Gene Symbol: Syp
Description: synaptophysin
Alias: Syp1, synaptophysin, major synaptic vesicle protein p38
Species: rat
Products:     Syp

Top Publications

  1. Sudhof T, Lottspeich F, Greengard P, Mehl E, Jahn R. A synaptic vesicle protein with a novel cytoplasmic domain and four transmembrane regions. Science. 1987;238:1142-4 pubmed
    Complementary DNA and genomic clones were isolated and sequenced corresponding to rat and human synaptophysin (p38), a major integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles...
  2. Leube R, Kaiser P, Seiter A, Zimbelmann R, Franke W, Rehm H, et al. Synaptophysin: molecular organization and mRNA expression as determined from cloned cDNA. EMBO J. 1987;6:3261-8 pubmed
    b>Synaptophysin is a major glycoprotein of Mr approximately 38,000 (in deglycosylated form: Mr approximately 34,000) characteristic of a certain class of small (30-80 nm diameter) neurosecretory vesicles, including presynaptic vesicles, ..
  3. Asano Miyoshi M, Hamamichi R, Emori Y. Synaptophysin as a probable component of neurotransmission occurring in taste receptor cells. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..phospholipase C-beta2, we searched for candidate molecules involved in the neurotransmission, and identified synaptophysin. Synaptophysin was expressed in the taste receptor cells expressing phospholipase C-beta2, as well as in the ..
  4. Pennuto M, Dunlap D, Contestabile A, Benfenati F, Valtorta F. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 interactions during exocytosis from single live synapses. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2706-17 pubmed
    To investigate the molecular interactions of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin II during exocytosis, we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure fluorescence resonance energy transfer ..
  5. Kwon S, Chapman E. Synaptophysin regulates the kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis in central neurons. Neuron. 2011;70:847-54 pubmed publisher
    Despite being the most abundant synaptic vesicle membrane protein, the function of synaptophysin remains enigmatic...
  6. Ishibashi H. Increased synaptophysin expression through whisker stimulation in rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2002;22:191-5 pubmed
    1. Synaptophysin is responsible for the cycling of the synaptic vesicles containing the neurotransmitter, and it can be phosphorylated. 2...
  7. Gitler D, Xu Y, Kao H, Lin D, Lim S, Feng J, et al. Molecular determinants of synapsin targeting to presynaptic terminals. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3711-20 pubmed
    ..Domain D inhibited targeting, but this inhibition was overcome by domain E. Thus, multiple intermolecular and intramolecular interactions are required for synapsins to target to presynaptic terminals. ..
  8. Ribeiro C, Carneiro K, Ross C, Menezes J, Engelender S. Synphilin-1 is developmentally localized to synaptic terminals, and its association with synaptic vesicles is modulated by alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23927-33 pubmed
    ..Our data indicated that synphilin-1 is a synaptic partner of alpha-synuclein, and it may mediate synaptic roles attributed to alpha-synuclein. ..
  9. He S, Yang J. Maturation of neurotransmission in the developing rat cochlea: immunohistochemical evidence from differential expression of synaptophysin and synaptobrevin 2. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55:e2 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptophysin and synaptobrevin 2 associate closely with packaging and storage of synaptic vesicles and transmitter release, and both play important roles in the development of rat cochlea...

More Information


  1. Bargou R, Leube R. The synaptophysin-encoding gene in rat and man is specifically transcribed in neuroendocrine cells. Gene. 1991;99:197-204 pubmed
    b>Synaptophysin (SY) is an integral membrane protein of presynaptic small (30-80-nm) translucent vesicles also present in dispersed neuroendocrine cells...
  2. Ma H, Yu B, Kong L, Zhang Y, Shi Y. Transplantation of neural stem cells enhances expression of synaptic protein and promotes functional recovery in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Mol Med Rep. 2011;4:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and regeneration?associated protein (GAP43) in the injured brain of NSC-transplanted rats was ..
  3. Thiele C, Hannah M, Fahrenholz F, Huttner W. Cholesterol binds to synaptophysin and is required for biogenesis of synaptic vesicles. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:42-9 pubmed
    ..We identify synaptophysin as a major specifically cholesterol-binding protein in PC12 cells and brain synaptic vesicles...
