Gene Symbol: Syt1
Description: synaptotagmin 1
Alias: P65, synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin I, sytI
Species: rat
Products:     Syt1

Top Publications

  1. Sutton R, Davletov B, Berghuis A, Sudhof T, Sprang S. Structure of the first C2 domain of synaptotagmin I: a novel Ca2+/phospholipid-binding fold. Cell. 1995;80:929-38 pubmed
    C2 domains are regulatory sequence motifs that occur widely in nature. Synaptotagmin I, a synaptic vesicle protein involved in the Ca2+ regulation of exocytosis, contains two C2 domains, the first of which acts as a Ca2+ sensor...
  2. Vrljic M, Strop P, Hill R, Hansen K, Chu S, Brunger A. Post-translational modifications and lipid binding profile of insect cell-expressed full-length mammalian synaptotagmin 1. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9998-10012 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is a Ca(2+) sensor for SNARE-mediated, Ca(2+)-triggered synaptic vesicle fusion in neurons. It is composed of luminal, transmembrane, linker, and two Ca(2+)-binding (C2) domains...
  3. Kuo W, Herrick D, Cafiso D. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters synaptotagmin 1 membrane docking and drives opposing bilayers closer together. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2633-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle-anchored membrane protein that acts as the calcium sensor for the synchronous component of neuronal exocytosis...
  4. Tokumaru H, Shimizu Okabe C, Abe T. Direct interaction of SNARE complex binding protein synaphin/complexin with calcium sensor synaptotagmin 1. Brain Cell Biol. 2008;36:173-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that synaphin directly binds to synaptotagmin 1, a major Ca(2+) sensor for fast neurotransmitter release, in a 1:1 stoichiometry...
  5. Kanno E, Fukuda M. Increased plasma membrane localization of O-glycosylation-deficient mutant of synaptotagmin I in PC12 cells. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1036-43 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca2+-binding protein on synaptic vesicles and presumably functions as a Ca2+ sensor for neurotransmitter release...
  6. Chapman E, Desai R, Davis A, Tornehl C. Delineation of the oligomerization, AP-2 binding, and synprint binding region of the C2B domain of synaptotagmin. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32966-72 pubmed
    Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that synaptotagmin I functions as a Ca2+ sensor during synaptic vesicle exocytosis and as a membrane receptor for the clathrin adaptor complex, AP-2, during endocytosis...
  7. Lynch K, Martin T. Synaptotagmins I and IX function redundantly in regulated exocytosis but not endocytosis in PC12 cells. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:617-27 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I is considered to be a Ca2+ sensor for fast vesicle exocytosis. Because Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis persists in synaptotagmin I mutants, there must be additional Ca2+ sensors...
  8. Heindel U, Schmidt M, Veit M. Palmitoylation sites and processing of synaptotagmin I, the putative calcium sensor for neurosecretion. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:57-62 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I, the calcium sensor for neurotransmission, is palmitoylated. We have identified the palmitoylation sites as five cysteine residues located between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions...
  9. Zhang Z, Hui E, Chapman E, Jackson M. Regulation of exocytosis and fusion pores by synaptotagmin-effector interactions. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This associates the syt-PS interaction with two distinct kinetic steps in Ca(2+) triggered exocytosis and supports a role for the syt-PS interaction in stabilizing open fusion pores. ..

More Information


  1. Shao X, Fernandez I, Sudhof T, Rizo J. Solution structures of the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound C2A domain of synaptotagmin I: does Ca2+ induce a conformational change?. Biochemistry. 1998;37:16106-15 pubmed
    ..The C2A domain of synaptotagmin I is believed to play a key role in neurotransmitter release through its Ca2+-dependent interactions with ..
  2. Xiong X, Zhou K, Wu Z, Xu T. Silence of synaptotagmin I in INS-1 cells inhibits fast exocytosis and fast endocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:76-82 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca(2+) sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters...
  3. Perin M, Fried V, Mignery G, Jahn R, Sudhof T. Phospholipid binding by a synaptic vesicle protein homologous to the regulatory region of protein kinase C. Nature. 1990;345:260-3 pubmed
    ..We now report that the cytoplasmic domain of p65, a synaptic vesicle-specific protein that binds calmodulin contains an internally repeated sequence that is ..
