Syk

Summary

Gene Symbol: Syk
Description: spleen associated tyrosine kinase
Alias: p72syk, tyrosine-protein kinase SYK, spleen tyrosine kinase
Species: rat
Products:     Syk

Top Publications

  1. Ulanova M, Asfaha S, Stenton G, Lint A, Gilbertson D, Schreiber A, et al. Involvement of Syk protein tyrosine kinase in LPS-induced responses in macrophages. J Endotoxin Res. 2007;13:117-25 pubmed
    b>Syk kinase is best known as a critical component of immunoreceptor signaling in leukocytes...
  2. Gao Z, Cao L, Luo Q, Yu L, Wang T, Wang X, et al. [Role of spleen tyrosine kinase in phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cell induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;48:460-4 pubmed
    To investigate the role of spleen tyrosine kinase (syk) in the phenotypic modulation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) in rat pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
  3. Van Ziffle J, Lowell C. Neutrophil-specific deletion of Syk kinase results in reduced host defense to bacterial infection. Blood. 2009;114:4871-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling pathways downstream of CD18 integrins are dependent on the spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk...
  4. Turner M, Mee P, Costello P, Williams O, Price A, Duddy L, et al. Perinatal lethality and blocked B-cell development in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Syk. Nature. 1995;378:298-302 pubmed
    The tyrosine kinase Syk (relative molecular mass 72,000), which is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells, becomes associated with and activated by engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor...
  5. Rogers N, Slack E, Edwards A, Nolte M, Schulz O, Schweighoffer E, et al. Syk-dependent cytokine induction by Dectin-1 reveals a novel pattern recognition pathway for C type lectins. Immunity. 2005;22:507-17 pubmed
    ..and IL-10 through phosphorylation of the membrane proximal tyrosine in the cytoplasmic domain and recruitment of Syk kinase...
  6. Lu R, Pan H, Shively J. CEACAM1 negatively regulates IL-1? production in LPS activated neutrophils by recruiting SHP-1 to a SYK-TLR4-CEACAM1 complex. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002597 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on studies in macrophages, it is likely that ROS and lysosomal destabilization regulated by Syk activation may also be involved...
  7. Tsang E, Giannetti A, Shaw D, Dinh M, Tse J, Gandhi S, et al. Molecular mechanism of the Syk activation switch. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32650-9 pubmed publisher
    Many immune signaling pathways require activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase to link ligation of surface receptors to changes in gene expression...
  8. Tomasello E, Cant C, Buhring H, Vely F, Andre P, Seiffert M, et al. Association of signal-regulatory proteins beta with KARAP/DAP-12. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:2147-56 pubmed
    ..results in the functional coupling of SIRPbeta1 engagement to the recruitment of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk and to serotonin release in RBL cell transfectants...
  9. Hong J, Yankee T, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Regulation of signaling in B cells through the phosphorylation of Syk on linker region tyrosines. A mechanism for negative signaling by the Lyn tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31703-14 pubmed
    The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is coupled to the mobilization of Ca(2+) by the protein-tyrosine kinase, Syk. Syk, recruited to the clustered BCR, becomes phosphorylated on three tyrosines (Tyr-317, Tyr-342, and Tyr-346) located within ..

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ishida Kitagawa N, Tanaka K, Bao X, Kimura T, Miura T, Kitaoka Y, et al. Siglec-15 protein regulates formation of functional osteoclasts in concert with DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were accompanied by significantly reduced bone resorption. Siglec-15 formed complexes with Syk through DAP12 in response to vitronectin...
  2. Law C, Sidorenko S, Chandran K, Draves K, Chan A, Weiss A, et al. Molecular cloning of human Syk. A B cell protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the surface immunoglobulin M-B cell receptor complex. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12310-9 pubmed
    ..A spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk, in porcine B cells and a 72-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase, PTK72, in murine B cells associate with the ..
  3. Hirose M, Kitano J, Nakajima Y, Moriyoshi K, Yanagi S, Yamamura H, et al. Phosphorylation and recruitment of Syk by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-based phosphorylation of tamalin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32308-15 pubmed
    ..we report that tamalin possesses a typical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), which enables Syk kinase to be recruited and phosphorylated by the Src family kinases...
  4. Zhang J, Berenstein E, Siraganian R. Phosphorylation of Tyr342 in the linker region of Syk is critical for Fc epsilon RI signaling in mast cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8144-54 pubmed
    The linker region of Syk and ZAP70 tyrosine kinases plays an important role in regulating their function...
