synapsin I


Gene Symbol: synapsin I
Description: synapsin I
Alias: synapsin-1
Species: rat
Products:     synapsin I

Top Publications

  1. Li L, Chin L, Shupliakov O, Brodin L, Sihra T, Hvalby O, et al. Impairment of synaptic vesicle clustering and of synaptic transmission, and increased seizure propensity, in synapsin I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9235-9 pubmed
    b>Synapsin I has been proposed to be involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release by controlling the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis...
  2. James A, Conway A, Thiel G, Morris B. Egr-1 modulation of synapsin I expression: permissive effect of forskolin via cAMP. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1355-62 pubmed
    A number of candidate Egr-1 neuronal target genes have been identified including the synapsin I gene...
  3. Chi P, Greengard P, Ryan T. Synaptic vesicle mobilization is regulated by distinct synapsin I phosphorylation pathways at different frequencies. Neuron. 2003;38:69-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, multiple signaling pathways serve to allow synapsin's control of vesicle mobilization over different stimulus frequencies. ..
  4. Sakurada K, Kato H, Nagumo H, Hiraoka H, Furuya K, Ikuhara T, et al. Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with bradykinin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45473-9 pubmed
    The function of synapsin I is regulated by phosphorylation of the molecule at multiple sites; among them, the Ser(603) residue (site 3) is considered to be a pivotal site targeted by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)...
  5. Offenhauser N, Castelletti D, Mapelli L, Soppo B, Regondi M, Rossi P, et al. Increased ethanol resistance and consumption in Eps8 knockout mice correlates with altered actin dynamics. Cell. 2006;127:213-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, Eps8 null neurons are resistant to the actin-remodeling activities of NMDA and ethanol. We propose that proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a key determinant of cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol. ..
  6. Rosahl T, Spillane D, Missler M, Herz J, Selig D, Wolff J, et al. Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation. Nature. 1995;375:488-93 pubmed
    ..To analyse the functions of these proteins, we have studied knockout mice lacking either synapsin I, synapsin II, or both...
  7. Kawaguchi M, Morohoshi K, Saita E, Yanagisawa R, Watanabe G, Takano H, et al. Developmental exposure to pentachlorophenol affects the expression of thyroid hormone receptor beta1 and synapsin I in brain, resulting in thyroid function vulnerability in rats. Endocrine. 2008;33:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptor beta1 and synapsin I, factors that promote brain growth, was increased in the cerebral cortex of PCP-treated weanling females, ..
  8. Heierhorst J, Mitchelhill K, Mann R, Tiganis T, Czernik A, Greengard P, et al. Synapsins as major neuronal Ca2+/S100A1-interacting proteins. Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 2:577-83 pubmed
    ..Double-labelling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that synapsins and S100A1 are both present in the soma and neurites of PC12 cells, indicating their potential to interact in neurons in vivo. ..
  9. Kwon K, Kim J, Chang B. Translocational changes of localization of synapsin in axonal sprouts of regenerating rat sciatic nerves after ligation crush injury. J Vet Sci. 2000;1:1-9 pubmed
    Time-dependent translocational changes of Synapsin I (SyI), a synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoprotein and its involvement in the axonal transport were investigated in the regenerating axonal sprouts...

More Information


  1. Ahmad Annuar A, Ciani L, Simeonidis I, Herreros J, Fredj N, Rosso S, et al. Signaling across the synapse: a role for Wnt and Dishevelled in presynaptic assembly and neurotransmitter release. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:127-39 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Wnts signal across the synapse on Dvl-expressing presynaptic terminals to regulate synaptic assembly and suggest a potential novel function for Wnts in neurotransmitter release. ..
  2. VanGuilder H, Brucklacher R, Patel K, Ellis R, Freeman W, Barber A. Diabetes downregulates presynaptic proteins and reduces basal synapsin I phosphorylation in rat retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein and mRNA contents for synapsin I, synaptophysin, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and ..
  3. Ekici M, Schmitz F, Hohl M, Seigel G, Thiel G. Chromatin structure and expression of synapsin I and synaptophysin in retinal precursor cells. Neurochem Int. 2008;53:165-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Synapsin I and synaptophysin are major proteins of small synaptic vesicles. In neurons the transcriptional repressor REST is a major regulator of synapsin I and synaptophysin gene transcription...
