Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Stx1a
Description: syntaxin 1A
Alias: syntaxin-1A, P35A, neuron-specific antigen HPC-1, synaptotagmin-associated 35 kDa protein, syntaxin 1A (brain), syntaxin 1A (brain)-like
- James D, Khodthong C, Kowalchyk J, Martin T. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate regulates SNARE-dependent membrane fusion. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:355-66 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that PI 4,5-P(2) regulates fusion both as a fusion restraint that syntaxin-1 alleviates and as an essential cofactor that recruits protein priming factors to facilitate SNARE-dependent fusion. ..
- Dulubova I, Khvotchev M, Liu S, Huryeva I, Sudhof T, Rizo J. Munc18-1 binds directly to the neuronal SNARE complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2697-702 pubmed
- Sutton R, Fasshauer D, Jahn R, Brunger A. Crystal structure of a SNARE complex involved in synaptic exocytosis at 2.4 A resolution. Nature. 1998;395:347-53 pubmed..These characteristics may be important for membrane fusion and for the binding of regulatory factors affecting neurotransmission. ..
- Stein A, Weber G, Wahl M, Jahn R. Helical extension of the neuronal SNARE complex into the membrane. Nature. 2009;460:525-8 pubmed publisher..Here, we report the X-ray structure of the neuronal SNARE complex, consisting of rat syntaxin 1A, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin 2, with the carboxy-terminal linkers and transmembrane regions at 3.4 A resolution...
- Gerber S, Rah J, Min S, Liu X, de Wit H, Dulubova I, et al. Conformational switch of syntaxin-1 controls synaptic vesicle fusion. Science. 2008;321:1507-10 pubmed publisher..Thus, the closed conformation of syntaxin-1 gates the initiation of the synaptic vesicle fusion reaction, which is then mediated by SNARE-complex/Munc18-1 assemblies. ..
- Peng L, Liu H, Ruan H, Tepp W, Stoothoff W, Brown R, et al. Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins reveals a direct role of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 in neuron survival. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1472 pubmed publisher..These findings establish neuronal cytotoxicity for BoNTs and reveal syntaxin 1/SNAP-25 as the ubiquitous and essential SNARE proteins mediating multiple fusion events on neuronal plasma membranes. ..
- Wang D, Zhang Z, Dong M, Sun S, Chapman E, Jackson M. Syntaxin requirement for Ca2+-triggered exocytosis in neurons and endocrine cells demonstrated with an engineered neurotoxin. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2711-3 pubmed publisher..These mutants can generate syntaxin-free cells as a useful experimental system for research and may lead to pharmaceuticals that target syntaxin selectively. ..
- Singer Lahat D, Sheinin A, Chikvashvili D, Tsuk S, Greitzer D, Friedrich R, et al. K+ channel facilitation of exocytosis by dynamic interaction with syntaxin. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1651-8 pubmed
- Weninger K, Bowen M, Choi U, Chu S, Brunger A. Accessory proteins stabilize the acceptor complex for synaptobrevin, the 1:1 syntaxin/SNAP-25 complex. Structure. 2008;16:308-20 pubmed publisher..In the cellular environment the binary complex is actively maintained in a configuration where it can rapidly interact with synaptobrevin, so formation is not likely a limiting step for neurotransmitter release. ..
- Lang T, Margittai M, Hölzler H, Jahn R. SNAREs in native plasma membranes are active and readily form core complexes with endogenous and exogenous SNAREs. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:751-60 pubmed..protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) synaptobrevin 2 forms complexes with the plasma membrane-bound SNAREs syntaxin 1A and SNAP25 to initiate the fusion reaction...
- Betz A, Okamoto M, Benseler F, Brose N. Direct interaction of the rat unc-13 homologue Munc13-1 with the N terminus of syntaxin. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2520-6 pubmed..It is possible that the phenotype of unc-13 and unc-18 mutations is caused by the inability of the respective mutated gene products to bind to syntaxin. ..
- Fasshauer D, Antonin W, Margittai M, Pabst S, Jahn R. Mixed and non-cognate SNARE complexes. Characterization of assembly and biophysical properties. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15440-6 pubmed
- Su Q, Mochida S, Tian J, Mehta R, Sheng Z. SNAP-29: a general SNARE protein that inhibits SNARE disassembly and is implicated in synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14038-43 pubmed
- Kümmel D, Krishnakumar S, Radoff D, Li F, Giraudo C, Pincet F, et al. Complexin cross-links prefusion SNAREs into a zigzag array. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:927-33 pubmed publisher..Thus, complexin organizes the SNAREs into a zigzag topology that, when interposed between the vesicle and plasma membranes, is incompatible with fusion. ..
