Gene Symbol: Stx4
Description: syntaxin 4
Alias: Stx4a, syntaxin-4, syntaxin 4A (placental)
Species: rat
Products:     Stx4

Top Publications

  1. Polgar J, Chung S, Reed G. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human platelets and are required for granule secretion. Blood. 2002;100:1081-3 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry, we identified VAMP-3 and VAMP-8 as VAMP isoforms coimmunoprecipitated from platelets with syntaxin 4. Immunoblotting experiments confirmed the presence of VAMP-3 and VAMP-8 but not VAMP-1 or VAMP-2 in platelets...
  2. Jagadish M, Fernandez C, Hewish D, Macaulay S, Gough K, Grusovin J, et al. Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in addition to syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins 1 and 2. Biochem J. 1996;317 ( Pt 3):945-54 pubmed
    ..It describes the isolation and characterization of cDNA molecules encoding SNAP-25 A and B isoforms, syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins (also known as vehicle-associated membrane proteins) from two major human insulin-responsive ..
  3. Procino G, Barbieri C, Tamma G, De Benedictis L, Pessin J, Svelto M, et al. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct -- involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2097-106 pubmed publisher
  4. Kadono N, Miyazaki T, Okugawa Y, Nakajima K, Hirai Y. The impact of extracellular syntaxin4 on HaCaT keratinocyte behavior. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed, for the first time, the extracellular role of syntaxin4 and shed light on the division of the extracellular effects exerted by epimorphin and syntaxin4 on keratinocyte cornification. ..
  5. Ferlito M, Fulton W, Zauher M, Marban E, Steenbergen C, Lowenstein C. VAMP-1, VAMP-2, and syntaxin-4 regulate ANP release from cardiac myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that three specific SNAREs regulate cardiac myocyte exocytosis of ANP. Pathways that modify the exocytic machinery may influence natriuresis and blood pressure. ..
  6. Hata Y, Sudhof T. A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13022-8 pubmed
    ..produced in COS cells, we show that both forms of Munc-18 bind tightly to syntaxins 1A, 2, and 3 but not to syntaxin 4. In an independent approach to study the binding specificities of Munc-18-1 and Munc-18-2, we used the yeast two-..
  7. Oh E, Stull N, Mirmira R, Thurmond D. Syntaxin 4 up-regulation increases efficiency of insulin release in pancreatic islets from humans with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E866-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Because enrichment of Syntaxin 4, a plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein, enhances ?-..
  8. Sakiyama H, Tadokoro S, Nakanishi M, Hirashima N. Membrane fusion between liposomes containing SNARE proteins involved in mast cell exocytosis. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The core components of SNAP23, syntaxin-3, and VAMP-8 appear to be minimal machinery to induce membrane fusion, while VAMP-7 appears to be unessential for membrane fusion. ..
  9. Lin M, Jiang M, Ding F, Cao Z. Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 act as exocytic SNAREs to release NGF from cultured Schwann cells. Neurosci Lett. 2017;653:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 dramatically decreased the exocytosis of NGF and inhibited the neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 acted as exocytic SNAREs to release NGF from SCs. ..

More Information


  1. Mori Y, Fukuda M, Henley J. Small GTPase Rab17 regulates the surface expression of kainate receptors but not ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in hippocampal neurons via dendritic trafficking of Syntaxin-4 protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:20773-87 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Rab17 mediates the dendritic trafficking of Syntaxin-4 to selectively regulate dendritic surface insertion of GluK2-containing KARs in rat hippocampal neurons. ..
  2. Zaid H, Antonescu C, Randhawa V, Klip A. Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks and tethers. Biochem J. 2008;413:201-15 pubmed publisher
  3. Low S, Marmorstein L, Miura M, Li X, Kudo N, Marmorstein A, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial cells exhibit unique expression and localization of plasma membrane syntaxins which may contribute to their trafficking phenotype. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4545-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, syntaxin 4 and the v-SNARE endobrevin/VAMP-8 localize to this sub-tight junctional domain, which suggests that this is a ..
  4. Li L, Omata W, Kojima I, Shibata H. Direct interaction of Rab4 with syntaxin 4. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5265-73 pubmed
    In the present study, we examined the possible interaction between Rab4 and syntaxin 4, both having been implicated in insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation...
