TH

Summary

Gene Symbol: TH
Description: tyrosine hydroxylase
Alias: The, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
Species: rat
Products:     TH

Top Publications

  1. Kritzer M. Long-term gonadectomy affects the density of tyrosine hydroxylase- but not dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-, choline acetyltransferase- or serotonin-immunoreactive axons in the medial prefrontal cortices of adult male rats. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:282-96 pubmed
    b>The rat prefrontal cortices participate in cognitive, affective and mnemonic functions...
  2. Patel P, Nankova B, Lagamma E. Butyrate, a gut-derived environmental signal, regulates tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression via a novel promoter element. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;160:53-62 pubmed
    ..mobility shift assays and by site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a novel butyrate response element (BRE) in the 5' upstream region of the rat TH gene, homologous to the previously mapped motif in the ppEnk promoter...
  3. Cruz Muros I, Afonso Oramas D, Abreu P, Barroso Chinea P, Rodriguez M, Gonzalez M, et al. Aging of the rat mesostriatal system: differences between the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic compartments. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:147-61 pubmed
    b>The impairment of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system has been considered responsible for motor and affective disturbances associated with aging and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease...
  4. Jones S, Gainetdinov R, Jaber M, Giros B, Wightman R, Caron M. Profound neuronal plasticity in response to inactivation of the dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4029-34 pubmed
    b>The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
  5. Zhang D, Kanthasamy A, Yang Y, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A. Protein kinase C delta negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine synthesis by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5349-62 pubmed
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, can be regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues, including serine-40...
  6. Bevilaqua L, Graham M, Dunkley P, von Nagy Felsobuki E, Dickson P. Phosphorylation of Ser(19) alters the conformation of tyrosine hydroxylase to increase the rate of phosphorylation of Ser(40). J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40411-6 pubmed
    b>The effect of phosphorylation on the shape of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was studied directly using gel filtration and indirectly using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
  7. Salvatore M, Pruett B, Spann S, Dempsey C. Aging reveals a role for nigral tyrosine hydroxylase ser31 phosphorylation in locomotor activity generation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8466 pubmed publisher
    ..No direct evidence shows that ser40 phosphorylation is the dominating mechanism of regulating TH activity in vivo, and physiologically-relevant stimuli increase L-DOPA ..
  8. Haycock J, Haycock D. Tyrosine hydroxylase in rat brain dopaminergic nerve terminals. Multiple-site phosphorylation in vivo and in synaptosomes. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:5650-7 pubmed
    Tyrosine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the initial step in catecholamine biosynthesis, is phosphorylated at serines 8, 19, 31, and 40 in intact pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells (Haycock, J.W. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11682-11691)...
  9. Kontostavlaki D, Panayotacopoulou M, Sluijs J, Unmehopa U, Huitinga I, Hol E, et al. Co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and GTP cyclohydrolase I in arginine vasopressin-synthesizing neurons of the human supraoptic nucleus demonstrated by laser microdissection and real-time PCR. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84:386-95 pubmed
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, has been identified immunohistochemically (IHC) in human neurosecretory neurons where it is found to colocalize with vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Cao J, Li F, Zhu Y, Yuan H, Yu Z, Gao D. Expressions and possible roles of GDNF receptors in the developing dopaminergic neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2010;83:321-30 pubmed publisher
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has an essential role in the survival and maturation of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of mammalian embryonic brain...
  2. Huang H, Han X, Hwang B, Park J, Yoo S, Choi H, et al. Catalponol enhances dopamine biosynthesis and protects against L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2009;11:867-75 pubmed publisher
    b>The effects of catalponol (1) on dopamine biosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. Catalponol at concentration ranges of 1-5 microM increased the intracellular levels of dopamine at 12-48 h...
  3. Reguzzoni M, Cosentino M, Rasini E, Marino F, Ferrari M, Bombelli R, et al. Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: effect of stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;310:297-304 pubmed
    Using immunocytochemistry coupled to fluorescence and electron microscopy, we investigated the expression and ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16...