- Burkhardt P, Hattendorf D, Weis W, Fasshauer D. Munc18a controls SNARE assembly through its interaction with the syntaxin N-peptide. EMBO J. 2008;27:923-33 pubmed publisher..designated the N-peptide, while Munc18a binds to a 'closed' conformation formed by the remaining portion of syntaxin 1a. Here, we show that the syntaxin 16 N-peptide binds to the SM protein Vps45, but the remainder of syntaxin 16 ..
- Rickman C, Duncan R. Munc18/Syntaxin interaction kinetics control secretory vesicle dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3965-72 pubmed publisher..Destabilization of this dynamic interaction enhanced vesicle immobilization at the plasma membrane with a resulting inhibition of exocytosis. ..
- Sesack S, Snyder C. Cellular and subcellular localization of syntaxin-like immunoreactivity in the rat striatum and cortex. Neuroscience. 1995;67:993-1007 pubmed..Biochemical and molecular biological studies indicate a prominent role for syntaxin 1A and 1B in synaptic vesicle docking and/or fusion, suggesting that these proteins are localized to active zone ..
- Graham M, Barclay J, Burgoyne R. Syntaxin/Munc18 interactions in the late events during vesicle fusion and release in exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32751-60 pubmed..the kinetics of single vesicle fusion/release events in adrenal chromaffin cells, the effect of expression of syntaxin 1A mutants was examined...
- Pevsner J, Hsu S, Scheller R. n-Sec1: a neural-specific syntaxin-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1445-9 pubmed..In the presence of syntaxin 1a, a plasma membrane protein implicated in synaptic vesicle docking, n-Sec1 becomes membrane-associated...
- Ernst J, Brunger A. High resolution structure, stability, and synaptotagmin binding of a truncated neuronal SNARE complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8630-6 pubmed..The truncated SNARE complex is monomeric, and it retains binding to synaptotagmin I. ..
- Okamoto M, Sudhof T. Mints, Munc18-interacting proteins in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:31459-64 pubmed..F. J. (1995) Nature 374, 173-177). Our data suggest a model whereby local production of phosphatidylinositol phosphates may trigger the binding of vesicles to the active zone via the Mint.Munc18-1 complex in conjunction with syntaxin 1. ..
- Hata Y, Slaughter C, Sudhof T. Synaptic vesicle fusion complex contains unc-18 homologue bound to syntaxin. Nature. 1993;366:347-51 pubmed..Our data suggest that Munc-18 is a previously unidentified essential component of the synaptic vesicle fusion protein complex. ..
- Pobbati A, Stein A, Fasshauer D. N- to C-terminal SNARE complex assembly promotes rapid membrane fusion. Science. 2006;313:673-6 pubmed..Thus, SNAREs do have the capacity to execute fusion at a speed required for neuronal secretion, demonstrating that the maintenance of acceptor complexes is a critical step in biological fusion reactions. ..
- Fernandez I, Ubach J, Dulubova I, Zhang X, Sudhof T, Rizo J. Three-dimensional structure of an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal domain of syntaxin 1A. Cell. 1998;94:841-9 pubmedb>Syntaxin 1A plays a central role in neurotransmitter release through multiple protein-protein interactions...
- Vikman J, Ma X, Hockerman G, Rorsman P, Eliasson L. Antibody inhibition of synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and syntaxin 1 reduces rapid exocytosis in insulin-secreting cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;36:503-15 pubmed..Our data are consistent with the concept that both syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are required for rapid exocytosis in beta-cells. ..
- Pobbati A, Razeto A, Böddener M, Becker S, Fasshauer D. Structural basis for the inhibitory role of tomosyn in exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47192-200 pubmed..Key players during this process are the Q-SNAREs syntaxin 1a and SNAP-25 and the R-SNARE synaptobrevin 2...
- Hata Y, Sudhof T. A novel ubiquitous form of Munc-18 interacts with multiple syntaxins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to study interactions between proteins involved in membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13022-8 pubmed..The lack of specificity of the interactions between syntaxins and Munc-18s indicates that specificity of membrane trafficking reactions is not dependent on this interaction. ..
- Sieber J, Willig K, Kutzner C, Gerding Reimers C, Harke B, Donnert G, et al. Anatomy and dynamics of a supramolecular membrane protein cluster. Science. 2007;317:1072-6 pubmed
- van den Bogaart G, Meyenberg K, Risselada H, Amin H, Willig K, Hubrich B, et al. Membrane protein sequestering by ionic protein-lipid interactions. Nature. 2011;479:552-5 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that electrostatic protein-lipid interactions can result in the formation of microdomains independently of cholesterol or lipid phases. ..