  4. Vaynman S, Ying Z, Gomez Pinilla F. Exercise induces BDNF and synapsin I to specific hippocampal subfields. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:356-62 pubmed
    To assess the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin I in the hippocampus during exercise, we employed a novel microsphere injection method to block the action of BDNF through its tyrosine kinase (Trk) ..
  5. Gitler D, Xu Y, Kao H, Lin D, Lim S, Feng J, et al. Molecular determinants of synapsin targeting to presynaptic terminals. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3711-20 pubmed
    ..Domain D inhibited targeting, but this inhibition was overcome by domain E. Thus, multiple intermolecular and intramolecular interactions are required for synapsins to target to presynaptic terminals. ..
  6. Hermes G, Li N, Duman C, Duman R. Post-weaning chronic social isolation produces profound behavioral dysregulation with decreases in prefrontal cortex synaptic-associated protein expression in female rats. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of synaptic-associated proteins PSD95 and synapsin I as well as glutamate receptors subunits GluR1 and NR1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were significantly reduced ..
  7. Messa M, Congia S, Defranchi E, Valtorta F, Fassio A, Onofri F, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently showed that synapsin I, through SH3- or SH2-mediated interactions, activates Src and is phosphorylated by the same kinase at Tyr301...
  8. Jaffrey S, Benfenati F, Snowman A, Czernik A, Snyder S. Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase localization mediated by a ternary complex with synapsin and CAPON. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3199-204 pubmed
    ..phosphotyrosine-binding domain interaction, which leads to a ternary complex comprising nNOS, CAPON, and synapsin I. The significance of this ternary complex is demonstrated by changes in subcellular localization of nNOS in mice ..
  9. Park H, Kim S, Kang W, Chung J, Kim J. Increased activation of synapsin 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the amygdala of maternal separation rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014;20:172-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a microarray analysis, in the amygdala of MS rats, we found a downregulation of mRNA expression of synapsin 1 (Syn1) gene with hypermethylation of its transcription start site (TSS), and the alterations of mRNA expressions ..
  10. McCaffery C, DeGennaro L. Determination and analysis of the primary structure of the nerve terminal specific phosphoprotein, synapsin I. EMBO J. 1986;5:3167-73 pubmed
    A rat brain cDNA clone containing an open reading frame encoding the neuron-specific protein synapsin I has been sequenced. The sequence predicts a protein of 691 amino acids with a mol. wt of 73 kd...
  11. Monaldi I, Vassalli M, Bachi A, Giovedi S, Millo E, Valtorta F, et al. The highly conserved synapsin domain E mediates synapsin dimerization and phospholipid vesicle clustering. Biochem J. 2010;426:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..most conserved region of domain E (Pep-E) to analyse the role of domain E in regulating the interactions between synapsin I and liposomes mimicking the phospholipid composition of SVs (SV-liposomes) and other pre-synaptic protein ..
  12. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Ijiri T, Isobe T, Asada N, Fujita Y, et al. Mili, a mammalian member of piwi family gene, is essential for spermatogenesis. Development. 2004;131:839-49 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that MILI is essential for the differentiation of spermatocytes. ..
  13. Wang L, Peng R, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang S, Zhao L, et al. Abnormality of synaptic vesicular associated proteins in cerebral cortex and hippocampus after microwave exposure. Synapse. 2009;63:1010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of microwave on synaptic vesicles and the expression of synaptic vesicular associated proteins including synapsin I, VAMP-2, syntaxin, and synaptophysin...
  14. Holt M, Varoqueaux F, Wiederhold K, Takamori S, Urlaub H, Fasshauer D, et al. Identification of SNAP-47, a novel Qbc-SNARE with ubiquitous expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17076-83 pubmed
    ..However, neither complex assembly nor fusion was as efficient as with SNAP-25. ..
  15. Maienschein V, Marxen M, Volknandt W, Zimmermann H. A plethora of presynaptic proteins associated with ATP-storing organelles in cultured astrocytes. Glia. 1999;26:233-44 pubmed
    ..association of a large variety of synaptic proteins (synaptobrevin II, synaptotagmin I, synaptophysin, rab3a, synapsin I, SNAP-25, and syntaxin I) and also of the ubiquitous cellubrevin...