  5. Salinas E, Quintanar Stephano A, Córdova L, Ouintanar J. Allergen-sensitization increases mast-cell expression of the exocytotic proteins SNAP-23 and syntaxin 4, which are involved in histamine secretion. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:366-71 pubmed
    ..Synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP-23) and syntaxin 4 are plasma membrane proteins that have been associated with exocytosis in MCs...
  6. Bijlard M, Klunder B, de Jonge J, Nomden A, Tyagi S, de Vries H, et al. Transcriptional expression of myelin basic protein in oligodendrocytes depends on functional syntaxin 4: a potential correlation with autocrine signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, downregulation and overexpression of syntaxin 4 but not syntaxin 3 in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells but not immature oligodendrocytes impeded MBP mRNA ..
  7. Rao S, Huynh C, Proux Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Andrews N. Identification of SNAREs involved in synaptotagmin VII-regulated lysosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20471-9 pubmed
    ..we show that Ca2+-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin VII C(2)A domain with SNAP-23 is facilitated by syntaxin 4. Specific interactions also occurred in cell lysates between the plasma membrane t-SNAREs SNAP-23 and syntaxin 4 ..
  8. Falkowski M, Thomas D, Groblewski G. Complexin 2 modulates vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2-regulated zymogen granule exocytosis in pancreatic acini. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a functional role for complexin 2 outside the nervous system and indicate that it participates in the Ca(2+)-sensitive regulatory pathway for zymogen granule exocytosis...
  9. Tao Cheng J, Pham A, Yang Y, Winters C, Gallant P, Reese T. Syntaxin 4 is concentrated on plasma membrane of astrocytes. Neuroscience. 2015;286:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..glial cultures, consisting of mostly astrocytes, shows that syntaxin 1 is enriched in neuronal cultures, whereas syntaxin 4 is enriched in glial cultures...
  10. Rahman A, Decourcey J, Larbi N, Loughran S, Walls D, Loscher C. Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients. ..
  11. Latham C, Lopez J, Hu S, Gee C, Westbury E, Blair D, et al. Molecular dissection of the Munc18c/syntaxin4 interaction: implications for regulation of membrane trafficking. Traffic. 2006;7:1408-19 pubmed
    ..The Munc18c-SNARE interactions described here imply that Munc18c could play a positive regulatory role in SNARE assembly. ..
  12. Liu L, Jedrychowski M, Gygi S, Pilch P. Role of insulin-dependent cortical fodrin/spectrin remodeling in glucose transporter 4 translocation in rat adipocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4249-56 pubmed
    ..that fodrin interacts with the t-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin 4, and this interaction is increased by insulin stimulation and decreased by prior latrunculin A treatment...
  13. Saito T, Okada S, Yamada E, Ohshima K, Shimizu H, Shimomura K, et al. Syntaxin 4 and Synip (syntaxin 4 interacting protein) regulate insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta HC-9 cell. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36718-25 pubmed
    ..for pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion, we have observed that overexpression of a dominant-interfering syntaxin 4 mutant (syntaxin 4/DeltaTM) attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in betaHC-9 cells...
  14. Kepner E, Yoder S, Oh E, Kalwat M, Wang Z, Quilliam L, et al. Cool-1/?PIX functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the cycling of Cdc42 to regulate insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E1072-80 pubmed publisher
  15. Widberg C, Bryant N, Girotti M, Rea S, James D. Tomosyn interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 and plays a role in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35093-101 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Tomosyn and Munc18c operate at a similar stage of the Syntaxin4 SNARE assembly cycle, which likely primes Syntaxin4 for entry into the ternary SNARE complex. ..
  16. Day P, Riggs K, Hasan N, Corbin D, Humphrey D, Hu C. Syntaxins 3 and 4 mediate vesicular trafficking of ?5?1 and ?3?1 integrins and cancer cell migration. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:863-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that syntaxins 3- and 4-dependent integrin trafficking is important in cancer cell migration and survival, and may be a valuable target for cancer therapy. ..
  17. Larance M, Ramm G, James D. The GLUT4 code. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:226-33 pubmed
    ..Many are now taking on this challenge. ..