- Bhalla A, Chicka M, Tucker W, Chapman E. Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin directly regulates t-SNARE function during reconstituted membrane fusion. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:323-30 pubmed..Ca(2+)-syt drove assembly of SNAP-25 onto membrane-embedded syntaxin, providing direct evidence that Ca(2+)-syt alters t-SNARE structure. ..
- Bennett M, Calakos N, Scheller R. Syntaxin: a synaptic protein implicated in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones. Science. 1992;257:255-9 pubmed..An antibody to p35 immunoprecipitated solubilized N-type calcium channels. The p35 proteins may function in docking synaptic vesicles near calcium channels at presynaptic active zones. ..
- Misura K, Scheller R, Weis W. Self-association of the H3 region of syntaxin 1A. Implications for intermediates in SNARE complex assembly. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13273-82 pubmed..The membrane proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain of the SNARE syntaxin 1A, designated H3, contributes one of the four helices to the SNARE complex...
- Chen X, Tomchick D, Kovrigin E, Arac D, Machius M, Sudhof T, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the complexin/SNARE complex. Neuron. 2002;33:397-409 pubmed..These results suggest that complexin stabilizes the fully assembled SNARE complex as a key step that enables the exquisitely high speed of Ca(2+)-evoked neurotransmitter release. ..
- Hui E, Johnson C, Yao J, Dunning F, Chapman E. Synaptotagmin-mediated bending of the target membrane is a critical step in Ca(2+)-regulated fusion. Cell. 2009;138:709-21 pubmed publisher..Moreover, bending of flat membranes by adding an N-BAR domain rescued the function of the tubulation-deficient syt mutant. Hence, syt-mediated membrane bending is a critical step in membrane fusion. ..
- Liang T, Xie L, Chao C, Kang Y, Lin X, Qin T, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) modulates interaction of syntaxin-1A with sulfonylurea receptor 1 to regulate pancreatic ?-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6028-40 pubmed publisher..These results taken together indicate that PIP2 affects islet ?-cell KATP channels not only by its actions on Kir6.2 but also by sequestering Syn-1A to modulate Syn-1A availability and its interactions with SUR1 on PM. ..
- Yoshida A, Oho C, Omori A, Kuwahara R, Ito T, Takahashi M. HPC-1 is associated with synaptotagmin and omega-conotoxin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24925-8 pubmed..These results suggest that HPC-1 may play a role in neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals by associating with omega-CgTX-sensitive N-type calcium channel and synaptotagmin. ..
- Ferrer I, Puig B, Blanco R, Marti E. Prion protein deposition and abnormal synaptic protein expression in the cerebellum in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuroscience. 2000;97:715-26 pubmed..Therefore, it remains to be elucidated how abnormal PrP impacts on the metabolism of proteins linked to exocytosis and neurotransmission, and how abnormal PrP deposition results in eventual synaptic loss. ..
- Suga K, Yamamori T, Akagawa K. Identification of the carboxyl-terminal membrane-anchoring region of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A with the substituted-cysteine-accessibility method and monoclonal antibodies. J Biochem. 2003;133:325-34 pubmedHPC-1/syntaxin 1A is a member of the syntaxin family, and functions at the plasma membrane during membrane fusion as the target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (t-SNARE)...
- Quetglas S, Iborra C, Sasakawa N, De Haro L, Kumakura K, Sato K, et al. Calmodulin and lipid binding to synaptobrevin regulates calcium-dependent exocytosis. EMBO J. 2002;21:3970-9 pubmed..The calmodulin- and phospholipid-binding domain of VAMP 2 is thus required for Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis, possibly to regulate SNARE complex assembly. ..
- Kang Y, Zhang Y, Liang T, Leung Y, Ng B, Xie H, et al. ATP modulates interaction of syntaxin-1A with sulfonylurea receptor 1 to regulate pancreatic beta-cell KATP channels. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5876-83 pubmed publisher..2 pore subunit, but also via ATP modulation of Syn-1A binding to SUR1...
- Tao Cheng J, Pham A, Yang Y, Winters C, Gallant P, Reese T. Syntaxin 4 is concentrated on plasma membrane of astrocytes. Neuroscience. 2015;286:264-71 pubmed publisher..These results show that syntaxin 4 is available to support exocytosis in astroglia. ..
