Gene Symbol: Sptan1
Description: spectrin, alpha, non-erythrocytic 1
Alias: A2a, IPF, Spna2, spectrin alpha chain, non-erythrocytic 1, a--fodrin, alpha II spectrin, alpha-fodrin, alpha-spectrin 2, brain alpha-spectrin, fodrin alpha chain, inhibitory protein factor, noerythroid alpha-spectrin 2, nonerythroid alpha-spectrin 2, spectrin alpha chain, brain, spectrin, non-erythroid alpha chain
Species: rat
Products:     Sptan1

Top Publications

  1. Ramser E, Buck F, Schachner M, Tilling T. Binding of alphaII spectrin to 14-3-3beta is involved in NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:66-74 pubmed publisher
  2. Warren M, Zheng W, Kobeissy F, Cheng Liu M, Hayes R, Gold M, et al. Calpain- and caspase-mediated alphaII-spectrin and tau proteolysis in rat cerebrocortical neuronal cultures after ecstasy or methamphetamine exposure. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;10:479-89 pubmed
    ..The ability of the protease inhibitors to reduce the damage caused by these drugs suggests that the treatment arsenal could include similar drugs as possible tools to combat the drug-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. ..
  3. Liu L, Jedrychowski M, Gygi S, Pilch P. Role of insulin-dependent cortical fodrin/spectrin remodeling in glucose transporter 4 translocation in rat adipocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4249-56 pubmed
    ..Together, our data suggest that insulin induces remodeling of the fodrin-actin network, which is required for the fusion of GLUT4 storage vesicles with the plasma membrane by permitting their access to the t-SNARE syntaxin 4. ..
  4. Zhang Y, Resneck W, Lee P, Randall W, Bloch R, Ursitti J. Characterization and expression of a heart-selective alternatively spliced variant of alpha II-spectrin, cardi+, during development in the rat. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:1050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the embryonic mammalian heart expresses a significant amount of alpha II-spectrin with a reduced avidity for beta-spectrin and the ability to promote myocyte growth. ..
  5. Bournier O, Kroviarski Y, Rotter B, Nicolas G, Lecomte M, Dhermy D. Spectrin interacts with EVL (Enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-like protein), a protein involved in actin polymerization. Biol Cell. 2006;98:279-93 pubmed
    ..The possible link between the spectrin-based skeleton and actin via the EVL protein suggests a new way of integrating the spectrin-based skeleton in areas of dynamic actin reorganization. ..
  6. Amano T, Matsubayashi H, Ozkan E, Sasa M, Serikawa T, Ueda T. Aberrant reduction of an inhibitory protein factor in a rat epileptic model. Epilepsy Res. 2002;51:81-91 pubmed
    ..We have recently identified a protein, referred to as the inhibitory protein factor (IPF), which potently inhibits glutamate uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles...
  7. Aki T, Yoshida K, Fujimiya T. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase accelerates calpain-dependent proteolysis of fodrin during hypoxic cell death. J Biochem. 2002;132:921-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PI 3-kinase might accelerate hypoxic cell death by enhancing the calpain-dependent proteolysis of fodrin. ..
  8. Lencesova L, O Neill A, Resneck W, Bloch R, Blaustein M. Plasma membrane-cytoskeleton-endoplasmic reticulum complexes in neurons and astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2885-93 pubmed
    ..These PM and ER components appear to be linked through the cytoskeletal spectrin network, to which they are probably tethered by Ank 2. ..
  9. Lehtonen S, Ryan J, Kudlicka K, Iino N, Zhou H, Farquhar M. Cell junction-associated proteins IQGAP1, MAGI-2, CASK, spectrins, and alpha-actinin are components of the nephrin multiprotein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9814-9 pubmed
    ..Despite their special morphology and function, there is considerable compositional similarity between the podocyte slit diaphragm and typical junctional complexes of other epithelial cells. ..

