Gene Symbol: Tgfb1
Description: transforming growth factor, beta 1
Alias: Tgfb, transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1
Species: rat
Products:     Tgfb1

Top Publications

  1. He Y, Huang C, Sun X, Long X, Lv X, Li J. MicroRNA-146a modulates TGF-beta1-induced hepatic stellate cell proliferation by targeting SMAD4. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1923-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that miR-146a may function as a novel regulator to modulate HSC activation during TGF-?1 induction by targeting SMAD4. ..
  2. Doi S, Zou Y, Togao O, Pastor J, John G, Wang L, et al. Klotho inhibits transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) signaling and suppresses renal fibrosis and cancer metastasis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have raised the possibility that secreted Klotho may function as an endogenous anti-EMT factor by inhibiting multiple growth factor signaling pathways simultaneously. ..
  3. Galie P, Russell M, Westfall M, Stegemann J. Interstitial fluid flow and cyclic strain differentially regulate cardiac fibroblast activation via AT1R and TGF-?1. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have relevance to the pathogenesis and treatment of heart failure. ..
  4. Chen N, Huang S, Chen W, Chen C, Lu C, Chen C, et al. TGF-?1 attenuates spinal neuroinflammation and the excitatory amino acid system in rats with neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2013;14:1671-85 pubmed publisher
    ..t. TGF-?1 was designed to be administered 2 weeks after the establishment of CCI pain. Compared to the continuous TGF-?1 infusion mode, single-dose administration seems more convenient and practical to use. ..
  5. Uttarwar L, Gao B, Ingram A, Krepinsky J. SREBP-1 activation by glucose mediates TGF-? upregulation in mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated SREBP-1 binds to the TGF-? promoter, resulting in TGF-?1 upregulation in response to HG. SREBP-1 thus provides a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  6. Ogawa T, Iizuka M, Sekiya Y, Yoshizato K, Ikeda K, Kawada N. Suppression of type I collagen production by microRNA-29b in cultured human stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that miR-29b will be used for the regulation of stellate cell activation and lead to antifibrotic therapy. ..
  7. Zhou Y, Hagood J, Lu B, Merryman W, Murphy Ullrich J. Thy-1-integrin alphav beta5 interactions inhibit lung fibroblast contraction-induced latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation and myofibroblast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22382-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that targeting key mechanotransducers to inhibit mechanotransduction might be an effective approach to inhibit the deleterious effects of myofibroblast contraction on lung fibrogenesis. ..
  8. Suwanabol P, Seedial S, Zhang F, Shi X, Si Y, Liu B, et al. TGF-? and Smad3 modulate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H2211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a potential mechanism for the substantial effect of TGF-? on intimal hyperplasia and suggest new targets for chemical or molecular prevention of vascular restenosis. ..
  9. Sun G, Reddy M, Yuan H, Lanting L, Kato M, Natarajan R. Epigenetic histone methylation modulates fibrotic gene expression. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:2069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacologic and other therapies that reverse these modifications could have potential renoprotective effects for diabetic nephropathy. ..

More Information


  1. Zhou D, Li Z, Zhang L, Zhan C. Inhibitory effect of tanshinone II A on TGF II-?1-induced cardiac fibrosis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012;32:829-833 pubmed publisher
  2. Kohta M, Kohmura E, Yamashita T. Inhibition of TGF-beta1 promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the possibility of using TGF-beta1 inhibitors in the treatment of human spinal cord injuries. ..
  3. Dasgupta C, Sakurai R, Wang Y, Guo P, Ambalavanan N, Torday J, et al. Hyperoxia-induced neonatal rat lung injury involves activation of TGF-{beta} and Wnt signaling and is protected by rosiglitazone. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L1031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of PPARgamma agonists may thus be a potential strategy to attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury and subsequent BPD. ..