  4. Bonetti L, Ilha J, Schneider A, Barbosa S, Faccioni Heuser M. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush. Muscle Nerve. 2016;53:617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity...
  5. Tarsa L, Balkowiec A. Nerve growth factor regulates synaptophysin expression in developing trigeminal ganglion neurons in vitro. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:47-52 pubmed publisher that nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates the intracellular distribution of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (Syp) in newborn rat TG neurons in vitro...
  6. Afadlal S, Polaboon N, Surakul P, Govitrapong P, Jutapakdeegul N. Prenatal stress alters presynaptic marker proteins in the hippocampus of rat pups. Neurosci Lett. 2010;470:24-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examines the effect of maternal restraint stress on the level of GAP-43, pGAP-43 and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of rat pups...
  7. Offenhauser N, Castelletti D, Mapelli L, Soppo B, Regondi M, Rossi P, et al. Increased ethanol resistance and consumption in Eps8 knockout mice correlates with altered actin dynamics. Cell. 2006;127:213-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, Eps8 null neurons are resistant to the actin-remodeling activities of NMDA and ethanol. We propose that proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a key determinant of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol. ..
  8. Xiao Z, Peng J, Wu L, Arafat A, Yin F. The effect of IL-1β on synaptophysin expression and electrophysiology of hippocampal neurons through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in a rat model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurol Res. 2017;39:640-648 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Synaptophysin (SYN) and other changes, including neuron electrophysiology, participate in the pathophysiological processes ..
  9. Biederer T, Sara Y, Mozhayeva M, Atasoy D, Liu X, Kavalali E, et al. SynCAM, a synaptic adhesion molecule that drives synapse assembly. Science. 2002;297:1525-31 pubmed
  10. Shibata T, Yamada K, Watanabe M, Ikenaka K, Wada K, Tanaka K, et al. Glutamate transporter GLAST is expressed in the radial glia-astrocyte lineage of developing mouse spinal cord. J Neurosci. 1997;17:9212-9 pubmed
  11. Shen Y, Jin X. [GluR2 expression in the developing rat inferior colliculus and the relationship with development of synapse]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;24:173-6 pubmed
    ..The expression of GluR2 and synaptophysin(SYP) in IC were detected by double immunofluorescence method...
  12. Williams S, Chen L, Savignac H, Tzortzis G, Anthony D, Burnet P. Neonatal prebiotic (BGOS) supplementation increases the levels of synaptophysin, GluN2A-subunits and BDNF proteins in the adult rat hippocampus. Synapse. 2016;70:121-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of hippocampal N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits (GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B), synaptic proteins (synaptophysin, MAP2, and GAP43) and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at post-natal days 22 and 56...
  13. Wilson S, Bhattacharyya B, Rachel R, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Householder D, et al. Synaptic defects in ataxia mice result from a mutation in Usp14, encoding a ubiquitin-specific protease. Nat Genet. 2002;32:420-5 pubmed
    ..Instead, ax(J) mice have defects in synaptic transmission in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. These results suggest that ubiquitin proteases are important in regulating synaptic activity in mammals. ..
  14. Felkl M, Leube R. Interaction assays in yeast and cultured cells confirm known and identify novel partners of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin. Neuroscience. 2008;156:344-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptophysin (SYP) is a major protein of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles spanning the membrane four times and contributing to various aspects of the synaptic vesicle cycle...
  15. Fukuda M. Distinct developmental expression of synaptotagmin I and IX in the mouse brain. Neuroreport. 2006;17:179-82 pubmed
    ..and found that it is mainly present in the dense-core vesicle fraction, which is devoid of synaptotagmin I and synaptophysin. We also found that the synaptotagmin IX expression level is constant throughout the postnatal development of ..
  16. Ito H, Atsuzawa K, Sudo K, Di Stefano P, Iwamoto I, Morishita R, et al. Characterization of a multidomain adaptor protein, p140Cap, as part of a pre-synaptic complex. J Neurochem. 2008;107:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We also clarified that a pre-synaptic protein, synaptophysin, interacts with p140Cap...