  16. Kaczmarski W, Barua M, Mazur Kolecka B, Frackowiak J, Dowjat W, Mehta P, et al. Intracellular distribution of differentially phosphorylated dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). J Neurosci Res. 2014;92:162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that intracellular distribution and compartment-specific functions of DYRK1A may depend on its phosphorylation pattern. ..
  17. Yoon M, Yon C, Park S, Oh D, Han A, Kim D, et al. Role of phospholipase D1 in neurite outgrowth of neural stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:804-11 pubmed
    ..Expression level of synapsin I, a marker of synaptogenesis, also increased as the differentiation of neural stem cells progressed...
  18. Snyder E, Nong Y, Almeida C, Paul S, Moran T, Choi E, et al. Regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking by amyloid-beta. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1051-8 pubmed
    ..Dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B at Tyr1472 correlated with receptor endocytosis. These data indicate a new mechanism by which amyloid-beta can cause synaptic dysfunction and contribute to Alzheimer disease pathology. ..
  19. Sampedro Piquero P, Arias J, Begega A. Behavioral testing-related changes in the expression of Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptors in standard and enriched aged Wistar rats. Exp Gerontol. 2014;58:292-302 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to assess the changes in the Synapsin I and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression induced by behavioral testing in the dorsal and ventral hippocampi of standard and enriched aged Wistar rats...
  20. Chernigovskaya E, Korotkov A, Nikitina L, Dorofeeva N, Glazova M. The expression and distribution of seizure-related and synaptic proteins in the insular cortex of rats genetically prone to audiogenic seizures. Neurol Res. 2015;37:1108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of the synaptic proteins showed a decrease in SNAP-25 and upregulation of synapsin I phosphorylation in both groups of KM rats in comparison to Wistar rats...
  21. Takamori S, Holt M, Stenius K, Lemke E, Gr Nborg M, Riedel D, et al. Molecular anatomy of a trafficking organelle. Cell. 2006;127:831-46 pubmed publisher
  22. Paemka L, Mahajan V, Skeie J, Sowers L, Ehaideb S, Gonzalez Alegre P, et al. PRICKLE1 interaction with SYNAPSIN I reveals a role in autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80737 pubmed publisher
    ..we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human brain cDNA library and isolated a peptide with homology to SYNAPSIN I (SYN1), a protein involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic vesicle formation, and regulation of neurotransmitter ..
  23. Revest J, Kaouane N, Mondin M, le Roux A, Roug Pont F, Vall e M, et al. The enhancement of stress-related memory by glucocorticoids depends on synapsin-Ia/Ib. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:1125, 1140-51 pubmed publisher
  24. Lee J, Huang B, Kwon H, Rashid M, Kharebava G, Desai A, et al. Orphan GPR110 (ADGRF1) targeted by N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine in development of neurons and cognitive function. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13123 pubmed publisher
    ..GPR110 deorphanized as a functional synaptamide receptor provides a novel target for neurodevelopmental control and new insight into mechanisms by which DHA promotes brain development and function. ..
  25. Hosaka M, Sudhof T. Homo- and heterodimerization of synapsins. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16747-53 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of the C-domain from synapsin I revealed that it constitutes a large (>300 amino acids), independently folded domain that forms a tight dimer ..
  26. Cole R, Hart G. Glycosylation sites flank phosphorylation sites on synapsin I: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues are localized within domains mediating synapsin I interactions. J Neurochem. 1999;73:418-28 pubmed
    b>Synapsin I is concentrated in nerve terminals, where it appears to anchor synaptic vesicles to the cytoskeleton and thereby ensures a steady supply of fusion-competent synaptic vesicles...
  27. Bonanomi D, Menegon A, Miccio A, Ferrari G, Corradi A, Kao H, et al. Phosphorylation of synapsin I by cAMP-dependent protein kinase controls synaptic vesicle dynamics in developing neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..and recycling in the axonal growth cone and that these effects are mediated by the SV-associated phosphoprotein synapsin I. The presence of synapsin I on SVs is necessary for the correct localization of the vesicles in the central ..
  28. Kuvbachieva A, Bestel A, Tissir F, Maloum I, Guimiot F, Ramoz N, et al. Identification of a novel brain-specific and Reelin-regulated gene that encodes a protein colocalized with synapsin. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:603-10 pubmed
    ..When expressed as a GFP fusion protein in transfected non-neuronal cells and primary neurons, this protein localizes, respectively, to the nuclear membrane or axonal outgrowths, indicating a function in axonal traffic or signalling. ..