  18. Mistry A, Mallick R, Klein J, Weimbs T, Sands J, Fröhlich O. Syntaxin specificity of aquaporins in the inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Snapin plays an important role as a linker between the water channel and the t-SNARE complex, leading to the fusion event, and the pairing with specific t-SNAREs is essential for the specificity of membrane recognition and fusion. ..
  19. St Denis J, Cabaniols J, Cushman S, Roche P. SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 3):709-15 pubmed
    ..The SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2/3 also participate in the insulin-stimulated translocation of ..
  20. Cosen Binker L, Binker M, Wang C, Hong W, Gaisano H. VAMP8 is the v-SNARE that mediates basolateral exocytosis in a mouse model of alcoholic pancreatitis. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2535-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that VAMP8 is the ZG-SNARE that mediates basolateral exocytosis in alcoholic pancreatitis and that VAMP8 is critical for ZG-ZG homotypic fusion. ..
  21. Hasan N, Corbin D, Hu C. Fusogenic pairings of vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) and plasma membrane t-SNAREs--VAMP5 as the exception. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14238 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that VAMPs have differential membrane fusion capacities, and imply that with the exception of VAMP5, VAMPs are essentially redundant in mediating fusion with plasma membrane t-SNAREs. ..
  22. Miyata T, Ohnishi H, Suzuki J, Yoshikumi Y, Ohno H, Mashima H, et al. Involvement of syntaxin 4 in the transport of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase to the plasma membrane in human gastric epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:118-24 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemistry revealed that transient transfection of AGS cells with dominant-negative mutant syntaxin 4 decreased plasma membrane MT1-MMP expression...
  23. Perrotta C, Bizzozero L, Cazzato D, Morlacchi S, Assi E, Simbari F, et al. Syntaxin 4 is required for acid sphingomyelinase activity and apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in an exocytic pathway requiring the t-SNARE protein syntaxin 4. Indeed, down-regulation of syntaxin 4 inhibits A-SMase translocation and activation induced by CD95 stimulation...
  24. Imai A, Nashida T, Shimomura H. Roles of Munc18-3 in amylase release from rat parotid acinar cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;422:175-82 pubmed
    ..protein receptor" (SNARE) proteins have been identified in rat parotid acinar cells, including VAMP-2, syntaxin 4, and SNAP-23. Furthermore, an association between Munc18c (Munc18-3) and syntaxin 4 has been reported...
  25. Gu Y, Huganir R. Identification of the SNARE complex mediating the exocytosis of NMDA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12280-12285 pubmed
    ..Our study uncovers the postsynaptic function of the SNAP25-VAMP1-syntaxin4 complex in mediating the constitutive exocytosis of NMDA receptors, suggesting that this SNARE complex is involved in excitatory synaptic transmission. ..
  26. Scales S, Hesser B, Masuda E, Scheller R. Amisyn, a novel syntaxin-binding protein that may regulate SNARE complex assembly. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28271-9 pubmed
    ..amisyn, with a tomosyn- and VAMP-like coiled-coil-forming domain that binds specifically to syntaxin 1a and syntaxin 4 both in vitro and in vivo, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation from rat brain...
  27. Ke B, Oh E, Thurmond D. Doc2beta is a novel Munc18c-interacting partner and positive effector of syntaxin 4-mediated exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21786-97 pubmed
    ..Although Munc18c function is known to involve binding to the t-SNARE Syntaxin 4, a paucity of Munc18c-binding proteins has restricted elucidation of the mechanism by which it facilitates these ..
  28. Li C, Ullrich B, Zhang J, Anderson R, Brose N, Sudhof T. Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent activities of neural and non-neural synaptotagmins. Nature. 1995;375:594-9 pubmed
    ..The same C2 domains also bind syntaxin as a function of Ca2+ but the Ca(2+)-concentration dependence of Syt I, II and V (> 200 microM) differs from that of Syt III and VII (< 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  29. Pooley R, Moynihan K, Soukoulis V, Reddy S, Francis R, Lo C, et al. Murine CENPF interacts with syntaxin 4 in the regulation of vesicular transport. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Syntaxin 4 is a component of the SNARE complex that regulates membrane docking and fusion...