  4. Du B, Ma L, Huang M, Zhou H, Huang H, Shao P, et al. High glucose down-regulates miR-29a to increase collagen IV production in HK-2 cells. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:811-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that miR-29a acts as a repressor to fine-tune collagen expression and that the reduction of miR-29a caused by high glucose may increase the risk of excess collagen deposition in PTCs. ..
  5. TSAI S, Hollenbeck S, Ryer E, Edlin R, Yamanouchi D, Kundi R, et al. TGF-beta through Smad3 signaling stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal formation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of elevated levels of Smad3 that develop in response to injury, TGF-beta stimulates smooth muscle cell proliferation through a mechanism involving the phosphorylation and nuclear export of p27. ..
  6. Javelaud D, Mauviel A. Mammalian transforming growth factor-betas: Smad signaling and physio-pathological roles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:1161-5 pubmed
    ..Cellular signaling by TGF-beta family members is initiated by the assembly of specific cell surface serine/threonine kinase type receptors that activate transcription factors of the Smad family. ..
  7. Gauldie J, Galt T, Bonniaud P, Robbins C, Kelly M, Warburton D. Transfer of the active form of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene to newborn rat lung induces changes consistent with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:2575-84 pubmed
  8. Liu Q, Mao H, Nie J, Chen W, Yang Q, Dong X, et al. Transforming growth factor {beta}1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the JNK-Smad3 pathway in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Perit Dial Int. 2008;28 Suppl 3:S88-95 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that JNK signaling may play an important role in EMT induced by TGFbeta1 in RPMCs through activation of Smad3, suggesting that JNK inhibitor may prove to be a novel therapeutic agent for peritoneal fibrosis. ..
  9. Bellone G, Carbone A, Tibaudi D, Mauri F, Ferrero I, Smirne C, et al. Differential expression of transforming growth factors-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 in human colon carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:224-33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate distinct expression patterns of the three TGF-beta isoforms in colon carcinoma cells and possible systemic effects of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 in tumour patients. ..
  10. Daniel C, Takabatake Y, Mizui M, Isaka Y, Kawashi H, Rupprecht H, et al. Antisense oligonucleotides against thrombospondin-1 inhibit activation of tgf-beta in fibrotic renal disease in the rat in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:1185-92 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TSP1 is the major endogenous activator of TGF-beta in experimental inflammatory kidney disease. ..
  11. Huang Y, Noble N, Zhang J, Xu C, Border W. Renin-stimulated TGF-beta1 expression is regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase in mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2007;72:45-52 pubmed
    ..This renin-activated pathway triggers cell proliferation along with TGF-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression. This system may play an important role in the overall profibrotic actions of renin. ..
  12. Karonen T, Jeskanen L, Keski Oja J. Transforming growth factor beta 1 and its latent form binding protein-1 associate with elastic fibres in human dermis: accumulation in actinic damage and absence in anetoderma. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:51-8 pubmed
    ..The release of latent TGF-beta 1 from the matrix, as a consequence of proteolytic cleavage of LTBP-1, is a plausible extracellular mechanism for the regulation of TGF-beta 1 activation. ..
  13. Rhyu D, Yang Y, Ha H, Lee G, Song J, Uh S, et al. Role of reactive oxygen species in TGF-beta1-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:667-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, this data suggest that ROS play an important role in TGF-beta1-induced EMT primarily through activation of MAPK and subsequently through ERK-directed activation of Smad pathway in proximal tubular epithelial cells. ..
  14. Morris D, Huang X, Kaminski N, Wang Y, Shapiro S, Dolganov G, et al. Loss of integrin alpha(v)beta6-mediated TGF-beta activation causes Mmp12-dependent emphysema. Nature. 2003;422:169-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that a functional alteration in the TGF-beta activation pathway affects susceptibility to this disease. ..
  15. Wu Z, Zhou Q, Lan Y, Wang Y, Xu X, Jin H. AP-1 complexes mediate oxidized LDL-induced overproduction of TGF-beta(1) in rat mesangial cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2004;22:237-47 pubmed
    ..The functional and structural results show that Ox-LDL regulates rat TGF-beta(1) gene expression through AP-1 binding sites and gives rise to the involvement of protein kinase C in Ox-LDL-induced TGF-beta(1) gene expression. ..