  4. Shin O, Maximov A, Lim B, Rizo J, Sudhof T. Unexpected Ca2+-binding properties of synaptotagmin 9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2554-9 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) functions as an essential Ca2+ sensor for the fast but not slow component of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis...
  5. Arac D, Chen X, Khant H, Ubach J, Ludtke S, Kikkawa M, et al. Close membrane-membrane proximity induced by Ca(2+)-dependent multivalent binding of synaptotagmin-1 to phospholipids. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:209-17 pubmed
    ..We propose a model wherein synaptotagmin cooperates with the SNAREs in bringing the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes together and accelerates membrane fusion through the highly positive electrostatic potential of its C(2)B domain. ..
  6. Radhakrishnan A, Stein A, Jahn R, Fasshauer D. The Ca2+ affinity of synaptotagmin 1 is markedly increased by a specific interaction of its C2B domain with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25749-60 pubmed publisher
    The synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 is thought to convey the calcium signal onto the core secretory machinery...
  7. Fernandez I, Arac D, Ubach J, Gerber S, Shin O, Gao Y, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the synaptotagmin 1 C2B-domain: synaptotagmin 1 as a phospholipid binding machine. Neuron. 2001;32:1057-69 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 probably functions as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release via its two C2-domains, but no common Ca2+-dependent activity that could underlie a cooperative action between them has been described...
  8. Dong M, Richards D, Goodnough M, Tepp W, Johnson E, Chapman E. Synaptotagmins I and II mediate entry of botulinum neurotoxin B into cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1293-303 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that syt II fragments, in conjunction with gangliosides, neutralized BoNT/B in intact mice. These findings establish that syts I and II can function as protein receptors for BoNT/B. ..
  9. Rickman C, Archer D, Meunier F, Craxton M, Fukuda M, Burgoyne R, et al. Synaptotagmin interaction with the syntaxin/SNAP-25 dimer is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved motif and is sensitive to inositol hexakisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12574-9 pubmed
    ..Our results shed new light on the functional importance of the conserved polybasic synaptotagmin motif, suggesting that synaptotagmin interacts with the t-SNARE dimer to up-regulate the probability of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. ..
  10. Geppert M, Goda Y, Hammer R, Li C, Rosahl T, Stevens C, et al. Synaptotagmin I: a major Ca2+ sensor for transmitter release at a central synapse. Cell. 1994;79:717-27 pubmed
    Mice carrying a mutation in the synaptotagmin I gene were generated by homologous recombination. Mutant mice are phenotypically normal as heterozygotes, but die within 48 hr after birth as homozygotes...
  11. Jarousse N, Kelly R. The AP2 binding site of synaptotagmin 1 is not an internalization signal but a regulator of endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:857-66 pubmed
    ..By using CD4/synaptotagmin 1 chimeras, we found that the internalization signal of synaptotagmin 1 lies at the extreme COOH-terminus of ..
  12. Cheng Y, Sequeira S, Malinina L, Tereshko V, Sollner T, Patel D. Crystallographic identification of Ca2+ and Sr2+ coordination sites in synaptotagmin I C2B domain. Protein Sci. 2004;13:2665-72 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I has two tandem Ca(2+)-binding C(2) domains, which are essential for fast synchronous synaptic transmission in the central nervous system...
  13. Tocco G, Bi X, Vician L, Lim I, Herschman H, Baudry M. Two synaptotagmin genes, Syt1 and Syt4, are differentially regulated in adult brain and during postnatal development following kainic acid-induced seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;40:229-39 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the time course of the seizure-induced changes in the expression of Syt4 and Syt1, both in adult animals and during the postnatal period...
  14. Choi U, Strop P, Vrljic M, Chu S, Brunger A, WENINGER K. Single-molecule FRET-derived model of the synaptotagmin 1-SNARE fusion complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:318-24 pubmed publisher
    Synchronous neurotransmission is triggered when Ca(2+) binds to synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a synaptic-vesicle protein that interacts with SNAREs and membranes...
  15. Bhalla A, Chicka M, Chapman E. Analysis of the synaptotagmin family during reconstituted membrane fusion. Uncovering a class of inhibitory isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a subset of inhibitory syts down-regulated the ability of syt I to activate fusion, demonstrating that syt isoforms can modulate the function of each other. ..