  5. Vines C, Potter J, Xu Y, Geahlen R, Costello P, Tybulewicz V, et al. Inhibition of beta 2 integrin receptor and Syk kinase signaling in monocytes by the Src family kinase Fgr. Immunity. 2001;15:507-19 pubmed
    ..We have identified critical positive and negative regulatory components of this cascade in monocytes. Whereas the Syk tyrosine kinase is essential for beta 2 integrin signaling and cell spreading, the Src family kinase Fgr is a ..
  6. Lee H, Jeon B, Won K, Lee C, Park T, Choi W, et al. Gene transfer of redox factor-1 inhibits neointimal formation: involvement of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor signaling via the inhibition of the reactive oxygen species-mediated Syk pathway. Circ Res. 2009;104:219-27, 5p following 227 pubmed publisher
    ..PDGF-BB also increased the phosphorylation of the PDGFbeta receptor, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and heat shock protein 27, but these increases were significantly ..
  7. Katagiri T, Ogimoto M, Hasegawa K, Mizuno K, Yakura H. Selective regulation of Lyn tyrosine kinase by CD45 in immature B cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:27987-90 pubmed
    ..The results clearly demonstrated that among PTKs examined (Lyn, Lck, and Syk), only Lyn kinase is dysregulated in the absence of CD45 such that without B cell antigen receptor ligation, Lyn is ..
  8. Mocsai A, Abram C, Jakus Z, Hu Y, Lanier L, Lowell C. Integrin signaling in neutrophils and macrophages uses adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:1326-33 pubmed
    ..Activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk by integrins required that DAP12 and FcRgamma were first phosphorylated by Src family kinases...
  9. Cheng A, Rowley B, Pao W, Hayday A, Bolen J, Pawson T. Syk tyrosine kinase required for mouse viability and B-cell development. Nature. 1995;378:303-6 pubmed
    The Syk cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase has two amino-terminal SH2 domains and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain...
  10. Baldock D, Graham B, Akhlaq M, Graff P, Jones C, Menear K. Purification and characterization of human Syk produced using a baculovirus expression system. Protein Expr Purif. 2000;18:86-94 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase p72syk (Syk) plays an essential role in signaling via a variety of immune and nonimmune cell receptors...
  11. Arias Palomo E, Recuero Checa M, Bustelo X, Llorca O. 3D structure of Syk kinase determined by single-particle electron microscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1493-9 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic Syk kinase plays key roles in immune responses and comprises two N-terminal regulatory Src homology 2 (SH2) domains followed by a catalytic region. Atomic structures of these domains have only been solved in isolation...
  12. Obergfell A, Eto K, Mocsai A, Buensuceso C, Moores S, Brugge J, et al. Coordinate interactions of Csk, Src, and Syk kinases with [alpha]IIb[beta]3 initiate integrin signaling to the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:265-75 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the behavior of Src and Csk, Syk was associated with alphaIIbbeta3 only after fibrinogen binding...
  13. Buharalioglu C, Song C, Yaghini F, Ghafoor H, Motiwala M, Adris T, et al. Angiotensin II-induced process of angiogenesis is mediated by spleen tyrosine kinase via VEGF receptor-1 phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1043-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), expressed in endothelial cells, has been implicated in migration and proliferation and in vasculogenesis...
  14. Zou W, Kitaura H, Reeve J, Long F, Tybulewicz V, Shattil S, et al. Syk, c-Src, the alphavbeta3 integrin, and ITAM immunoreceptors, in concert, regulate osteoclastic bone resorption. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:877-88 pubmed
    In this study, we establish that the tyrosine kinase Syk is essential for osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo. Syk(-/-) osteoclasts fail to organize their cytoskeleton, and, as such, their bone-resorptive capacity is arrested...
  15. Tanne A, Ma B, Boudou F, Tailleux L, Botella H, Badell E, et al. A murine DC-SIGN homologue contributes to early host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2205-20 pubmed publisher
    ..SIGNR3 signaling was dependent on an intracellular tyrosine-based motif and the tyrosine kinase Syk. Thus, the mouse DC-SIGN homologue SIGNR3 makes a unique contribution to protection of the host against a pulmonary ..