  16. Yehualaeshet T, O CONNOR R, Green Johnson J, Mai S, Silverstein R, Murphy Ullrich J, et al. Activation of rat alveolar macrophage-derived latent transforming growth factor beta-1 by plasmin requires interaction with thrombospondin-1 and its cell surface receptor, CD36. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:841-51 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that activation of L-TGF-beta1 by plasmin occurs at the cell surface of activated alveolar macrophages and requires a TSP-1/CD36 interaction. ..
  17. Shooner C, Caron P, Fréchette Frigon G, Leblanc V, Dery M, Asselin E. TGF-beta expression during rat pregnancy and activity on decidual cell survival. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-beta isoforms are regulated differently during pregnancy and may have an important role in the control of apoptosis and cell survival at specific stages during pregnancy. ..
  18. Caraci F, Battaglia G, Busceti C, Biagioni F, Mastroiacovo F, Bosco P, et al. TGF-beta 1 protects against Abeta-neurotoxicity via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;30:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-K) inhibitor, LY294402, abrogated all effects. Thus, TGF-beta1 blocks the whole cascade of events leading to A beta neurotoxicity by activating the PI-3-K pathway. ..
  19. Guo B, Inoki K, Isono M, Mori H, Kanasaki K, Sugimoto T, et al. MAPK/AP-1-dependent regulation of PAI-1 gene expression by TGF-beta in rat mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2005;68:972-84 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the essential requirement of MAPK/AP-1 activation for TGF-beta1-induced PAI-1 expression is unique to rat mesangial cells. ..
  20. Buss A, Pech K, Kakulas B, Martin D, Schoenen J, Noth J, et al. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression after traumatic human spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2008;46:364-71 pubmed
    ..Neither of these TGF-beta isoforms appears to contribute to the astrocytic scar formation in nerve fibre tracts undergoing Wallerian degeneration. ..
  21. Letterio J, Geiser A, Kulkarni A, Roche N, Sporn M, Roberts A. Maternal rescue of transforming growth factor-beta 1 null mice. Science. 1994;264:1936-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an important role for maternal sources of TGF-beta 1 during development and, more generally, provide evidence for maternal rescue of targeted gene disruption in the fetus. ..
  22. Venkatesan N, Roughley P, Ludwig M. Proteoglycan expression in bleomycin lung fibroblasts: role of transforming growth factor-beta(1) and interferon-gamma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L806-14 pubmed
    ..Activation of fibroblasts by TGF-beta(1) promotes abnormal deposition of PGs in fibrotic lungs; downregulation of TGF-beta(1) by IFN-gamma may have potential therapeutic benefits in this disease. ..
  23. Dickson M, Martin J, Cousins F, Kulkarni A, Karlsson S, Akhurst R. Defective haematopoiesis and vasculogenesis in transforming growth factor-beta 1 knock out mice. Development. 1995;121:1845-54 pubmed
    b>Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is shown here to be required for yolk sac haematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation...
  24. Gordon K, Blobe G. Role of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily signaling pathways in human disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1782:197-228 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing studies will enable targeting of TGF-beta superfamily signaling pathways for the chemoprevention and treatment of human disease. ..
  25. Zhou L, Lopes J, Chong M, Ivanov I, Min R, Victora G, et al. TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 inhibits T(H)17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORgammat function. Nature. 2008;453:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the decision of antigen-stimulated cells to differentiate into either T(H)17 or T(reg) cells depends on the cytokine-regulated balance of RORgammat and Foxp3. ..
  26. Fain J, Tichansky D, Madan A. Transforming growth factor beta1 release by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity. Metabolism. 2005;54:1546-51 pubmed
    ..The release of TGF-beta1 was primarily by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue because release by adipocytes was less than 10% of that by the nonfat cells of adipose tissue. ..