  16. van den Bogaart G, Meyenberg K, Diederichsen U, Jahn R. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate increases Ca2+ affinity of synaptotagmin-1 by 40-fold. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that PIP(2) makes synaptotagmin-1 >40-fold more sensitive to Ca(2+). This interplay between Ca(2+), synaptotagmin-1, and PIP(2) is crucial for neurotransmitter release. ..
  17. Wang P, Wang C, Bai J, Jackson M, Chapman E. Mutations in the effector binding loops in the C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin I disrupt exocytosis in a nonadditive manner. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47030-7 pubmed
    The secretory vesicle protein synaptotagmin I (syt) plays a critical role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. Its cytoplasmic domain is composed of tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B; each C2 domain binds Ca2+...
  18. Zhang Z, Wu Y, Wang Z, Dunning F, Rehfuss J, Ramanan D, et al. Release mode of large and small dense-core vesicles specified by different synaptotagmin isoforms in PC12 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2324-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus synaptotagmin isoforms can provide multiple levels of control in the release of different molecules from the same cell...
  19. Zhu D, Zhou W, Liang T, Yang F, Zhang R, Wu Z, et al. Synaptotagmin I and IX function redundantly in controlling fusion pore of large dense core vesicles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:922-7 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation of both Syt I and Syt IX renders more fusion in the kiss-and-run mode. We conclude that Syt I and Syt IX function redundantly in Ca(2+)-sensing and fusion pore dilation on LDCVs in PC12 cells. ..
  20. Takamori S, Holt M, Stenius K, Lemke E, Gr Nborg M, Riedel D, et al. Molecular anatomy of a trafficking organelle. Cell. 2006;127:831-46 pubmed publisher
  21. Roden W, Papke J, Moore J, Cahill A, Macarthur H, Harkins A. Stable RNA interference of synaptotagmin I in PC12 cells results in differential regulation of transmitter release. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1742-52 pubmed
    ..Electron micrographs show that large dense core vesicles are synthesized and available for release in cells that lack syt I. These results are consistent with syt I regulating differential release of transmitters. ..
  22. Tucker W, Weber T, Chapman E. Reconstitution of Ca2+-regulated membrane fusion by synaptotagmin and SNAREs. Science. 2004;304:435-8 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of synaptotagmin I on membrane fusion mediated by neuronal SNARE proteins, SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which were reconstituted into vesicles...
  23. Herrick D, Sterbling S, Rasch K, Hinderliter A, Cafiso D. Position of synaptotagmin I at the membrane interface: cooperative interactions of tandem C2 domains. Biochemistry. 2006;45:9668-74 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I is a synaptic vesicle associated membrane protein that appears to regulate Ca(2+)-mediated exocytosis...
  24. Tucker W, Edwardson J, Bai J, Kim H, Martin T, Chapman E. Identification of synaptotagmin effectors via acute inhibition of secretion from cracked PC12 cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:199-209 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that syts trigger fusion via their Ca2+-regulated interactions with t-SNAREs and PIP2, target molecules known to play critical roles in exocytosis. ..
  25. Chicka M, Hui E, Liu H, Chapman E. Synaptotagmin arrests the SNARE complex before triggering fast, efficient membrane fusion in response to Ca2+. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:827-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synaptotagmin I functions as a Ca(2+) sensor that regulates exocytosis, whereas soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor ..
  26. Willig K, Rizzoli S, Westphal V, Jahn R, Hell S. STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Nature. 2006;440:935-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that synaptotagmin I, a protein resident in the vesicle membrane, remains clustered in isolated patches on the presynaptic ..
  27. Sampo B, Tricaud N, Leveque C, Seagar M, Couraud F, Dargent B. Direct interaction between synaptotagmin and the intracellular loop I-II of neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3666-71 pubmed
    ..3)H]saxitoxin-prelabeled sodium channels were trapped on immobilized maltose binding protein (MBP)-synaptotagmin I. In vitro recombinant protein assays were employed to identify the interaction site of synaptotagmin I, which ..
  28. Martens S, Kozlov M, McMahon H. How synaptotagmin promotes membrane fusion. Science. 2007;316:1205-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, synaptotagmin-1 triggers the fusion of docked vesicles by local Ca2+-dependent buckling of the plasma membrane together with the zippering of SNAREs. This mechanism may be widely used in membrane fusion. ..