  16. Abtahian F, Guerriero A, Sebzda E, Lu M, Zhou R, Mocsai A, et al. Regulation of blood and lymphatic vascular separation by signaling proteins SLP-76 and Syk. Science. 2003;299:247-51 pubmed
    ..emerging lymphatic vessels from blood vessels in mice lacking the hematopoietic signaling protein SLP-76 or Syk. Blood-lymphatic connections lead to embryonic hemorrhage and arteriovenous shunting...
  17. McAdoo S, Reynolds J, Bhangal G, Smith J, McDaid J, Tanna A, et al. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibition attenuates autoantibody production and reverses experimental autoimmune GN. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:2291-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has an important role in immunoreceptor signaling, and SYK inhibition has accordingly attenuated immune-mediated injury in several in vivo models...
  18. Ng S, Nelson C, Parekh A. Coupling of Ca(2+) microdomains to spatially and temporally distinct cellular responses by the tyrosine kinase Syk. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24767-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Local Ca(2+) entry is sensed by the tyrosine kinase Syk, which signals to the nucleus through the transcription factor STAT5...
  19. Arias Palomo E, Recuero Checa M, Bustelo X, Llorca O. Conformational rearrangements upon Syk auto-phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1211-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Syk is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is activated after recruitment to immune receptors, triggering the phopshorylation of downstream targets...
  20. Cheng A, Negishi I, Anderson S, Chan A, Bolen J, Loh D, et al. The Syk and ZAP-70 SH2-containing tyrosine kinases are implicated in pre-T cell receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9797-801 pubmed
    ..The ZAP-70 and Syk tyrosine kinases each contain two N-terminal SH2 domains that bind phosphorylated motifs in antigen receptor ..
  21. Zanoni I, Ostuni R, Marek L, Barresi S, Barbalat R, Barton G, et al. CD14 controls the LPS-induced endocytosis of Toll-like receptor 4. Cell. 2011;147:868-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the tyrosine kinase Syk and its downstream effector PLC?2 as important regulators of TLR4 endocytosis and signaling...
  22. Kimura Y, Chihara K, Honjoh C, Takeuchi K, Yamauchi S, Yoshiki H, et al. Dectin-1-mediated signaling leads to characteristic gene expressions and cytokine secretion via spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in rat mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..recognizes β-glucan and plays important roles for the antifungal immunity through the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in dendritic cells or macrophages...
  23. Ota Y, Beitz L, Scharenberg A, Donovan J, Kinet J, Samelson L. Characterization of Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation and a Cbl-Syk complex in RBL-2H3 cells. J Exp Med. 1996;184:1713-23 pubmed
    ..We show that at least part of Fc epsilon R1-induced Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by the Syk tyrosine kinase, and that the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl occurs mainly distal to the Cbl proline-..
  24. Abudula A, Grabbe A, Brechmann M, Polaschegg C, Herrmann N, Goldbeck I, et al. SLP-65 signal transduction requires Src homology 2 domain-mediated membrane anchoring and a kinase-independent adaptor function of Syk. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29059-66 pubmed
    ..cells revealed that its C-terminal Src homology 2 domain controls efficient tyrosine phosphorylation by the kinase Syk, plasma membrane recruitment, as well as downstream signaling to NFAT activation...
  25. Zhou Q, Geahlen R. The protein-tyrosine kinase Syk interacts with TRAF-interacting protein TRIP in breast epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1348-56 pubmed publisher
    The nonreceptor, protein-tyrosine kinase Syk is a suppressor of breast cancer progression whose expression is inversely correlated with the invasive behavior of cancer cells...
  26. Amir Moazami O, Alexia C, Charles N, Launay P, Monteiro R, Benhamou M. Phospholipid scramblase 1 modulates a selected set of IgE receptor-mediated mast cell responses through LAT-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..in lipid rafts where it was further recruited after cell activation and was constitutively associated with Lyn and Syk but not with LAT or Fyn...
  27. Richards J, Gold M, Hourihane S, DeFranco A, Matsuuchi L. Reconstitution of B cell antigen receptor-induced signaling events in a nonlymphoid cell line by expressing the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6458-66 pubmed
    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking activates both Src family and Syk tyrosine kinases, resulting in increased cellular protein-tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of several downstream signaling enzymes...
  28. Willeke T, Schymeinsky J, Prange P, Zahler S, Walzog B. A role for Syk-kinase in the control of the binding cycle of the beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:260-9 pubmed
    ..The 72-kDa Syk-kinase, which was tyrosine-phosphorylated upon adhesion, was found to coprecipitate with CD18, the beta-subunit of ..