  17. Grandi D, Becchi G, Guerrini R, Calò G, Morini G. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ and stress regulate synaptophysin expression in the rat fundic and colonic mucosa. Tissue Cell. 2015;47:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of acute cold-restraint stress and of short- and long-lasting peripheral infusion of N/OFQ on the level of synaptophysin, an exocytotic protein involved in neural plasticity...
  18. Kirichenko E, Logvinov A, PovilaÄ­tite P, Grankina A. [Neuronal and glial antigen distribution in the columns of somatosensory cortex of rat brain (an immunohistochemical study)]. Morfologiia. 2014;145:7-11 pubmed
    ..sections of brain of albino rats using the method of immunohistochemistry and the antibodies against neuronal (synaptophysin, neurofilament) and gliocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein--GFAP, myelin basic protein) proteins...
  19. D Cruz T, Weibley B, Kimball S, Barber A. Post-translational processing of synaptophysin in the rat retina is disrupted by diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44711 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptophysin, is an abundant presynaptic protein involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release. Previous work shows that its content is significantly reduced in the rat retina by streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes...
  20. Gong J, Dong J, Wang Y, Xu H, Wei W, Zhong J, et al. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism impair neural development, up-regulate caveolin-1 and down-regulate synaptophysin in rat hippocampus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we implicate hippocampal caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism...
  21. Nadri C, Agam G. Perinatal oxygen restriction does not result in reduced rat frontal cortex synaptophysin protein levels at adulthood as opposed to postmortem findings in schizophrenia. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;37:60-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle protein and a marker for synaptic density has been found to be reduced in postmortem prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients, consistent with evidence for synaptic deficits in schizophrenia...
  22. Wheeler T, Chin L, Li Y, Roudabush F, Li L. Regulation of synaptophysin degradation by mammalian homologues of seven in absentia. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10273-82 pubmed
    b>Synaptophysin is an integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles characterized by four transmembrane domains with both termini facing the cytoplasm...
  23. Yokoyama O, Kumashiro M, Iriki A, Ishibashi H. Tactile stimulation-induced rapid elevation of the synaptophysin mRNA expression level in rat somatosensory cortex. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;293:47-52 pubmed
    b>Synaptophysin is an integral membrane protein abundant in the synaptic vesicle and is found in nerve terminals throughout the brain...
  24. Kim S, Burette A, Chung H, Kwon S, Woo J, Lee H, et al. NGL family PSD-95-interacting adhesion molecules regulate excitatory synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:1294-301 pubmed
    ..NGL-2 knockdown reduced excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapse numbers and currents. These results suggest that NGL regulates the formation of excitatory synapses. ..
  25. Liu H, Zhang J, Zheng P, Zhang Y. Altered expression of MAP-2, GAP-43, and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion correlates with cognitive impairment. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;139:169-77 pubmed
    ..Cognitive impairment and the expression patterns of MAP-2, GAP-43, and synaptophysin were examined...
  26. Pigino G, Morfini G, Pelsman A, Mattson M, Brady S, Busciglio J. Alzheimer's presenilin 1 mutations impair kinesin-based axonal transport. J Neurosci. 2003;23:4499-508 pubmed
    ..Consistent with a deficit in kinesin-I-mediated fast axonal transport, densities of synaptophysin- and syntaxin-I-containing vesicles and mitochondria were reduced in neuritic processes of KIM146V hippocampal ..
  27. Fenster S, Chung W, Zhai R, Cases Langhoff C, Voss B, Garner A, et al. Piccolo, a presynaptic zinc finger protein structurally related to bassoon. Neuron. 2000;25:203-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Piccolo plays a role in the trafficking of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at the active zone. ..
  28. Ventruti A, Kazdoba T, Niu S, D ARCANGELO G. Reelin deficiency causes specific defects in the molecular composition of the synapses in the adult brain. Neuroscience. 2011;189:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies may provide insights into the etiology of cognitive disorders associated with deficiencies in Reelin signaling and PTEN dysfunction. ..
