Gene Symbol: Tgfb3
Description: transforming growth factor, beta 3
Alias: TGF-B3, transforming growth factor beta-3, TGF-beta-3
Species: rat
Products:     Tgfb3

Top Publications

  1. Abdelaziz N, Colombo F, Mercier I, Calderone A. Nitric oxide attenuates the expression of transforming growth factor-beta(3) mRNA in rat cardiac fibroblasts via destabilization. Hypertension. 2001;38:261-6 pubmed
    ..The modulation of both basal and angiotensin II-stimulated TGF-beta(3) mRNA expression provides a mechanism by which NO may influence the progression of interstitial fibrosis. ..
  2. Cui X, Chai Y, Chen J, Yamamoto T, Ito Y, Bringas P, et al. TGF-beta3-dependent SMAD2 phosphorylation and inhibition of MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:387-94 pubmed
    ..05). This finding suggests that TGF-beta3 is required for inhibiting MEE proliferation during palatal fusion. The inhibition of MEE proliferation may be mediated by TGF-beta3-dependent phosphorylation of SMAD2. ..
  3. Liu G, Ding W, Neiman J, Mulder K. Requirement of Smad3 and CREB-1 in mediating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) induction of TGF beta 3 secretion. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29479-90 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that TGFbeta activation of the TGFbeta3 promoter CRE site, which leads to TGFbeta3 production, is required for TGFbetaRII, JNK, p38, and Smad3 but was independent of protein kinase A, ERK, and Smad4. ..
  4. Wrana J, Attisano L, Carcamo J, Zentella A, Doody J, Laiho M, et al. TGF beta signals through a heteromeric protein kinase receptor complex. Cell. 1992;71:1003-14 pubmed
    ..This mode of operation points to fundamental differences between this receptor and the protein-tyrosine kinase cytokine receptors. ..
  5. Kaartinen V, Voncken J, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, et al. Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Nat Genet. 1995;11:415-21 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates an essential function for TGF-beta 3 in the normal morphogenesis of palate and lung, and directly implicates this cytokine in mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. ..
  6. Shooner C, Caron P, Fréchette Frigon G, Leblanc V, Dery M, Asselin E. TGF-beta expression during rat pregnancy and activity on decidual cell survival. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-beta isoforms are regulated differently during pregnancy and may have an important role in the control of apoptosis and cell survival at specific stages during pregnancy. ..
  7. Chaturvedi K, Sarkar D. Involvement of protein kinase C-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase p44/42 signaling pathway for cross-talk between estradiol and transforming growth factor-beta3 in increasing basic fibroblast growth factor in folliculostellate cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:706-15 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that an estradiol receptor-independent protein kinase C- activated Ras-dependent MAPK pathway is involved in the cross-talk between TGF-beta3 and estradiol to increase bFGF production and/or release from FS cells. ..
  8. Lui W, Lee W, Cheng C. Transforming growth factor beta3 regulates the dynamics of Sertoli cell tight junctions via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1597-612 pubmed
    ..These results thus unequivocally demonstrate that TGFbeta3 utilizes the p38 MAP kinase pathway to regulate Sertoli cell TJ dynamics...
  9. Li X, Miyajima M, Arai H. Analysis of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 expression in the hydrocephalic H-Tx rat brain. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:32-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 expression may be modulated differently in the hydrocephalus, and TGF-beta3 may contribute to the development of hydrocephalus in this rat model. ..

More Information


  1. Fong K, Trindade M, Wang Z, Nacamuli R, Pham H, Fang T, et al. Microarray analysis of mechanical shear effects on flexor tendon cells. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1393-404; discussion 1405-6 pubmed
  2. Do T, Kubba L, Du H, Sturgis C, Woodruff T. Transforming growth factor-beta1, transforming growth factor-beta2, and transforming growth factor-beta3 enhance ovarian cancer metastatic potential by inducing a Smad3-dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..0057). Collectively, these results implicate an important role for the TGF-beta/Smad3 pathway in mediating ovarian oncogenesis by enhancing metastatic potential. ..
  3. Grütter C, Wilkinson T, Turner R, Podichetty S, Finch D, McCourt M, et al. A cytokine-neutralizing antibody as a structural mimetic of 2 receptor interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20251-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Chang Z, Kishimoto Y, Hasan A, Welham N. TGF-?3 modulates the inflammatory environment and reduces scar formation following vocal fold mucosal injury in rats. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments show that the TGF-? isoforms have distinct roles in VFM maintenance and repair, and that TGF-?3 redirects wound healing to improve VFM scar outcomes in vivo. ..