- Iijima N, Suzuki N, Oguchi T, Hashimoto S, Takumi Y, Sugahara K, et al. The effect of hypergravity on the inner ear: CREB and syntaxin are up-regulated. Neuroreport. 2004;15:965-9 pubmed
- Yao H, Zhou K, Yan D, Li M, Wang Y. The Kv2.1 channels mediate neuronal apoptosis induced by excitotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2009;108:909-19 pubmed publisher..1 membrane translocation is regulated by a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-dependent vesicular trafficking mechanism and is responsible for neuronal cell death induced by chronic loss of K(+). ..
- Fan H, Fan F, Bao L, Pei G. SNAP-25/syntaxin 1A complex functionally modulates neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28174-84 pubmed..N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, which includes two target SNAREs syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 and one vesicle SNARE VAMP-2...
- Mitchell S, Ryan T. Munc18-dependent regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis by syntaxin-1A in hippocampal neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:372-80 pubmed..Our results also indicate that syntaxin can control the frequency-response characteristics of the presynaptic fusion machinery. ..
- Galli T, McPherson P, De Camilli P. The V0 sector of the V-ATPase, synaptobrevin, and synaptophysin are associated on synaptic vesicles in a Triton X-100-resistant, freeze-thawing sensitive, complex. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2193-8 pubmed..Freeze-thawing, which involves a mild denaturing step, may produce a conformational change which dissociates the complex and mimics a change which occurs in vivo as a prerequisite to SNARE complex formation. ..
- Kwong J, Roundabush F, Hutton Moore P, Montague M, Oldham W, Li Y, et al. Hrs interacts with SNAP-25 and regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2273-84 pubmed..Moreover, overexpression of Hrs in PC12 cells inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. These results suggest that Hrs is involved in regulation of neurosecretion through interaction with SNAP-25. ..
- Dai X, Plummer G, Casimir M, Kang Y, Hajmrle C, Gaisano H, et al. SUMOylation regulates insulin exocytosis downstream of secretory granule docking in rodents and humans. Diabetes. 2011;60:838-47 pubmed publisher..SUMOylation acutely regulates insulin secretion by the direct and reversible inhibition of ?-cell exocytosis in response to intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The SUMO protease, SENP1, is required for glucose-dependent insulin secretion. ..
- Burgalossi A, Jung S, Meyer G, Jockusch W, Jahn O, Taschenberger H, et al. SNARE protein recycling by ?SNAP and ?SNAP supports synaptic vesicle priming. Neuron. 2010;68:473-87 pubmed publisher..Our analysis of ?- and ?SNAP deletion mutant neurons shows that the two NSF cofactors support synaptic vesicle priming by determining the availability of free SNARE components, particularly during phases of high synaptic activity. ..
- Zhao M, Wu S, Zhou Q, Vivona S, Cipriano D, Cheng Y, et al. Mechanistic insights into the recycling machine of the SNARE complex. Nature. 2015;518:61-7 pubmed publisher..The interfaces between NSF, SNAPs, and SNAREs exhibit characteristic electrostatic patterns, suggesting how one NSF/SNAP species can act on many different SNARE complexes. ..
- Lerman J, Robblee J, Fairman R, Hughson F. Structural analysis of the neuronal SNARE protein syntaxin-1A. Biochemistry. 2000;39:8470-9 pubmed..They also suggest a potential role for the neuronal Sec1 protein (nSec1) in preventing the formation of syntaxin multimers. ..
- Milovanovic D, Platen M, Junius M, Diederichsen U, Schaap I, Honigmann A, et al. Calcium Promotes the Formation of Syntaxin 1 Mesoscale Domains through Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7868-76 pubmed publisher..This transient reorganization of the plasma membrane by physiological Ca(2+)concentrations is likely to be important for Ca(2+)-regulated secretion. ..
- Magga J, Kay J, Davy A, Poulton N, Robbins S, Braun J. ATP dependence of the SNARE/caveolin 1 interaction in the hippocampus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:1232-8 pubmed..While caveolin has been associated with cholesterol transport, signal transduction, and transcytosis, this study provides evidence that caveolin is also a SNARE accessory protein. ..
- Tian J, Das S, Sheng Z. Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of syntaxin-1A by the death-associated protein (DAP) kinase regulates its interaction with Munc18. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26265-74 pubmed..Our results suggest that syntaxin is a DAP kinase substrate and provide a novel signal transduction pathway by which syntaxin function could be regulated in response to intracellular [Ca2+] and synaptic activity. ..
- Shi L, Kümmel D, Coleman J, Melia T, Giraudo C. Dual roles of Munc18-1 rely on distinct binding modes of the central cavity with Stx1A and SNARE complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4150-60 pubmed publisher..Dual functions have been attributed to Munc18-1: it can act as a chaperone when it interacts with monomeric syntaxin 1A, and it can activate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) for ..