  29. Hideyama T, Yamashita T, Suzuki T, Tsuji S, Higuchi M, Seeburg P, et al. Induced loss of ADAR2 engenders slow death of motor neurons from Q/R site-unedited GluR2. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..2000). Thus, loss of ADAR2 activity causes AMPA receptor-mediated death of motor neurons. ..
  30. Trinidad J, Thalhammer A, Specht C, Schoepfer R, Burlingame A. Phosphorylation state of postsynaptic density proteins. J Neurochem. 2005;92:1306-16 pubmed
    ..This approach for the specific enrichment of phosphopeptides resulted in the identification of 42 phosphoproteins in the PSD preparation, 39 of which are known PSD components. Here we present a total of 83 in vivo phosphorylation sites. ..
  31. Ko J, Zhang C, Arac D, Boucard A, Brunger A, Sudhof T. Neuroligin-1 performs neurexin-dependent and neurexin-independent functions in synapse validation. EMBO J. 2009;28:3244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neuroligin-1 performs diverse synaptic functions by mechanisms that include as essential components of alpha-neurexin binding and neuroligin dimerization, but extend beyond these activities. ..
  32. Yong Z, Yan L, Gao X, Gong Z, Su R. Effects of thienorphine on synaptic structure and synaptophysin expression in the rat nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience. 2014;274:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of synaptophysin was also examined...
  33. Hami J, Vafaei Nezhad S, Ivar G, Sadeghi A, Ghaemi K, Mostafavizadeh M, et al. Altered expression and localization of synaptophysin in developing cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats due to maternal diabetes mellitus. Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31:1369-1380 pubmed
    ..b>Synaptophysin (SYP) is an integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles and is considered as a marker for synaptogenesis ..
  34. Bamji S, Shimazu K, Kimes N, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, Lu B, et al. Role of beta-catenin in synaptic vesicle localization and presynaptic assembly. Neuron. 2003;40:719-31 pubmed
    ..This study defines a specific role for cadherins and catenins in synapse organization beyond their roles in mediating cell adhesion. ..
  35. Li S, Reinprecht I, Fahnestock M, Racine R. Activity-dependent changes in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in hippocampus, piriform cortex, and entorhinal cortex of the rat. Neuroscience. 2002;115:1221-9 pubmed
    b>Synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of synaptic vesicles, has been widely used to investigate synaptogenesis in both animal models and human patients...
  36. Buckley K, Floor E, Kelly R. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding p38, a major synaptic vesicle protein. J Cell Biol. 1987;105:2447-56 pubmed
  37. Rajappa R, Gauthier Kemper A, Böning D, Hüve J, Klingauf J. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1369-1381 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2) and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1) by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance ..
  38. Rademacher D, Napier T, Meredith G. Context modulates the expression of conditioned motor sensitization, cellular activation and synaptophysin immunoreactivity. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2661-8 pubmed
    ..conditioned motor sensitization is accompanied by cellular activation (measured by Fos immunoreactivity) and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in reward-related brain areas...
  39. Pellet J, Haefliger J, Staple J, Widmann C, Welker E, Hirling H, et al. Spatial, temporal and subcellular localization of islet-brain 1 (IB1), a homologue of JIP-1, in mouse brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:621-32 pubmed
  40. Bragina L, Melone M, Fattorini G, Torres Ramos M, Vallejo Illarramendi A, Matute C, et al. GLT-1 down-regulation induced by clozapine in rat frontal cortex is associated with synaptophysin up-regulation. J Neurochem. 2006;99:134-41 pubmed
    ..GLT-1 down-regulation induced by chronic clozapine treatment is associated with changes in the expression of synaptophysin, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), three ..
  41. Liang Y, Wu D, Yang L, Hollt V, Koch T. Interaction of the mu-opioid receptor with synaptophysin influences receptor trafficking and signaling. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:123-31 pubmed
    ..In the search for proteins regulating mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) endocytosis, synaptophysin was found to bind to the rat micro-opioid receptor in yeast two-hybrid assay...