  29. Chong V, Skoblenick K, Morin F, Xu Y, Mishra R. Dopamine-D1 and -D2 receptors differentially regulate synapsin II expression in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2006;138:587-99 pubmed
    ..Neither haloperidol nor the dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist affected synapsin I protein expression in any of the studied brain areas...
  30. Skorobogatko Y, Landicho A, Chalkley R, Kossenkov A, Gallo G, Vosseller K. O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) site thr-87 regulates synapsin I localization to synapses and size of the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:3602-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynamic association of synapsin I with synaptic vesicles (SVs) regulates the size and release of RPSV...
  31. Scerbo M, Bibolini M, Roth G, Monferran C. Synapsin peptide fused to E. coli heat-labile toxin B subunit induces regulatory T cells and modulates cytokine balance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2012;242:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from LTBSC treated rats showed stronger suppressive properties than Treg cells from controls in vitro. Our observations indicate that LTBSC is a useful agent for modulating the autoimmune responses in EAE. ..
  32. Perlini L, Botti F, Fornasiero E, Giannandrea M, Bonanomi D, Amendola M, et al. Effects of phosphorylation and neuronal activity on the control of synapse formation by synapsin I. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3643-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these results indicate that Syn I is an important regulator of synapse formation, which adjusts synapse number in response to extracellular signals. ..
  33. Sá S, Madeira M. Sex steroid hormones regulate the expression of growth-associated protein 43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;46:622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..all phases of the estrous cycle was labeled for growth-associated protein-43, microtubule-associated protein 2, synapsin 1 and actin...
  34. Wells L, Vosseller K, Cole R, Cronshaw J, Matunis M, Hart G. Mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification using affinity tags for serine and threonine post-translational modifications. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2002;1:791-804 pubmed
    ..was validated by mapping three previously identified O-GlcNAc sites, as well as three novel sites, on Synapsin I purified from rat brain...
  35. Brautigam C, Chelliah Y, Deisenhofer J. Tetramerization and ATP binding by a protein comprising the A, B, and C domains of rat synapsin I. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11948-56 pubmed
    ..In the present study, two crystal structures of the C domain of rat synapsin I (rSynI-C) in complex with Ca(2+) and ATP reveal that this protein can form a tetramer and that a flexible loop (..
  36. Sudhof T, Czernik A, Kao H, Takei K, Johnston P, Horiuchi A, et al. Synapsins: mosaics of shared and individual domains in a family of synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins. Science. 1989;245:1474-80 pubmed
  37. Fournier N, Darnbrough A, Wintink A, Kalynchuk L. Altered synapsin I immunoreactivity and fear behavior in male and female rats subjected to long-term amygdala kindling. Behav Brain Res. 2009;196:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this experiment, we studied the relation between sex, kindled fear behavior, and synapsin I immunoreactivity in various brain regions...
  38. Longuet C, Broca C, Costes S, Hani E, Bataille D, Dalle S. Extracellularly regulated kinases 1/2 (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases) phosphorylate synapsin I and regulate insulin secretion in the MIN6 beta-cell line and islets of Langerhans. Endocrinology. 2005;146:643-54 pubmed
    ..cascade, induces phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins implicated in exocytosis of insulin granules such as synapsin I. We observed that the majority of ERK1/2 activity induced by glucose remains in the cytoplasm and physically ..
  39. Leon D, Sánchez Nogueiro J, Marín García P, Miras Portugal M. Glutamate release and synapsin-I phosphorylation induced by P2X7 receptors activation in cerebellar granule neurons. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:1148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest, therefore, that Ca2+ entrance mediated by P2X7 receptor induces glutamate release and in parallel synapsin-I phosphorylation. ..
  40. Griesbach G, Gomez Pinilla F, Hovda D. Time window for voluntary exercise-induced increases in hippocampal neuroplasticity molecules after traumatic brain injury is severity dependent. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:1161-71 pubmed
    ..Rats were sacrificed at PID 7, 21, or 37. BDNF, synapsin I, and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) were analyzed within the ipsilateral hippocampus...