  27. Li M, Wan Y, Flavell R. T cell-produced transforming growth factor-beta1 controls T cell tolerance and regulates Th1- and Th17-cell differentiation. Immunity. 2007;26:579-91 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that mice with a T cell-specific deletion of the Tgfb1 gene developed lethal immunopathology in multiple organs, and this development was associated with enhanced T cell ..
  28. Law B, Carver W. Activation of cardiac fibroblasts by ethanol is blocked by TGF-? inhibition. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:1286-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibiting the action of TGF-? decreases the fibrogenic effect induced by EtOH treatment. The results of this study support TGF-? to be an important component in cardiac fibrosis induced by exposure to EtOH. ..
  29. Zhan C, Tang J, Zhou D, Li Z. Effects of tanshinone IIA on the transforming growth factor β1/Smad signaling pathway in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014;46:633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effect of TSN on myocardial fibrosis may be associated with its inhibition of TGFβ1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and p-Smad2/3 nuclear translocation, which blocks the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathway in CFs. ..
  30. Yiang G, Chen J, Lin P, Liu H, Chen S, Wei C. Combined treatment with vitamin E and gefitinib has synergistic effects to inhibit TGF-?1-induced renal fibroblast proliferation. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:5372-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Pandey A, Goru S, Kadakol A, Malek V, Sharma N, Gaikwad A. H2AK119 monoubiquitination regulates Angiotensin II receptor mediated macrophage infiltration and renal fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats. Biochimie. 2016;131:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..e. the enrichment of H2AUb at Mcp1 and Tgfb1 promoter region was found to reduce drastically in the T2DN which could be significantly reversed by Telmisartan ..
  32. Yaddanapudi S, Altintas M, Kistler A, Fernandez I, Möller C, Wei C, et al. CD2AP in mouse and human podocytes controls a proteolytic program that regulates cytoskeletal structure and cellular survival. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3965-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies CD2AP as the gatekeeper of the podocyte TGF-? response through its regulation of CatL expression and defines a molecular mechanism underlying proteinuric kidney disease. ..
  33. Deng L, Blanco F, Stevens H, Lu R, Caudrillier A, McBride M, et al. MicroRNA-143 Activation Regulates Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Crosstalk in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Circ Res. 2015;117:870-883 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings confirm an important role for the miR-143/145 cluster in PAH pathobiology. ..
  34. Wang P, Liu T, Cong M, Wu X, Bai Y, Yin C, et al. Expression of extracellular matrix genes in cultured hepatic oval cells: an origin of hepatic stellate cells through transforming growth factor beta?. Liver Int. 2009;29:575-84 pubmed publisher
  35. Li R, Xiao J, Qing X, Xing J, Xia Y, Qi J, et al. Sp1 Mediates a Therapeutic Role of MiR-7a/b in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis via Mechanism Involving the TGF-β and MAPKs Pathways in Cardiac Fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125513 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, miR-7a/b has an anti-fibrotic role in ANG II-treated CFs that is mediated by Sp1 mechanism involving the TGF-β and MAPKs pathways. ..
  36. Rovo L, Szell M, Bella Z, Korsós A, Kemeny L, Jori J. The -509 C/T genotype of TGFbeta1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of benign airway stenosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;142:441-3 pubmed publisher
    ..5; 95% CI 1.5123-13.3902). Our findings suggest that, besides other iatrogenic factors, a genetic predisposition might contribute to the pathogenesis of BAS. ..
  37. Luo L, Sun Z, Zhang L, Li X, Dong Y, Liu T. Effects of low-level laser therapy on ROS homeostasis and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-?1 in skeletal muscle during the repair process. Lasers Med Sci. 2013;28:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This may constitute a new preventive approach to muscular fibrosis. ..
  38. Lo Y, Tsai Y, Wu S, Chen J, Chao J. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits cell activation and liver fibrosis in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Med Food. 2011;14:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Therefore, ginsenoside Rb1 exerted an antifibrotic effect on HSCs by inhibiting activation, proliferation, and expression of collagen, TGF-?1, MMP-2, and TIMP-1. ..