  5. Sefat F, Youseffi M, Khaghani S, Soon C, Javid F. Effect of transforming growth factor-?3 on mono and multilayer chondrocytes. Cytokine. 2016;83:118-126 pubmed publisher
    ..The healing process of the model wound closure assay of chondrocyte multilayer was slowed down by TGF-?3, and this cytokine negatively affected the strength of chondrocyte adhesion to the cell culture surface. ..
  6. Groppe J, Hinck C, Samavarchi Tehrani P, Zubieta C, Schuermann J, Taylor A, et al. Cooperative assembly of TGF-beta superfamily signaling complexes is mediated by two disparate mechanisms and distinct modes of receptor binding. Mol Cell. 2008;29:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Although structurally similar, BMP and TGF-beta receptors bind in dramatically different modes, mediating graded and switch-like assembly mechanisms that may have coevolved with branch-specific groups of cytoplasmic effectors. ..
  7. Fevre Montange M, Dumontel C, Chevallier P, Isnard A, Guigard M, Trouillas J. Localization of transforming growth factors, TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3, in hypothalamic magnocellular neurones and the neurohypophysis. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:571-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that TGFbeta secreted by the neurohypophysis regulates the proliferation and secretion of certain anterior pituitary cells. ..
  8. Zeng L, Li Y, Yang J, Wang G, Margariti A, Xiao Q, et al. XBP 1-Deficiency Abrogates Neointimal Lesion of Injured Vessels Via Cross Talk With the PDGF Signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates for the first time that XBP1 is crucial for SMC proliferation via modulating the platelet-derived growth factor/TGF-β pathways, leading to neointimal formation. ..
  9. Robinson S, Silberstein G, Roberts A, Flanders K, Daniel C. Regulated expression and growth inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in mouse mammary gland development. Development. 1991;113:867-78 pubmed
  10. McKinnon R, Piras G, Ida J, Dubois Dalcq M. A role for TGF-beta in oligodendrocyte differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:1397-407 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that TGF-beta may be an important mediator of oligodendrocyte differentiation. ..
  11. Lourenço S, Uyekita S, Lima D, Soares F. Developing human minor salivary glands: morphological parallel relation between the expression of TGF-beta isoforms and cytoskeletal markers of glandular maturation. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:427-34 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that TGF-beta have a role to play in salivary gland development and differentiation...
  12. Renner U, Lohrer P, Schaaf L, Feirer M, Schmitt K, Onofri C, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor production by folliculostellate pituitary cells. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3759-65 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta stimulation of VEGF production by folliculostellate cells could modulate intrapituitary vascular permeability and integrity as well as angiogenesis in an auto-/paracrine manner. ..
  13. Mihira H, Suzuki H, Akatsu Y, Yoshimatsu Y, Igarashi T, Miyazono K, et al. TGF-?-induced mesenchymal transition of MS-1 endothelial cells requires Smad-dependent cooperative activation of Rho signals and MRTF-A. J Biochem. 2012;151:145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that activation of Smad signals by TGF-?2 have dual effects on the activation of Rho signals and MRTF-A leading to the mesenchymal transition of MS-1 endothelial cells. ..
  14. Kim H, Bing G, Kim S, Jhoo W, Shin E, Bok Wie M, et al. Kainate treatment alters TGF-beta3 gene expression in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;108:60-70 pubmed
    ..c.v.) significantly attenuated KA-induced seizures and neuronal damages in a dose-related manner. Therefore, our results suggest that TGF-beta3 plays an important role in protective mechanisms against KA-induced neurodegeneration. ..
  15. Sasaki Y, O Kane S, Dixon J, Dixon M, Ferguson M. Temporal and spatial expression of Pax9 and Sonic hedgehog during development of normal mouse palates and cleft palates in TGF-beta3 null embryos. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:260-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Pax9 and Shh expression are altered when the TGF-beta3 gene is deleted and suggest that Pax9 and Shh may be involved in the TGF-beta3 regulation of normal palatal fusion. ..