  4. Yu Z, Liu M, Ren Q, Xiong Y, Xu J, Xiao C, et al. Dopamine content in the striatum and expression changes of Bad and Bcl-2 in elderly rats with abnormal behavior. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:2333-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine the dopamine (DA) content in the striatum and the expression changes of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bad and Bcl-2 in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) in elderly rats with abnormal behavior...
  5. Prieto M, Gómez F, Teresa Giralt M. Effects of acute, repeated and chronic variable stress on in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity and on alpha(2)-adrenoceptor sensitivity in the rat brain. Stress. 2003;6:281-7 pubmed
    We assessed the effects of a single tail pinch and two chronic stress regimes, repeated and variable, on in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity and on alpha2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in two brain regions...
  6. Spasojevic N, Gavrilovic L, Dronjak S. Regulation of catecholamine-synthesising enzymes and beta-adrenoceptors gene expression in ventricles of stressed rats. Physiol Res. 2011;60 Suppl 1:S171-6 pubmed
    Stress exposure activates the sympathoneural system, resulting in catecholamine release. Chronic stress is associated with development of numerous disorders, including cardiovascular diseases...
  7. Jin C, Yang Y, Huang H, Lim S, Kai M, Lee M. Induction of dopamine biosynthesis by l-DOPA in PC12 cells: implications of L-DOPA influx and cyclic AMP. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;591:88-95 pubmed publisher
    b>The effects of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) on dopamine biosynthesis and cytotoxicity were investigated in PC12 cells...
  8. Salvatore M, Pruett B. Dichotomy of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine regulation between somatodendritic and terminal field areas of nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29867 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins in somatodendritic regions are often used only as static indicators of neuron viability, overlooking the possible impact of somatodendritic dopamine (DA) signaling on behavior and the potential autonomy of DA regulation ..
  9. Park H, Shim H, Kim H, Kim K, Lee H, Hahm D, et al. Effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix on Repeated Restraint Stress-induced Neurochemical and Behavioral Responses. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;14:371-6 pubmed publisher
    Glycyrrhizae radix (GR) is an herbal medicine that is commonly used in the East Asia for treating a variety of diseases, including stomach disorders...
  10. Aguilar Valles A, Luheshi G. Alterations in cognitive function and behavioral response to amphetamine induced by prenatal inflammation are dependent on the stage of pregnancy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:634-48 pubmed publisher
    Maternal infection during human pregnancy has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in the adult offspring...
  11. Chen T, Yang W, Li Y, Chen X, Xu S. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs neurodevelopment: inhibition of proliferation and promotion of differentiation in PC12 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201:34-41 pubmed publisher
    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plasticizers in daily-life products...
  12. Khaindrava V, Salin P, Melon C, Ugrumov M, Kerkerian Le Goff L, Daszuta A. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus impacts adult neurogenesis in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;42:284-91 pubmed publisher
    Chronic high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) efficiently alleviates motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  13. Gervasi N, Scott S, Aschrafi A, Gale J, Vohra S, Macgibeny M, et al. The local expression and trafficking of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the axons of sympathetic neurons. RNA. 2016;22:883-95 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis and regulation of catecholamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders...
  14. Liu G, Shi N. The inhibitory effects of deltamethrin on dopamine biosynthesis in rat PC12 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2006;161:195-9 pubmed
    b>The inhibitory effects of deltamethrin (DM) on dopamine biosynthesis in PC12 cells were investigated...
  15. Diepold K, Schütz B, Rostasy K, Wilken B, Hougaard P, Guttler F, et al. Levodopa-responsive infantile parkinsonism due to a novel mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and exacerbation by viral infections. Mov Disord. 2005;20:764-7 pubmed
    Autosomal recessive forms of infantile dystonia due to mutations in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been described recently. The main clinical manifestations are Segawa's disease, or infantile hypokinetic rigid Parkinsonism...
  16. Micutkova L, Kiss A, Filipenko M, Rychkova N, Krizanova O, Palkovits M, et al. Gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes in A5 cell group and modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA by immobilization stress. Endocr Regul. 2001;35:195-200 pubmed
    b>The A5 group of noradrenergic neurons plays a key role in autonomic mechanisms like cardiovascular regulation, nociception and respiration...