  29. Charvin N, L evêque C, Walker D, Berton F, Raymond C, Kataoka M, et al. Direct interaction of the calcium sensor protein synaptotagmin I with a cytoplasmic domain of the alpha1A subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel. EMBO J. 1997;16:4591-6 pubmed
    ..Direct interactions were studied between in vitro-translated [35S]synaptotagmin I and fusion proteins containing cytoplasmic loops of the alpha1A subunit (BI isoform)...
  30. Jung N, Wienisch M, Gu M, Rand J, Müller S, Krause G, et al. Molecular basis of synaptic vesicle cargo recognition by the endocytic sorting adaptor stonin 2. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1497-510 pubmed publisher
    ..involves the direct association of clusters of basic residues on the surface of the cytoplasmic domain of synaptotagmin 1 and a beta strand within the mu-homology domain of stonin 2...
  31. Walther K, Krauss M, Diril M, Lemke S, Ricotta D, Honing S, et al. Human stoned B interacts with AP-2 and synaptotagmin and facilitates clathrin-coated vesicle uncoating. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:634-40 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that hStnB regulates synaptic vesicle recycling by facilitating vesicle uncoating. ..
  32. Herrick D, Kuo W, Huang H, Schwieters C, Ellena J, Cafiso D. Solution and membrane-bound conformations of the tandem C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin 1: Evidence for bilayer bridging. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:913-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle membrane protein that functions as the Ca(2)(+) sensor in neuronal exocytosis...
  33. Hu Z, Chen M, Ping Z, Dong Y, Zhang R, Xu T, et al. Synaptotagmin IV regulates dense core vesicle (DCV) release in LbetaT2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;371:781-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of Syt IV clearly reduced Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of dense core vesicles (DCVs) in LbetaT2 cells. Syt I silencing, however, had no effect on vesicular release. ..
  34. Li C, Ullrich B, Zhang J, Anderson R, Brose N, Sudhof T. Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent activities of neural and non-neural synaptotagmins. Nature. 1995;375:594-9 pubmed
    ..The same C2 domains also bind syntaxin as a function of Ca2+ but the Ca(2+)-concentration dependence of Syt I, II and V (> 200 microM) differs from that of Syt III and VII (< 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  35. Lai A, Huang H, Herrick D, Epp N, Cafiso D. Synaptotagmin 1 and SNAREs form a complex that is structurally heterogeneous. J Mol Biol. 2011;405:696-706 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) functions as a Ca(2+)-sensor for neuronal exocytosis...
  36. Thomas D, Ferguson G, Herschman H, Elferink L. Functional and biochemical analysis of the C2 domains of synaptotagmin IV. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2285-95 pubmed
  37. Wang C, Bai J, Chang P, Chapman E, Jackson M. Synaptotagmin-Ca2+ triggers two sequential steps in regulated exocytosis in rat PC12 cells: fusion pore opening and fusion pore dilation. J Physiol. 2006;570:295-307 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I (Syt I), the putative Ca(2+) sensor in regulated exocytosis, has two Ca(2+)-binding modules, the C2A and C2B domains, and a number of putative effectors to which Syt I binds in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion...
  38. Fukuda M, Kowalchyk J, Zhang X, Martin T, Mikoshiba K. Synaptotagmin IX regulates Ca2+-dependent secretion in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4601-4 pubmed
    ..Our results support the idea that Syt family proteins that co-reside on secretory vesicles may function cooperatively and redundantly as potential Ca(2+) sensors for exocytosis. ..
  39. Zhang Q, Fukuda M, Van Bockstaele E, Pascual O, Haydon P. Synaptotagmin IV regulates glial glutamate release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9441-6 pubmed
  40. Davletov B, Sudhof T. A single C2 domain from synaptotagmin I is sufficient for high affinity Ca2+/phospholipid binding. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26386-90 pubmed
    b>Synaptotagmin I is a Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding protein of synaptic vesicles with an essential function in neurotransmission...
  41. Lynch K, Gerona R, Kielar D, Martens S, McMahon H, Martin T. Synaptotagmin-1 utilizes membrane bending and SNARE binding to drive fusion pore expansion. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that Syt-1 uses both Ca(2+)-dependent membrane insertion and SNARE binding to drive fusion pore expansion. ..
  42. Bai J, Wang C, Richards D, Jackson M, Chapman E. Fusion pore dynamics are regulated by synaptotagmin*t-SNARE interactions. Neuron. 2004;41:929-42 pubmed
    ..A putative Ca2+ sensor for release, synaptotagmin I (syt), binds directly to syntaxin and SNAP-25, which are components of a conserved membrane fusion complex...