  41. Bamji S, Shimazu K, Kimes N, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, Lu B, et al. Role of beta-catenin in synaptic vesicle localization and presynaptic assembly. Neuron. 2003;40:719-31 pubmed
    ..This study defines a specific role for cadherins and catenins in synapse organization beyond their roles in mediating cell adhesion. ..
  42. Chen Q, Zhu X, Zhang Y, Wetsel W, Lee T, Zhang X. Integrin-linked kinase is involved in cocaine sensitization by regulating PSD-95 and synapsin I expression and GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;40:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..established cocaine sensitization under non-silenced conditions was associated with enhanced PSD-95 and synapsin I protein expression as well as enhanced Ser(845) phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit on withdrawal day...
  43. Yang J, Seo J, Nair R, Han S, Jang S, Kim K, et al. DGK? regulates presynaptic release during mGluR-dependent LTD. EMBO J. 2011;30:165-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that DGK? requires PSD-95 family proteins for synaptic localization and regulates presynaptic DAG signalling and neurotransmitter release during mGluR-LTD. ..
  44. Tang L, Craig T, Henley J. SUMOylation of synapsin Ia maintains synaptic vesicle availability and is reduced in an autism mutation. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7728 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify SUMOylation as a fundamental regulator of SynIa function and reveal a novel link between reduced SUMOylation of SynIa and neurological disorders. ..
  45. Bugno M, Graeve L, Gatsios P, Koj A, Heinrich P, Travis J, et al. Identification of the interleukin-6/oncostatin M response element in the rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:5041-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the entire IL-6/OSM response element conferred responsiveness onto a heterologous promoter, whereas this has not been observed when AP-1 and STAT elements were separately tested. ..
  46. Matsuzaki Y, Oue M, Hirai H. Generation of a neurodegenerative disease mouse model using lentiviral vectors carrying an enhanced synapsin I promoter. J Neurosci Methods. 2014;223:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of the short synapsin I (SynI) promoter (0.5 kb) as a neuron-specific promoter for robust transgene expression...
  47. Cho K, Hunt C, Kennedy M. The rat brain postsynaptic density fraction contains a homolog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor protein. Neuron. 1992;9:929-42 pubmed
    ..The sequence similarity between dlg and PSD-95 suggests that molecular mechanisms critical for growth control in developing organisms may also regulate synapse formation, stabilization, or function in the adult brain. ..
  48. Matsumoto J, Almeida M, Castilho Martins E, Costa M, Fior Chadi D. Protein kinase A mediates adenosine A2a receptor modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation in cultured cells from medulla oblongata. Neurosci Res. 2014;85:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and noradrenaline and such response is mediated by protein kinase A activation, which in turn increased synapsin I phosphorylation...
  49. Hosaka M, Sudhof T. Synapsin III, a novel synapsin with an unusual regulation by Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13371-4 pubmed
    ..synapsins is directly regulated by Ca2+ in a dramatically different fashion: Ca2+ activates ATP binding to synapsin I, has no effect on synapsin II, and inhibits synapsin III...
  50. Griesbach G, Hovda D, Molteni R, Gomez Pinilla F. Alterations in BDNF and synapsin I within the occipital cortex and hippocampus after mild traumatic brain injury in the developing rat: reflections of injury-induced neuroplasticity. J Neurotrauma. 2002;19:803-14 pubmed
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its signal transduction receptor trkB, and its downstream effector, synapsin I, were measured in the hippocampus and occipital cortex of young animals after fluid-percussion brain injury (FPI)...
  51. Campos C, Shiina H, Silvas M, Page S, Ritter R. Vagal afferent NMDA receptors modulate CCK-induced reduction of food intake through synapsin I phosphorylation in adult male rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2613-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The synaptic vesicle protein synapsin I is phosphorylated by pERK1/2 at serines 62 and 67...
  52. Castejon O, Fuller L, Dailey M. Localization of synapsin-I and PSD-95 in developing postnatal rat cerebellar cortex. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;151:25-32 pubmed
  53. Krapivinsky G, Mochida S, Krapivinsky L, Cibulsky S, Clapham D. The TRPM7 ion channel functions in cholinergic synaptic vesicles and affects transmitter release. Neuron. 2006;52:485-96 pubmed
    ..of synaptic vesicles of sympathetic neurons, forms molecular complexes with the synaptic vesicle proteins synapsin I and synaptotagmin I, and directly interacts with synaptic vesicular snapin...