  17. Hayakawa T, Kuwahara S, Maeda S, Tanaka K, Seki M. Fine structural survey of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals in the myenteric ganglion of the rat duodenum. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;36:191-6 pubmed publisher
    We have examined whether the noradrenergic neurons have direct synaptic projections to the myenteric ganglion neurons of the duodenum and the ultrastructure of their terminals by using immunogold-silver labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase...
  18. Stahl K, Mylonakou M, Skare Ø, Amiry Moghaddam M, Torp R. Cytoprotective effects of growth factors: BDNF more potent than GDNF in an organotypic culture model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2011;1378:105-18 pubmed publisher
    ..PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)...
  19. Zhang S, Zou Z, Jiang X, Xu R, Zhang W, Zhou Y, et al. The therapeutic effects of tyrosine hydroxylase gene transfected hematopoetic stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:529-43 pubmed
    To investigate the therapeutic effects of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-transfected neuronal stem cells derived from bone marrow stem cells (NdSCs-D-BMSCs) on Parkinson's disease (PD) through different transplantation protocols, including ..
  20. Morrison J, Dhanasekaran S, Sheen R, Frampton C, Mensah Brown E. The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the rat seminal vesicle: A possible pathophysiological basis for disorders of ejaculation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1084:267-79 pubmed
    In the streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat major increases in noradrenaline concentration and content of the seminal vesicles were evident as early as 7 weeks following induction of hyperglycemia and returned toward normal after 34 weeks ..
  21. Zhao W, Sun Q, Lung M, Birch D, Guo R, Pilowsky P. Substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin terminals in the rat caudal nucleus ambiguus. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178:337-40 pubmed publisher
    ..P (SP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and serotonin inputs onto laryngeal motoneurons (LMNs) are known to exist, but the distribution of their terminals in the caudal nucleus ambiguus (NA), remains unclear...
  22. Serova L, Maharjan S, Huang A, Sun D, Kaley G, Sabban E. Response of tyrosine hydroxylase and GTP cyclohydrolase I gene expression to estrogen in brain catecholaminergic regions varies with mode of administration. Brain Res. 2004;1015:1-8 pubmed
    b>The effect of different dose, mode and duration of estradiol administration was examined in the different brain catecholaminergic areas in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats...
  23. Hoffmann G, Assmann B, Bräutigam C, Dionisi Vici C, Häussler M, De Klerk J, et al. Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency causes progressive encephalopathy and dopa-nonresponsive dystonia. Ann Neurol. 2003;54 Suppl 6:S56-65 pubmed
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine...
  24. Damon D. Vascular-dependent effects of elevated glucose on postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1386-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>The present study tested the hypothesis that glucose modulates perivascular sympathetic nerves by studying the effects ..
  25. Rostrup M, Fossbakk A, Hauge A, Kleppe R, Gnaiger E, Haavik J. Oxygen dependence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Amino Acids. 2008;34:455-64 pubmed
    b>The effects of dioxygen on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was studied, measuring the formation of DOPA from tyrosine, (3)H(2)O from 3,5-(3)H-tyrosine, or by direct oxygraphic determination of oxygen consumption...
  26. Zhang L, Xue Y, Yang C, Yang W, Chen L, Zhang Q, et al. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41226 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, two microliters of 1...
  27. Minton G, Young A, McQuade R, Fairchild G, Ingram C, Gartside S. Profound changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex in response to flattening of the diurnal glucocorticoid rhythm: implications for bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:2265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the flattening of the diurnal glucocorticoid rhythm, commonly seen in bipolar disorder, modulates dopaminergic ..
  28. Nabhen S, Morales V, Guil M, Hocht C, Bianciotti L, Vatta M. Mechanisms involved in the long-term modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase by endothelins in the olfactory bulb of normotensive rats. Neurochem Int. 2011;58:196-205 pubmed publisher
    b>The olfactory bulbs play a relevant role in the interaction between the animal and its environment...
  29. Kim S, Ryu M, Han J, Jang Y, Kim J, Lee M, et al. Activation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis upregulates TH expression in dopaminergic neurons via JNK phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:358-364 pubmed publisher
    b>The derangement of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity reduces dopamine synthesis and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease...