  16. Lee B, Nowak R. Human leiomyoma smooth muscle cells show increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF beta 3) and altered responses to the antiproliferative effects of TGF beta. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:913-20 pubmed
    ..were similar between leiomyoma and myometrium, whereas leiomyoma showed 5-fold higher levels of expression of TGF beta 3 mRNA than autologous myometrium...
  17. Yinon Y, Nevo O, Xu J, Many A, Rolfo A, Todros T, et al. Severe intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies have increased placental endoglin levels: hypoxic regulation via transforming growth factor-beta 3. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:77-85 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that oxygen regulates the placental expression of endoglin via TGF-beta 3. Reduced placental perfusion leading to placental hypoxia might contribute to the increased expression of endoglin in IUGR pregnancies. ..
  18. Wickert L, Steinkrüger S, Abiaka M, Bolkenius U, Purps O, Schnabel C, et al. Quantitative monitoring of the mRNA expression pattern of the TGF-beta-isoforms (beta 1, beta 2, beta 3) during transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells using a newly developed real-time SYBR Green PCR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:330-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the GAPDH mRNA expression varied during HSC activation, and thus is not recommended as a standard in real-time PCR quantifications. ..
  19. Nawshad A, Hay E. TGFbeta3 signaling activates transcription of the LEF1 gene to induce epithelial mesenchymal transformation during mouse palate development. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1291-301 pubmed
    ..When phospho-Smad2 and Smad4 are present in the nucleus, LEF1 is activated without beta-catenin. Our paper is the first to show that the Smad2,4/LEF1 complex replaces beta-catenin/LEF1 during activation of EMT in vivo by TGFbeta3. ..
  20. Bettahi I, Sun H, Gao N, Wang F, Mi X, Chen W, et al. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of differentially expressed genes in diabetic, healing corneal epithelial cells: hyperglycemia-suppressed TGF?3 expression contributes to the delay of epithelial wound healing in diabetic corneas. Diabetes. 2014;63:715-27 pubmed publisher
  21. Sridurongrit S, Larsson J, Schwartz R, Ruiz Lozano P, Kaartinen V. Signaling via the Tgf-beta type I receptor Alk5 in heart development. Dev Biol. 2008;322:208-18 pubmed publisher
  22. Jaskoll T, Melnick M. Submandibular gland morphogenesis: stage-specific expression of TGF-alpha/EGF, IGF, TGF-beta, TNF, and IL-6 signal transduction in normal embryonic mice and the phenotypic effects of TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and EGF-r null mutations. Anat Rec. 1999;256:252-68 pubmed
    ..These and other findings provide insight into the design of future functional studies. ..
  23. Fornetti J, Flanders K, Henson P, Tan A, Borges V, Schedin P. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-?3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:185-96 pubmed publisher
  24. Li M, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Cytokines and junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis in the testis: an emerging concept of regulation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20:329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible regulators that mediate cytokine-induced junction restructuring, including gap junction and extracellular matrix, and the role of testosterone on junction dynamics in the testis will also be discussed. ..
  25. Shibazaki Yorozuya R, Wang Q, Dechow P, Maki K, Opperman L. Changes in biomechanical strain and morphology of rat calvarial sutures and bone after Tgf-?3 inhibition of posterior interfrontal suture fusion. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the continued presence of patent sutures can affect strain patterns, perhaps when higher bite forces are present as in adult animals. ..
  26. Dudas M, Kim J, Li W, Nagy A, Larsson J, Karlsson S, et al. Epithelial and ectomesenchymal role of the type I TGF-beta receptor ALK5 during facial morphogenesis and palatal fusion. Dev Biol. 2006;296:298-314 pubmed
  27. Wilkes M, Murphy S, Garamszegi N, Leof E. Cell-type-specific activation of PAK2 by transforming growth factor beta independent of Smad2 and Smad3. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8878-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, PAK2 represents a novel Smad-independent pathway that differentiates TGF-beta signaling in fibroblast (growth-stimulated) and epithelial cell (growth-inhibited) cultures. ..
  28. Hu B, Shi C, Tian Y, Zhang Y, Xu C, Chen H, et al. TGF-β Induces Up-Regulation of Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase 1 (CHSY1) in Nucleus Pulposus Cells Through MAPK Signaling. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37:793-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TGF-β induced CHSY1 expression in the nucleus pulposus through the activation of MAPK signaling. ..
