel), were seen. After 1-month ChEIs treatment, a significant reduction of TM (p<0...
  67. Zycinska K, Wardyn K, Zielonka T, Krupa R, Lukas W. Clinical implications of serum thrombomodulin in PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. Eur J Med Res. 2009;14 Suppl 4:268-70 pubmed
    Vascular injury is the main mechanism in pathophysiology of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. Soluble serum thrombomodulin (sTM) is a membrane-bound receptor for thrombin expressed by vascular endothelial cells...
  68. Takagi T, Taguchi O, Toda M, Ruiz D, Bernabe P, D Alessandro Gabazza C, et al. Inhibition of allergic bronchial asthma by thrombomodulin is mediated by dendritic cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Curative therapy is not currently available. to test the hypothesis that thrombomodulin (TM) inhibits allergic bronchial asthma by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs)...