  30. Abeliovich A, Schmitz Y, Farinas I, Choi Lundberg D, Ho W, Castillo P, et al. Mice lacking alpha-synuclein display functional deficits in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Neuron. 2000;25:239-52 pubmed
    alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) is a 14 kDa protein of unknown function that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  31. Zhu Y, Duan C, Lu L, Gao H, Zhao C, Yu S, et al. ?-Synuclein overexpression impairs mitochondrial function by associating with adenylate translocator. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:732-41 pubmed publisher
    Synuclein (?-syn), a protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), is known to accumulate in mitochondria, disrupt mitochondrial function...
  32. Rodriguez S, Gaunt T, Dennison E, Chen X, Syddall H, Phillips D, et al. Replication of IGF2-INS-TH*5 haplotype effect on obesity in older men and study of related phenotypes. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006;14:109-16 pubmed
    Interindividual variation of the IGF2-INS-TH region influences risk of a variety of diseases and complex traits...
  33. Fukami S, Watanabe K, Iwata N, Haraoka J, Lu B, Gerard N, et al. Abeta-degrading endopeptidase, neprilysin, in mouse brain: synaptic and axonal localization inversely correlating with Abeta pathology. Neurosci Res. 2002;43:39-56 pubmed
    Metabolism of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is closely associated with the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  34. Chow M, Eser B, Wilson S, Hodgson K, Hedman B, Fitzpatrick P, et al. Spectroscopy and kinetics of wild-type and mutant tyrosine hydroxylase: mechanistic insight into O2 activation. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:7685-98 pubmed publisher
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a pterin-dependent nonheme iron enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-tyr to L-DOPA in the rate-limiting step of catecholamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis...
  35. Chiou S, Kao C, Chang Y, Ku H, Tsai Y, Lin H, et al. Evaluation of anti-Fas ligand-induced apoptosis and neural differentiation of PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor using small interfering RNA method and sampling by microdialysis. Anal Biochem. 2007;363:46-57 pubmed
    b>The small interfering RNA (siRNA) method is an effective technique for silencing gene expression and is a useful tool for screening the gene functions in drug discovery...
  36. Dela Cruz J, Hescham S, Adriaanse B, Campos F, Steinbusch H, Rutten B, et al. Increased number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area after deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:3061-6 pubmed publisher
    Dopamine (DA) has been long implicated with the processes of memory...
  37. Lavado A, Jeffery G, Tovar V, de la Villa P, Montoliu L. Ectopic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the pigmented epithelium rescues the retinal abnormalities and visual function common in albinos in the absence of melanin. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1201-11 pubmed
    ..have profound retinal abnormalities, including photoreceptor deficits and misrouted hemispheric pathways into the brain, demonstrating that melanin or its precursors are required for normal retinal development...
  38. Parra L, Baust T, Smith A, Jaumotte J, Zigmond M, Torres S, et al. The Molecular Chaperone Hsc70 Interacts with Tyrosine Hydroxylase to Regulate Enzyme Activity and Synaptic Vesicle Localization. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17510-22 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is physically and functionally coupled with Hsc70 as well as with the dopamine synthesis enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, ..
  39. Nakashima A, Ohnuma S, Kodani Y, Kaneko Y, Nagasaki H, Nagatsu T, et al. Inhibition of deubiquitinating activity of USP14 decreases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser19 in PC12D cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:598-602 pubmed publisher
    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and its stability is a fundamental factor to maintain the level of the catecholamines in cells...
  40. Zhong J, Fan S, Yan Z, Xiao S, Wan L, Chen C, et al. Effects of Nogo-A Silencing on TNF-α and IL-6 Secretion and TH Downregulation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated PC12 Cells. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:817914 pubmed publisher
    ..b>The study aimed to establish the shRNA expression plasmids of Nogo-A gene and explore the regulatory effects of Nogo-A ..