  29. Negro A, Brunati A, Donella Deana A, Massimino M, Pinna L. Multiple phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein by protein tyrosine kinase Syk prevents eosin-induced aggregation. FASEB J. 2002;16:210-2 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is an outstanding substrate for the protein tyrosine kinase p72syk (Syk), which phosphorylates three tyrosyl residues in its C-terminal domain (Y-125, Y-133, and Y-136), as revealed ..
  30. Iwaki S, Spicka J, Tkaczyk C, Jensen B, Furumoto Y, Charles N, et al. Kit- and Fc epsilonRI-induced differential phosphorylation of the transmembrane adaptor molecule NTAL/LAB/LAT2 allows flexibility in its scaffolding function in mast cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:195-205 pubmed
    ..Whereas FcvarepsilonRI required Lyn and Syk for NTAL phosphorylation, Kit appeared to directly phosphorylate NTAL...
  31. Rawlings D, Scharenberg A, Park H, Wahl M, Lin S, Kato R, et al. Activation of BTK by a phosphorylation mechanism initiated by SRC family kinases. Science. 1996;271:822-5 pubmed
    ..The activated BTK was predominantly membrane-associated, which suggests that BTK integrates distinct receptor signals resulting in SRC kinase activation and BTK membrane targeting. ..
  32. Ng S, Di Capite J, Singaravelu K, Parekh A. Sustained activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk by antigen in mast cells requires local Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..activation involves cross-linking of IgE receptors followed by phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Syk. This results in activation of the plasma membrane-bound enzyme phospholipase Cgamma1, which hydrolyzes the minor ..
  33. Keshvara L, Isaacson C, Harrison M, Geahlen R. Syk activation and dissociation from the B-cell antigen receptor is mediated by phosphorylation of tyrosine 130. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10377-81 pubmed
    b>Syk (p72(syk)) is a 72-kDa cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that serves as an essential component of the signal transduction machinery coupled to the B-cell antigen receptor...
  34. Poole A, Gibbins J, Turner M, van Vugt M, van de Winkel J, Saito T, et al. The Fc receptor gamma-chain and the tyrosine kinase Syk are essential for activation of mouse platelets by collagen. EMBO J. 1997;16:2333-41 pubmed
    ..with tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins including the Fc receptor gamma-chain, the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, suggesting that collagen signals in a manner similar to that of immune receptors...
  35. Uckun F, Ma H, Zhang J, Ozer Z, Dovat S, Mao C, et al. Serine phosphorylation by SYK is critical for nuclear localization and transcription factor function of Ikaros. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18072-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide multifaceted genetic and biochemical evidence for a previously unknown function of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) as a partner and posttranslational regulator of Ikaros...
  36. Hatterer E, Benon A, Chounlamountri N, Watrin C, Angibaud J, Jouanneau E, et al. Syk kinase is phosphorylated in specific areas of the developing nervous system. Neurosci Res. 2011;70:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The recruitment and activation of the Syk family tyrosine kinases, Syk and ZAP-70, being a critical step in this process, we conducted a thorough analysis of ..
  37. He Y, Xu L, Li B, Guo Z, Hu Q, Guo Z, et al. Macrophage-Inducible C-Type Lectin/Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Pathway Contributes to Neuroinflammation After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Stroke. 2015;46:2277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the role of Mincle and its downstream spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signal pathway in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model...
  38. Rowley R, Bolen J, Fargnoli J. Molecular cloning of rodent p72Syk. Evidence of alternative mRNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12659-64 pubmed
    ..analysis of polyadenylated RNA prepared from RBL-2H3 cells revealed the presence of three distinct mRNAs encoding p72Syk, a protein-tyrosine kinase previously shown to be associated with the high affinity IgE receptor present on the ..
  39. Brungs S, Kolanus W, Hemmersbach R. Syk phosphorylation - a gravisensitive step in macrophage signalling. Cell Commun Signal. 2015;13:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) phosphorylation, which is required for ROS production, and the translocation of the nuclear factor ..
  40. Soto Cruz I, Oliver J, Ortega E. Analysis of proteins binding to the ITAM motif of the beta-subunit of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2007;27:67-81 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of the gammaITAM mediates activation of Syk kinase and is sufficient for triggering the responses induced by Fcepsilon RI crosslinking...