  39. Li X, Hu J, Zhang R, Sun X, Zhang Q, Guan X, et al. Urocortin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in obese db/db mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:1025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Urocortin could significantly ameliorate diabetic nephropathy and this effect was mediated via the CRF receptor. ..
  40. Li J, Li X, Xu W, Wang S, Hu Z, Zhang Q, et al. Antifibrotic effects of luteolin on hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by targeting AKT/mTOR/p70S6K and TGF?/Smad signalling pathways. Liver Int. 2015;35:1222-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that luteolin prevents the progression of liver fibrosis through multiple mechanisms and indicates that luteolin has potential for effective treatment of liver fibrosis. ..
  41. Oróstica M, López J, Zuñiga L, Utz D, Díaz P, Reuquén P, et al. Mating decreases plasma levels of TGFβ1 and regulates myosalpinx expression of TGFβ1/TGFBR3 in the rat. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Tgfb1 and Tgfbr3 mRNA and the level and distribution of TGFBR3 protein in the oviduct were also determined at these time ..
  42. Mózes M, Szoleczky P, Rosivall L, Kökény G. Sustained hyperosmolarity increses TGF-ß1 and Egr-1 expression in the rat renal medulla. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:209 pubmed publisher
    ..01), and increased Col3a1 and Col4a1 mRNA expression. We conclude that both TGF-ß and Egr-1 are upregulated by sustained hyperosmolarity in the rat renal medulla, and it favors the expression of extracellular matrix components. ..
  43. Shi M, Zhu J, Wang R, Chen X, Mi L, Walz T, et al. Latent TGF-? structure and activation. Nature. 2011;474:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequences of all 33 TGF-? family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis...
  44. Sun W, Wang Z, Wang J, Ma Q, Zhang X, Wu X. [Effects of Qufeng Tongluo Recipe on proliferation of and TGF-beta1 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in glomerular mesangial cells from rats]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2008;6:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..05). QFTLR has great inhibitory effect on mesangial cell proliferation and expressions of TGF-beta1 and IL-6 mRNAs, which may be one of its mechanisms in postponing glomerular sclerosis. ..
  45. He W, Liu K, Ding H. The relationship between transforming growth factor beta1 expression and cold ischemia injury of rat donor kidney. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;88:206-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of TGF-beta1 might be one of the mechanisms that initiate chronic allograft nephropathy. ..
  46. Liebhart J, Polak M, Dabrowski A, Dobek R, Liebhart E, Dor Wojnarowska A, et al. The G/G genotype of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) single nucleotide (+915G/C) polymorphism coincident with other host and environmental factors is associated with irreversible bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:417-22 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhang J, Li Y, Shan K, Wang L, Qiu W, Lu Y, et al. Sublytic C5b-9 induces IL-6 and TGF-?1 production by glomerular mesangial cells in rat Thy-1 nephritis through p300-mediated C/EBP? acetylation. FASEB J. 2014;28:1511-25 pubmed publisher
  48. Pan X, Chen Z, Huang R, Yao Y, Ma G. Transforming growth factor ?1 induces the expression of collagen type I by DNA methylation in cardiac fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60335 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that the DNMT-mediated DNA methylation is an important mechanism in regulating the TGF-?1-induced COL1A1 gene expression. ..
  49. Han J, Choi B, Yang C, Kim Y. Aldosterone-induced TGF-beta1 expression is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein-1 in mesangial cells. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24 Suppl:S195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that aldosterone-induced TGF-beta(1) expression in mesangial cells is regulated by the ERK1/2, JNK and AP-1 intracellular signaling pathways. ..
  50. Shen W, Li S, Chung S, Zhu L, Stayt J, Su T, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is associated with TGF-?1-induced permeability of centrally derived vascular endothelium. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 is involved in the increased paracellular permeability of central nervous system-derived vascular endothelium induced by TGF-?1. ..