  42. Jellali A, Stussi Garaud C, Gasnier B, Rendon A, Sahel J, Dreyfus H, et al. Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina. J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:76-87 pubmed
    ..These structures were in close apposition with synaptophysin-, PSD-95-, dystrophin-, and bassoon-immunopositive photoreceptor terminals, suggesting that VIAAT is localized ..
  43. Derksen M, Ward N, Hartle K, Ivanco T. MAP2 and synaptophysin protein expression following motor learning suggests dynamic regulation and distinct alterations coinciding with synaptogenesis. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007;87:404-15 pubmed
    ..The motor cortices were examined for MAP2 and synaptophysin protein using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
  44. Ruttiger L, Sausbier M, Zimmermann U, Winter H, Braig C, Engel J, et al. Deletion of the Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) alpha-subunit but not the BKbeta1-subunit leads to progressive hearing loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12922-7 pubmed
  45. Russell C, Semerdjieva S, Empson R, Austen B, Beesley P, Alifragis P. Amyloid-? acts as a regulator of neurotransmitter release disrupting the interaction between synaptophysin and VAMP2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43201 pubmed publisher
    ..results demonstrate that with time, A?42 can be detected at the presynaptic terminals where it interacts with Synaptophysin. Furthermore, data from dissociated hippocampal neurons as well as biochemical data provide evidence that A?42 ..
  46. Stephenson D, Coskran T, Wilhelms M, Adamowicz W, O Donnell M, Muravnick K, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of phosphodiesterase 2A in multiple mammalian species. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:933-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that PDE2A is evolutionarily conserved across mammalian species and support the hypothesis that the enzyme plays a fundamental role in signal transduction. ..
  47. Glyvuk N, Tsytsyura Y, Geumann C, D Hooge R, Hüve J, Kratzke M, et al. AP-1/sigma1B-adaptin mediates endosomal synaptic vesicle recycling, learning and memory. EMBO J. 2010;29:1318-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The sigma1B-deficient mice have reduced motor coordination and severely impaired long-term spatial memory. These data reveal a molecular mechanism for a severe human X-chromosome-linked mental retardation. ..
  48. Nakanishi N, Ryan S, Zhang X, Khan A, Holland T, Cho E, et al. Synaptic protein ?1-takusan mitigates amyloid-?-induced synaptic loss via interaction with tau and postsynaptic density-95 at postsynaptic sites. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14170-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ?1-takusan protects synapses from A?-induced insult via interaction with PSD-95 and tau. Thus, takusan-based protein sequences from either mouse or human may be of potential therapeutic benefit in AD. ..
  49. Rizzoli S, Bethani I, Zwilling D, Wenzel D, Siddiqui T, Brandhorst D, et al. Evidence for early endosome-like fusion of recently endocytosed synaptic vesicles. Traffic. 2006;7:1163-76 pubmed
  50. Junghans D, Heidenreich M, Hack I, Taylor V, Frotscher M, Kemler R. Postsynaptic and differential localization to neuronal subtypes of protocadherin beta16 in the mammalian central nervous system. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:559-71 pubmed publisher
  51. Belfort G, Kandror K. Cellugyrin and synaptogyrin facilitate targeting of synaptophysin to a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle-sized compartment in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47971-8 pubmed
    ..domain protein that is closely related to synaptic vesicle protein synaptogyrin and, more remotely, to synaptophysin. We report here that, in PC12 cells, cellugyrin is localized in synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs), along ..
  52. Segura I, Essmann C, Weinges S, Acker Palmer A. Grb4 and GIT1 transduce ephrinB reverse signals modulating spine morphogenesis and synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:301-10 pubmed
    ..We thus show an important role for ephrinB reverse signaling in spine formation and have mapped the downstream pathway involved in this process. ..
  53. Fan S, Huang P, Liu Y, Zhang P, Wang Z. [Expression of synaptophysin in experimental diffuse brain injury]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;23:8-10, 13 pubmed
    To investigate the changes in the expression_level of synaptophysin following diffuse brain injury (DBI) in rats and to correlate the changes of the synaptophysin expression_level with the post injury time interval...