- Hurley J, Cahill A, Wang M, Fox A. Syntaxin 1A regulation of weakly inactivating N-type Ca2+ channels. J Physiol. 2004;560:351-63 pubmed..channels are abundant in nerve terminals where they interact with proteins of the release apparatus, including syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25...
- Bar On D, Winter U, Nachliel E, Gutman M, Fasshauer D, Lang T, et al. Imaging the assembly and disassembly kinetics of cis-SNARE complexes on native plasma membranes. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3563-8 pubmed publisher..The results suggest two-phase kinetics for the assembly process and dependence of the disassembly kinetics on both N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and soluble NSF-attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) concentrations. ..
- Das P, Chopra M, Sharma A. Upregulation of myocardial syntaxin1A is associated with an early stage of polymicrobial sepsis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;323:61-8 pubmed publisher..It appears that during severe sepsis (CLP model), both the upregulation of syntaxin1A and the downregulation of NET contribute to increased concentrations of NE during the early and late stages of sepsis. ..
- An S, Almers W. Tracking SNARE complex formation in live endocrine cells. Science. 2004;306:1042-6 pubmed..The complex may represent a precursor to the core complex formed during a Ca2+-dependent priming step of exocytosis. ..
- Yu Y, Shen L, Xia P, Tang Y, Bao L, Pei G. Syntaxin 1A promotes the endocytic sorting of EAAC1 leading to inhibition of glutamate transport. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3776-87 pubmed..demonstrate that EAAC1 undergoes internalization through the clathrin-mediated pathway and further show that syntaxin 1A, a key molecule in synaptic exocytosis, potentiates EAAC1 internalization, thus leading to the functional ..
- James D, Kowalchyk J, Daily N, Petrie M, Martin T. CAPS drives trans-SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion through syntaxin interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17308-13 pubmed publisher..The results revealed an unexpected activity of a priming protein to accelerate fusion by efficiently promoting trans-SNARE complex formation. CAPS may function in priming by organizing SNARE complexes on the plasma membrane. ..
- Ribrault C, Reingruber J, Petkovic M, Galli T, Ziv N, Holcman D, et al. Syntaxin1A lateral diffusion reveals transient and local SNARE interactions. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17590-602 pubmed publisher..This work allows us to describe the diffusive behavior and kinetics of interactions between syntaxin1A and its partners that lead to its transient stabilization at the synapse. ..
- Yang R, Ma H, Thomas S, Kinnamon J. Immunocytochemical analysis of syntaxin-1 in rat circumvallate taste buds. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:883-93 pubmed..These results support the proposition that taste cell synapses use classical SNARE machinery such as syntaxin-1 for neurotransmitter release in rat circumvallate taste buds. ..
- Lim S, Moon J, Lee M, Lee J. PTPRT regulates the interaction of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 with Syntaxin 1 through dephosphorylation of specific tyrosine residue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:40-6 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, PTPRT could regulate the interaction of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 with Syntaxin 1, and as a result, the synaptic vesicle fusion appeared to be controlled through dephosphorylation of Syntaxin-binding protein 1. ..
- Schollmeier Y, Krause J, Kreye S, Malsam J, Sollner T. Resolving the function of distinct Munc18-1/SNARE protein interaction modes in a reconstituted membrane fusion assay. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30582-90 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that Munc18-1 and the neuronal SNAREs already have the inherent capability to function as a basic stage-specific off/on switch to control membrane fusion. ..
- Bagge A, Dahmcke C, Dalgaard L. Syntaxin-1a is a direct target of miR-29a in insulin-producing ?-cells. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:463-6 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data implicate miR-29a as a mediator of glucose-induced downregulation of Stx-1a in ?-cells. ..
- Li C, Ullrich B, Zhang J, Anderson R, Brose N, Sudhof T. Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent activities of neural and non-neural synaptotagmins. Nature. 1995;375:594-9 pubmed..The same C2 domains also bind syntaxin as a function of Ca2+ but the Ca(2+)-concentration dependence of Syt I, II and V (> 200 microM) differs from that of Syt III and VII (< 10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Bennett M, Garcia Arraras J, Elferink L, Peterson K, Fleming A, Hazuka C, et al. The syntaxin family of vesicular transport receptors. Cell. 1993;74:863-73 pubmed..Microinjection studies suggest that the nervous system-specific syntaxin 1A is important for calcium-regulated secretion from neuro-endocrine PC12 cells...