  51. Walshe T, Leach L, D Amore P. TGF-? signaling is required for maintenance of retinal ganglion cell differentiation and survival. Neuroscience. 2011;189:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the induction of RGC-5 cell differentiation by HNPE-derived CM and illustrate a role for TGF-?1 in maintaining RGC-5 cell survival and promoting neurite outgrowth through p38 MAPK. ..
  52. Liu D, Li X, Ying B, Chen L, Wang T, Xu D, et al. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms 869 T/C and 915 G/C in the exon 1 locus of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility in Chinese. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:390-4 pubmed
    ..The homozygous wild-type CC of 869T/C on TGFbeta1 could be a predisposing factor in COPD and those who carry the C allele might have particularly susceptibility to developing COPD. ..
  53. Kraus S, Lehner B, Reichhart N, Couillard Despres S, Wagner K, Bogdahn U, et al. Transforming growth factor-?1 primes proliferating adult neural progenitor cells to electrophysiological functionality. Glia. 2013;61:1767-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, stimulation of NPCs by TGF-?1 fosters a functional neuronal phenotype, which will be of relevance for future cell replacement strategies in neurodegenerative diseases or acute CNS lesions. ..
  54. Wang L, Yuan T, Du G, Zhao Q, Ma L, Zhu J. The impact of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor-?1 in the myocardium of rats with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;104:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..1,25-(OH)2 D3 had a partially protective effect on myocardial fibrosis of diabetic rats, which might inhibit CTGF and TGF-?1 expression in the myocardial tissues. ..
  55. Riojas M, Villanueva Vedia R, Zamilpa R, Chen X, Du L, Phelix C, et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and correlation of urinary transforming growth factor-beta1 with blood hemoglobin A1C in the Atascosa Diabetes Study. Ethn Dis. 2008;18:S2-54-9 pubmed
    ..Use of one-hour PPG and urine markers for early kidney involvement could improve this disparity in such high-risk populations. ..
  56. Ng Y, Chen Y, Tsai T, Lan X, Yang W, Lan H. Pentoxifylline inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling and renal fibrosis in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PTX may be an anti-fibrosis agent capable of inhibiting renal fibrosis in a rat model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Blockade of TGF-beta1 expression and Smad2/3 activation may be a mechanism by which PTX inhibits renal fibrosis. ..
  57. Park S, Lee S, Park E, Kang M, So I, Jeon J, et al. TGF?1 induces stress fiber formation through upregulation of TRPC6 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:129-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings provide a basis for future investigation aimed at developing novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of vascular fibrosis. ..
  58. Tsirakis G, Pappa C, Spanoudakis M, Chochlakis D, Alegakis A, Psarakis F, et al. Clinical significance of sCD105 in angiogenesis and disease activity in multiple myeloma. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23:368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CD105 seems to play an important role in angiogenesis and tumor progression. Circulating levels of sCD105 could detect patients with more advanced disease and might help in evaluating the response to treatment. ..
  59. Liu Q, Zhang Y, Mao H, Chen W, Luo N, Zhou Q, et al. A crosstalk between the Smad and JNK signaling in the TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32009 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings may provide new insights into understanding the regulation of the TGF-?1-related JNK and Smad signaling in the development of fibrosis...
  60. Kotarkonda L, Kulshrestha R, Ravi K. Role of insulin like growth factor axis in the bleomycin induced lung injury in rats. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;102:86-96 pubmed publisher
  61. Mantoni T, Schendel R, Rodel F, Niedobitek G, Al Assar O, Masamune A, et al. Stromal SPARC expression and patient survival after chemoradiation for non-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:1806-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore in vitro data indicate that paracrine SPARC from PSC increases the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. ..
  62. Long L, Crosby A, Yang X, Southwood M, Upton P, Kim D, et al. Altered bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta signaling in rat models of pulmonary hypertension: potential for activin receptor-like kinase-5 inhibition in prevention and progression of disease. Circulation. 2009;119:566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of TGF-beta signaling via activin receptor-like kinase-5 prevents development and progression of PAH in the monocrotaline model and may involve inhibition of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell migration. ..