  43. Bai J, Tucker W, Chapman E. PIP2 increases the speed of response of synaptotagmin and steers its membrane-penetration activity toward the plasma membrane. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:36-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that syt-PIP2 interactions are involved in exocytosis by facilitating the close apposition of the vesicle and target membrane on rapid time scales in response to Ca2+. ..
  44. Stevens C, Sullivan J. The synaptotagmin C2A domain is part of the calcium sensor controlling fast synaptic transmission. Neuron. 2003;39:299-308 pubmed
    ..We conclude that neutralization of the negative charge at D232 by coordination of a calcium ion is necessary--but not sufficient--for fast neurotransmission at mammalian CNS synapses. ..
  45. Shin O, Rhee J, Tang J, Sugita S, Rosenmund C, Sudhof T. Sr2+ binding to the Ca2+ binding site of the synaptotagmin 1 C2B domain triggers fast exocytosis without stimulating SNARE interactions. Neuron. 2003;37:99-108 pubmed
    Sr(2+) triggers neurotransmitter release similar to Ca(2+), but less efficiently. We now show that in synaptotagmin 1 knockout mice, the fast component of both Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-induced release is selectively impaired, suggesting that ..
  46. Ullrich B, Li C, Zhang J, McMahon H, Anderson R, Geppert M, et al. Functional properties of multiple synaptotagmins in brain. Neuron. 1994;13:1281-91 pubmed
    At least four forms of synaptotagmin are expressed in neurons. Of these, synaptotagmin I has an essential function in mediating Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses, but the functional implications of ..
  47. Lee H, Yang Y, Su Z, Hyeon C, Lee T, Lee H, et al. Dynamic Ca2+-dependent stimulation of vesicle fusion by membrane-anchored synaptotagmin 1. Science. 2010;328:760-3 pubmed publisher
    In neurons, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is thought to mediate the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane when presynaptic Ca2+ levels rise...
  48. Gerber S, Rah J, Min S, Liu X, de Wit H, Dulubova I, et al. Conformational switch of syntaxin-1 controls synaptic vesicle fusion. Science. 2008;321:1507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the closed conformation of syntaxin-1 gates the initiation of the synaptic vesicle fusion reaction, which is then mediated by SNARE-complex/Munc18-1 assemblies. ..
  49. Pérez Lara Ã, Thapa A, Nyenhuis S, Nyenhuis D, Halder P, Tietzel M, et al. PtdInsP2 and PtdSer cooperate to trap synaptotagmin-1 to the plasma membrane in the presence of calcium. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both membrane penetration and the increased residence time of synaptotagmin-1 at the plasma membrane are crucial for triggering exocytotic membrane fusion. ..
  50. Xue M, Craig T, Shin O, Li L, Brautigam C, Tomchick D, et al. Structural and mutational analysis of functional differentiation between synaptotagmins-1 and -7. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..chimera that contains the synaptotagmin-1 sequence with its C2B domain replaced by the synaptotagmin-7 C2B domain (Syt1/7)...
  51. Moore Dotson J, Papke J, Harkins A. Upregulation of synaptotagmin IV inhibits transmitter release in PC12 cells with targeted synaptotagmin I knockdown. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support an inhibitory effect of syt IV on release of vesicles and their transmitter content. The effect became more pronounced when syt I expression was abolished. ..
  52. Maienschein V, Marxen M, Volknandt W, Zimmermann H. A plethora of presynaptic proteins associated with ATP-storing organelles in cultured astrocytes. Glia. 1999;26:233-44 pubmed
    ..astrocytic expression and organellar association of a large variety of synaptic proteins (synaptobrevin II, synaptotagmin I, synaptophysin, rab3a, synapsin I, SNAP-25, and syntaxin I) and also of the ubiquitous cellubrevin...
  53. Parisotto D, Malsam J, Scheutzow A, Krause J, Sollner T. SNAREpin assembly by Munc18-1 requires previous vesicle docking by synaptotagmin 1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..docking, priming, and fusion of small unilamellar vesicles containing the v-SNARE VAMP2 and the Ca(2+) sensor synaptotagmin 1. In vitro assays allowed us to position Munc18-1 in the center of a sequential reaction cascade; vesicle ..