  30. Takuma T, Shitara A, Arakawa T, Okayama M, Mizoguchi I, Tajima Y. Isoproterenol stimulates transient SNAP23-VAMP2 interaction in rat parotid glands. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of VAMP2 was significantly increased in response to ISO and/or CyD, although the coprecipitation of VAMP8 or syntaxin 4 was scarcely augmented...
  31. Kennedy M, Davison I, Robinson C, Ehlers M. Syntaxin-4 defines a domain for activity-dependent exocytosis in dendritic spines. Cell. 2010;141:524-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocytosis occurs at microdomains enriched in the plasma membrane t-SNARE syntaxin 4 (Stx4), and disruption of Stx4 impairs both spine exocytosis and long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal ..
  32. Thomas D, Ferguson G, Herschman H, Elferink L. Functional and biochemical analysis of the C2 domains of synaptotagmin IV. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:2285-95 pubmed
  33. Kioumourtzoglou D, Gould G, Bryant N. Insulin stimulates syntaxin4 SNARE complex assembly via a novel regulatory mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, this report provides molecular detail of how the cell alters membrane traffic in response to an external stimulus, in this case, insulin...
  34. Brochetta C, Vita F, Tiwari N, Scandiuzzi L, Soranzo M, Guérin Marchand C, et al. Involvement of Munc18 isoforms in the regulation of granule exocytosis in neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and Munc18-3 were often located in close proximity to their respective SNARE-binding partners syntaxin 3 and syntaxin 4. Both isoforms were also found in plasma membrane fractions and in the cytosol, where they associate with ..
  35. Low S, Vasanji A, Nanduri J, He M, Sharma N, Koo M, et al. Syntaxins 3 and 4 are concentrated in separate clusters on the plasma membrane before the establishment of cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:977-89 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the apical targeting signal of syntaxin 3 does not prevent sorting into clusters away from syntaxin 4. Syntaxin 3 and 4 cluster formation depends on different mechanisms because the integrity of syntaxin 3 clusters ..
  36. Fu J, Naren A, Gao X, Ahmmed G, Malik A. Protease-activated receptor-1 activation of endothelial cells induces protein kinase Calpha-dependent phosphorylation of syntaxin 4 and Munc18c: role in signaling p-selectin expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3178-84 pubmed
    ..We identified the presence of syntaxin 4, syntaxin 3, and the high affinity syntaxin 4-regulatory protein Munc18c in human lung microvascular endothelial ..
  37. Yang J, Gillingham A, Hodel A, Koumanov F, Woodward B, Holman G. Insulin-stimulated cytosol alkalinization facilitates optimal activation of glucose transport in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283:E1299-307 pubmed
    ..a translocation of the GLUT4 from perinuclear structures and increased its co-localization with cell surface syntaxin 4. However, neither cariporide nor bafilomycin A1 treatment reduced the translocation of immunodetectable GLUT4 to ..
  38. Liu S, Nugroho A, Shudou M, Maeyama K. Regulation of mucosal mast cell activation by short interfering RNAs targeting syntaxin4. Immunol Cell Biol. 2012;90:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that siRNAs targeting syntaxin4 can stabilize mucosal mast cells and may have beneficial therapeutic effects on the asthmatic response. ..
  39. Pevsner J, Hsu S, Hyde P, Scheller R. Mammalian homologues of yeast vacuolar protein sorting (vps) genes implicated in Golgi-to-lysosome trafficking. Gene. 1996;183:7-14 pubmed
    ..We propose that the three proteins bind as yet unidentified syntaxin homologues involved in vesicle trafficking between the Golgi apparatus, prelysosomal compartment(s), and the lysosome. ..
  40. Logan M, Lacy P, Odemuyiwa S, Steward M, Davoine F, Kita H, et al. A critical role for vesicle-associated membrane protein-7 in exocytosis from human eosinophils and neutrophils. Allergy. 2006;61:777-84 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time a critical role for VAMP-7 in both eosinophil and neutrophil mediator release. ..
  41. Bennett M, Garcia Arraras J, Elferink L, Peterson K, Fleming A, Hazuka C, et al. The syntaxin family of vesicular transport receptors. Cell. 1993;74:863-73 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the syntaxins are a family of receptors for intracellular transport vesicles and that each target membrane may be identified by a specific member of the syntaxin family. ..