  29. Gaide Chevronnay H, Cornet P, Delvaux D, Lemoine P, Courtoy P, Henriet P, et al. Opposite regulation of transforming growth factors-beta2 and -beta3 expression in the human endometrium. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1015-25 pubmed
    ..The opposite regulation of TGF-beta2 and -beta3 by cAMP and MAPK could account for their distinct expression in vivo. ..
  30. Deng L, Li Y, Huang J, Zhou G, Qian W, Xu K. Effects of p-CREB-1 on transforming growth factor-?3 auto-regulation in hepatic stellate cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially, p-CREB-1 is a critical transcription factor in mediating TGF-?3 auto-induction. ..
  31. Jude E, Blakytny R, Bulmer J, Boulton A, Ferguson M. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, 2, 3 and receptor type I and II in diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2002;19:440-7 pubmed
    ..The lack of TGF-beta1 up-regulation in both diabetic foot ulcers and venous ulcers may explain the impaired healing in these chronic wounds, and could represent a general pattern for chronicity. ..
  32. Do M, Sato Y, Shimizu N, Suzuki T, Shono J, Mizunoya W, et al. Growth factor regulation of neural chemorepellent Sema3A expression in satellite cell cultures. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C1270-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Wu W, Dan Y, Yang S, Yang C, Shao Z, Xu W, et al. Promotion of chondrogenesis of marrow stromal stem cells by TGF-?3 fusion protein in vivo. [corrected]. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2013;33:692-699 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that a new fusion protein LAP-MMP-mTGF-?3 was constructed successfully by gene engineering, and could be used to repair the OA-induced cartilage injury. ..
  34. Cahlin C, Lönnroth C, Arvidsson A, Nordgren S, Lundholm K. Growth associated proteins in tumor cells and stroma related to disease progression of colon cancer accounting for tumor tissue PGE2 content. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:909-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, it seems important to understand proximal signals behind upregulation of COX-2 and subsequent PGE2 production in certain tumor cells in colon cancer. ..
  35. Opperman L, Adab K, Gakunga P. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 regulate fetal rat cranial suture morphogenesis by regulating rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:237-47 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a complex interplay between closely related molecules is required to maintain cranial vault sutures in an unossified state, while allowing new bone to be formed at the edges of the bone fronts. ..
  36. Zhang J, Pho V, Bonasera S, Holtzman J, Tang A, Hellmuth J, et al. Essential function of HIPK2 in TGFbeta-dependent survival of midbrain dopamine neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:77-86 pubmed
    ..These data underscore the importance of the TGFbeta-Smad-HIPK2 pathway in the survival of DA neurons and its potential as a therapeutic target for promoting DA neuron survival during neurodegeneration. ..
  37. Xia W, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Differential interactions between transforming growth factor-beta3/TbetaR1, TAB1, and CD2AP disrupt blood-testis barrier and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16799-813 pubmed
    ..However, TGF-beta3 selectively disrupts Sertoli-germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium to facilitate germ cell migration without compromising BTB when TbetaRI interacts only with adaptor CD2AP. ..
  38. Xia W, Cheng C. TGF-beta3 regulates anchoring junction dynamics in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis via the Ras/ERK signaling pathway: An in vivo study. Dev Biol. 2005;280:321-43 pubmed
    ..Yet an agent that selectively disrupts AJs (e.g., AF-2364) can limit its effects exclusively at the Sertoli-germ cell adhesive site without perturbing the Sertoli-Sertoli TJs...
  39. Hu B, Chu S, Wang J, Wang G, Gao P, Zhu D. [No association between 3 polymorphisms of transforming growth factor beta3 gene and essential hypertension in Chinese]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2005;33:127-31 pubmed
    ..Two novel SNPs of TGF-beta3 gene were identified in Chinese. One of them produces a threonine to asparagines substitution in codon 63 (Thr63Asn). But no association was found between TGF-beta3 gene polymorphisms and EH in Chinese. ..
  40. Maheshwari A, Kelly D, Nicola T, Ambalavanan N, Jain S, Murphy Ullrich J, et al. TGF-?2 suppresses macrophage cytokine production and mucosal inflammatory responses in the developing intestine. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Enterally administered TGF-?(2) protected mice from experimental NEC-like injury. ..