  41. Zuhayra M, Zhao Y, von Forstner C, Henze E, Gohlke P, Culman J, et al. Activation of cerebral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?) reduces neuronal damage in the substantia nigra after transient focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2011;37:738-52 pubmed publisher
    b>The function of brain (neuronal) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(s) ? (PPAR?) in the delayed degeneration and loss of neurones in the substantia nigra (SN) was studied in rats after transient occlusion of the middle cerebral ..
  42. Rani C, Elango N, Wang S, Kobayashi K, Strong R. Identification of an activator protein-1-like sequence as the glucocorticoid response element in the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..GCs) generally stimulate gene transcription via consensus glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located in the promoter region...
  43. Rorato R, Reis W, Antunes Rodrigues J, Elias L. Cholecystokinin and hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor participate in endotoxin-induced hypophagia. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:439-50 pubmed publisher
    ..CCK) provides a meal-related signal that activates brainstem neurons, which have reciprocal interconnections with the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus...
  44. MohanKumar S, Kasturi B, Shin A, Balasubramanian P, Gilbreath E, Subramanian M, et al. Chronic estradiol exposure induces oxidative stress in the hypothalamus to decrease hypothalamic dopamine and cause hyperprolactinemia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R693-9 pubmed publisher
    Estrogens are known to cause hyperprolactinemia, most probably by acting on the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system of the hypothalamus...
  45. Feher P, OLAH M, Bodnar I, Hechtl D, Bacskay I, Juhasz B, et al. Dephosphorylation/inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase at the median eminence of the hypothalamus is required for suckling-induced prolactin and adrenocorticotrop hormone responses. Brain Res Bull. 2010;82:141-5 pubmed publisher
    We have recently found that dopamine (DA) released from terminals of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons plays a role not only in prolactin (PRL), but also in adrenocorticotrop hormone (ACTH) secretion, without having ..
  46. Ulusoy A, Sahin G, Bjorklund T, Aebischer P, Kirik D. Dose optimization for long-term rAAV-mediated RNA interference in the nigrostriatal projection neurons. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have generated rAAV vectors expressing shRNAs targeting the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA (shTH) for testing the efficacy of in vivo TH knockdown in the nigral ..
  47. McDevitt R, Szot P, Baratta M, Bland S, White S, Maier S, et al. Stress-induced activity in the locus coeruleus is not sensitive to stressor controllability. Brain Res. 2009;1285:109-18 pubmed publisher
    An important factor in determining the adverse consequences of a stress experience is the degree to which an individual can exert control over the stressor...
  48. Takahashi S. Expression levels of mRNAs for catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes as markers of acute response to contusion stress during the early postmortem period. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;216:239-48 pubmed
    ..followed by sudden unexpected deaths, and autopsies sometimes fail to identify pathological findings that determine the cause of death...
  49. Anglin J, Brooks V. Tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter in sympathetic ganglia of female rats vary with reproductive state. Auton Neurosci. 2003;105:8-15 pubmed
    ..sympathetic activity varies with changes in reproductive status, but whether expression of proteins critical to the function of sympathetic neurons is also altered is unknown...
  50. Nagatsu I, Ikemoto K, Kitahama K, Nishimura A, Ichinose H, Nagatsu T. Specific localization of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase I-immunoreactivity in the human brain. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1999;106:607-17 pubmed
    Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase I (GCH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
  51. Coker G, Vinnedge L, O Malley K. Characterization of rat and human tyrosine hydroxylase genes: functional expression of both promoters in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;157:1341-7 pubmed
    We describe the structure of the promoter and intron 1 of the human and rat tyrosine hydroxylase genes. The 5' flanking region of the two genes are 74% identical (+1 to -380) and contain a completely conserved cAMP response element...
  52. Luo C, Rajput A, Akhtar S, Rajput A. Alpha-synuclein and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in acute rotenone toxicity. Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:517-21 pubmed
    ..Most studies have focused on chronic rotenone-infused rats. It has not been established if the animals that die of acute low-dose rotenone toxicity manifest clinical or pathological evidence of PD...
  53. Royo M, Fitzpatrick P, Daubner S. Mutation of regulatory serines of rat tyrosine hydroxylase to glutamate: effects on enzyme stability and activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;434:266-74 pubmed
    ..Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 12639]. The other serines are at positions 8, 19, and 31...