  41. Benhamou M, Ryba N, Kihara H, Nishikata H, Siraganian R. Protein-tyrosine kinase p72syk in high affinity IgE receptor signaling. Identification as a component of pp72 and association with the receptor gamma chain after receptor aggregation. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23318-24 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the involvement of the tyrosine kinase p72syk in Fc epsilon RI signaling in the rat mast cell line RBL-2H3...
  42. Costello P, Turner M, Walters A, Cunningham C, Bauer P, Downward J, et al. Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells. Oncogene. 1996;13:2595-605 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of Fc epsilon RI results in the rapid association and activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase...
  43. Yu M, Lowell C, Neel B, Gu H. Scaffolding adapter Grb2-associated binder 2 requires Syk to transmit signals from FcepsilonRI. J Immunol. 2006;176:2421-9 pubmed
    ..We found that Gab2 tyrosyl phosphorylation requires Lyn and Syk. In agreement with published results, we found that Fyn also contributes to Gab2 tyrosyl phosphorylation...
  44. Zou L, Sato N, Kone B. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone protects against H2O2-induced inhibition of wound restitution in IEC-6 cells via a Syk kinase- and NF-kappabeta-dependent mechanism. Shock. 2004;22:453-9 pubmed
    ..H2O2 treatment resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk kinase and its downstream target IkappaBalpha, with subsequent NF-kappaB activation...
  45. Ramessur Chandran S, Tesch G, Han Y, Woodman N, Mulley W, Kanellis J, et al. Spleen tyrosine kinase contributes to acute renal allograft rejection in the rat. Int J Exp Pathol. 2015;96:54-62 pubmed publisher
    Kidney allografts induce strong T-cell and antibody responses which mediate acute rejection. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is expressed by most leucocytes, except mature T cells, and is involved in intracellular signalling following ..
  46. Ryan J, Ma F, Kanellis J, Delgado M, Blease K, Nikolic Paterson D. Spleen tyrosine kinase promotes acute neutrophil-mediated glomerular injury via activation of JNK and p38 MAPK in rat nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1727-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This study tested the postulate that spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which is activated via Fc?-receptor ligation, is required for activation of JNK and p38 signalling ..
  47. Gorjestani S, Yu M, Tang B, Zhang D, Wang D, Lin X. Phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) is key component in Dectin-2 signaling pathway, mediating anti-fungal innate immune responses. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans infection in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that PLC?2 plays a critical role in CLR-induced signaling pathways, governing antifungal innate immune responses. ..
  48. Luo Q, Gao Z, Cao L, Yu L, Wang T, Liu H. [Effect of spleen tyrosine kinase on the proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells in rats]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:886-90 pubmed
    To investigate the role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in rat pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)...
  49. Sillman A, Monroe J. Association of p72syk with the src homology-2 (SH2) domains of PLC gamma 1 in B lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11806-11 pubmed
    ..The B cell antigen receptor-associated tyrosine kinases p53/56lyn, p59fyn, p55blk, and p72syk are assumed to participate in receptor-initiated signaling...
  50. Kulathu Y, Hobeika E, Turchinovich G, Reth M. The kinase Syk as an adaptor controlling sustained calcium signalling and B-cell development. EMBO J. 2008;27:1333-44 pubmed publisher
    Upon B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation, the protein tyrosine kinase Syk phosphorylates the adaptor protein SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 65 kDa (SLP-65), thus coupling the BCR to diverse signalling pathways...
  51. Lee J, Kim Y, Kim N, Kim J, Her E, Kim B, et al. Phospholipase D2 acts as an essential adaptor protein in the activation of Syk in antigen-stimulated mast cells. Blood. 2006;108:956-64 pubmed
    ..Here we show that PLD2 associates with and promotes activation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast cell activation...
  52. Mallick Wood C, Pao W, Cheng A, Lewis J, Kulkarni S, Bolen J, et al. Disruption of epithelial gamma delta T cell repertoires by mutation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9704-9 pubmed
    Chimeric mice in which lymphocytes are deficient in the Syk tyrosine kinase have been created...
  53. Lin Y, Huang D, Chu C, Lin Y, Lin W. The tyrosine kinase Syk differentially regulates Toll-like receptor signaling downstream of the adaptor molecules TRAF6 and TRAF3. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra71 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk partially mediated the endocytosis of TLR4, but it also played a dual role in TLR4-mediated signaling...