  41. Lui W, Wong C, Mruk D, Cheng C. TGF-beta3 regulates the blood-testis barrier dynamics via the p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway: an in vivo study. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1139-42 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate that BTB dynamics in vivo are regulated by the TGF-beta3/p38 MAP kinase pathway, which in turn determines the level of occludin at the site of Sertoli cells TJs. ..
  42. Wang J, Kuliszewski M, Yee W, Sedlackova L, Xu J, Tseu I, et al. Cloning and expression of glucocorticoid-induced genes in fetal rat lung fibroblasts. Transforming growth factor-beta 3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2722-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis of DNA sequence homology suggested that this cDNA encodes the rat transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF beta 3). We found that TGF beta 3 mRNA was expressed in fetal lung fibroblasts but not epithelial cells...
  43. Wagner W, Wehrmann M. Differential cytokine activity and morphology during wound healing in the neonatal and adult rat skin. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:1342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondly, the data may recommend inhibition of PDGF A, basic FGF or TGF-beta1 as therapeutic targets in efforts to optimize wound healing in the adult organism. ..
  44. Anthwal N, Chai Y, Tucker A. The role of transforming growth factor-beta signalling in the patterning of the proximal processes of the murine dentary. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the proper development of the processes and their secondary cartilages relies on both Tgf-beta signalling and mechanical forces working in concert. ..
  45. Huang T, David L, Mendoza V, Yang Y, Villarreal M, De K, et al. TGF-? signalling is mediated by two autonomously functioning T?RI:T?RII pairs. EMBO J. 2011;30:1263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..They further underscore how the TGF-?s diverged from the bone morphogenetic proteins, the ancestral ligands of the TGF-? superfamily that signal through a RI:RII:RII heterotrimer. ..
  46. Wong E, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Regulation of blood-testis barrier dynamics by TGF-beta3 is a Cdc42-dependent protein trafficking event. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Cdc42 is a crucial regulatory component in the TGF-beta3-mediated cascade of events that leads to the disruption of the TJ fibrils above the preleptotene spermatocytes to facilitate their transit...
  47. Bègue Kirn C, Smith A, Loriot M, Kupferle C, Ruch J, Lesot H. Comparative analysis of TGF beta s, BMPs, IGF1, msxs, fibronectin, osteonectin and bone sialoprotein gene expression during normal and in vitro-induced odontoblast differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 1994;38:405-20 pubmed the presence of IGF-1 combined with heparin did not express TGF beta 1 transcripts and expressed weakly TGF beta 3 transcripts...
  48. Azhar M, Runyan R, Gard C, Sanford L, Miller M, Andringa A, et al. Ligand-specific function of transforming growth factor beta in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in heart development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the function of TGFbeta in cushion EMT, we analyzed Tgfb1(-/-), Tgfb2(-/-), and Tgfb3(-/-) mice between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and E14.5 using both in vitro and in vivo approaches...
  49. Li J, Brooks G. Differential protein expression and subcellular distribution of TGFbeta1, beta2 and beta3 in cardiomyocytes during pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997;29:2213-24 pubmed
  50. Konrad L, Keilani M, Laible L, Nottelmann U, Hofmann R. Effects of TGF-betas and a specific antagonist on apoptosis of immature rat male germ cells in vitro. Apoptosis. 2006;11:739-48 pubmed
  51. Opperman L, Galanis V, Williams A, Adab K. Transforming growth factor-beta3 (Tgf-beta3) down-regulates Tgf-beta3 receptor type I (Tbetar-I) during rescue of cranial sutures from osseous obliteration. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2002;5:5-16 pubmed
    ..Addition of Tgf-beta3 to calvaria in culture decreased the number of Tbetar-I expressing cells in both fusing and non-fusing sutures, with dramatic decreases in the numbers of osteoblasts expressing Tbetar-I. ..
  52. Dudas M, Nagy A, Laping N, Moustakas A, Kaartinen V. Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway. Dev Biol. 2004;266:96-108 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we conclude that the Smad2-dependent Alk-5 signaling pathway is dominant in palatal fusion driven by Tgf-beta3. ..
  53. D Cruz C, Moody S, Master S, Hartman J, Keiper E, Imielinski M, et al. Persistent parity-induced changes in growth factors, TGF-beta3, and differentiation in the rodent mammary gland. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2034-51 pubmed
    ..These findings define a developmental state of the mammary gland that is refractory to carcinogenesis and suggest novel hypotheses for the mechanisms by which parity may modulate breast cancer risk. ..