  63. Hilliard L, Russo L, Comper W. Hypertension-mediated albuminuria is associated with reduced lysosomal activity in the kidney and the heart. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate for the first time betaig-h3 expression and lysosomal activity as a key factor in the induction of albuminuria and cardiovascular disease associated with hypertension. ..
  64. Rhyu D, Park J, Sharma B, Ha H. Role of reactive oxygen species in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced extracellular matrix accumulation in renal tubular epithelial cells. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:625-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS and subsequent ERK and p38 MAPK activation play important roles in ECM accumulation in the renal tubulointerstitium. ..
  65. Seo J, Maki T, Maeda M, Miyamoto N, Liang A, Hayakawa K, et al. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells support blood-brain barrier integrity via TGF-? signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103174 pubmed publisher
    ..Although astrocytes and pericytes are well-known regulators of BBB maturation and maintenance, these findings indicate that OPCs also play a pivotal role in promoting BBB integrity. ..
  66. Maria S, Kamath V, Satelur K, Rajkumar K. Evaluation of transforming growth factor beta1 gene in oral submucous fibrosis induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by injections of areca nut and pan masala (commercial areca nut product) extracts. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..9 in the 24th. week. The study provides further evidence that arecanut and pan masala induce oral submucous fibrosisvia the TGF beta1 pathway. ..
  67. Li L, Emmett N, Mann D, Zhao X. Fenofibrate attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation through suppression of nuclear factor-?B and transforming growth factor-?1/Smad3 in diabetic nephropathy. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, fenofibrate suppressed NF-kappaB and TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling pathways and reduced renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic ZD animals. ..
  68. Vincze C, Pál G, Wappler E, Szabó E, Nagy Z, Lovas G, et al. Distribution of mRNAs encoding transforming growth factors-beta1, -2, and -3 in the intact rat brain and after experimentally induced focal ischemia. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3752-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they might have subtype-specific functions following ischemic attack. ..
  69. Meijering B, Van der Wouden E, Pelgröm V, Henning R, Sharma K, Deelman L. TGF-beta inhibits Ang II-induced MAPK p44/42 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells by Ang II type 1 receptor downregulation. J Vasc Res. 2009;46:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, TGF-beta1 attenuates Ang II-mediated MAPK p44/42 kinase signaling in RASMC through downregulation of AT(1) levels, which is mainly caused by the inhibition of transcription of the AT(1) gene. ..
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    ..Our results extend the complex interactions among local and systemic bone growth regulators to DHT, and predict complications from anabolic steroid use in other DHT sensitive tissues. ..
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    ..However, plasma IL-10 and TGF-beta1 levels were correlated with APACHE II score. A severity scoring system, including TGF-beta1 level on admission, may be considered as a useful parameter to predict outcomes of patients with severe CAP. ..
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    ..Significant up-regulation of hepatic TGF-? in hyperoxic rats suggests that TGF-? is involved in the acceleration of hepatic fibrosis under hyperoxic conditions. ..
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    ..The C-509T and T869C functional polymorphisms of TGF-beta(1) gene do not represent a genetic predisposition to COPD susceptibility in Hong Kong Chinese patients. ..
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    ..These findings indicate that the interaction between the cytokine TGF-? 1 and the pro-inflammatory mediators CysLTs in the regulation of astrocyte function is relevant to glial scar formation. ..
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    ..A higher dose of LXHXF produces more significant inhibitory effects on TNF-? and TGF-? expressions. ..
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    ..001). In this study, we provide evidence for an increased proportion of Treg cells in the PB of clinically localized patients with RCC with substantial tumor burden and a higher level of TGF-β1 compared with age-matched HCs. ..
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    ..Hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet ingestion leads to renal injury in diabetic rats through activating TGF-beta1 /Smad signaling pathway. ..