More Information


  1. Lehtonen S, Lehtonen E, Kudlicka K, Holthofer H, Farquhar M. Nephrin forms a complex with adherens junction proteins and CASK in podocytes and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing nephrin. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:923-36 pubmed
  2. Pike B, Flint J, Dave J, Lu X, Wang K, Tortella F, et al. Accumulation of calpain and caspase-3 proteolytic fragments of brain-derived alphaII-spectrin in cerebral spinal fluid after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24:98-106 pubmed
  3. Indraswari F, Wong P, Yap E, Ng Y, Dheen S. Upregulation of Dpysl2 and Spna2 gene expression in the rat brain after ischemic stroke. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (Dpysl2), a protein involved in neuronal differentiation and axonal guidance, and alpha-spectrin 2 (Spna2), a protein involved in maintaining neuronal membrane integrity, were found altered in various nervous system ..
  4. Hong W, Doyle D. Cloning and analysis of cDNA clones for rat kidney alpha-spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:12758-64 pubmed
  5. Leto T, Fortugno Erikson D, Barton D, Yang Feng T, Francke U, Harris A, et al. Comparison of nonerythroid alpha-spectrin genes reveals strict homology among diverse species. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:1-9 pubmed
    ..The nonerythroid alpha-spectrin gene was mapped to human chromosome 9, in contrast to the erythroid alpha-spectrin gene, which has previously been assigned to a locus on chromosome 1. ..
  6. Cai Y, Zhu H, Li J, Luo X, Patrylo P, Rose G, et al. Age-related intraneuronal elevation of ?II-spectrin breakdown product SBDP120 in rodent forebrain accelerates in 3×Tg-AD mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37599 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel neuronal alteration indicates that impairments in membrane protein metabolism, possibly due to neuronal calcium mishandling and/or enhancement of calcium sensitive proteolysis, occur during aging and in transgenic AD mice. ..
  7. Bennett P, Maggs A, Baines A, Pinder J. The transitional junction: a new functional subcellular domain at the intercalated disc. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2091-100 pubmed
    ..In particular, it provides a means for sarcomeres to be added to the ends of the cells during growth. This is of particular relevance to understanding myocyte elongation in dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  8. Mameza M, Dvoretskova E, Bamann M, Honck H, Güler T, Boeckers T, et al. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26697-708 pubmed publisher
  9. Suzuki T, Li W, Zhang J, Tian Q, Sakagami H, Usuda N, et al. A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:339-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins. ..
  10. Cestra G, Toomre D, Chang S, De Camilli P. The Abl/Arg substrate ArgBP2/nArgBP2 coordinates the function of multiple regulatory mechanisms converging on the actin cytoskeleton. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1731-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, ArgBP2/nArgBP2 is a scaffold protein that control the balance between adhesion and motility by coordinating the function of multiple signaling pathways converging on the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  11. Garcia Fresco G, Sousa A, Pillai A, Moy S, Crawley J, Tessarollo L, et al. Disruption of axo-glial junctions causes cytoskeletal disorganization and degeneration of Purkinje neuron axons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5137-42 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings establish a physiologically relevant link between AGJs and axonal cytoskeleton and raise the possibility that some neurodegenerative disorders arise from disruption of the AGJs. ..
  12. Ursitti J, Lee P, Resneck W, McNally M, Bowman A, O Neill A, et al. Cloning and characterization of cytokeratins 8 and 19 in adult rat striated muscle. Interaction with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41830-8 pubmed
    ..Together these results indicate that at least two cytokeratins are expressed in adult striated muscle, where they may contribute to the organization of both the myoplasm and sarcolemma. ..
  13. Tamura Y, Ozkan E, Bole D, Ueda T. IPF, a vesicular uptake inhibitory protein factor, can reduce the Ca(2+)-dependent, evoked release of glutamate, GABA and serotonin. J Neurochem. 2001;76:1153-64 pubmed
    ..We previously provided evidence for the existence of a potent endogenous inhibitory protein factor (IPF), which causes reduction of glutamate and GABA accumulation into isolated, purified synaptic ..
  14. Nicolas G, Fournier C, Galand C, Malbert Colas L, Bournier O, Kroviarski Y, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates alpha II spectrin cleavage by calpain. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3527-36 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the Y1176 phosphorylation state could modulate spectrin cleavage by calpain and may play an important role during membrane skeleton remodeling. ..
  15. Aikman J, O Steen B, Silver X, Torres R, Boslaugh S, Blackband S, et al. Alpha-II-spectrin after controlled cortical impact in the immature rat brain. Dev Neurosci. 2006;28:457-65 pubmed
    ..Distinct proteolytic products resulting from the degradation of the cytoskeletal protein alpha-II-spectrin by calpain and caspase 3 were readily detectable in cortical brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid after TBI in immature rats. ..
  16. Legendre K, Safieddine S, Küssel Andermann P, Petit C, El Amraoui A. alphaII-betaV spectrin bridges the plasma membrane and cortical lattice in the lateral wall of the auditory outer hair cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the cortical network involved in the sound-induced electromotility of OHCs contains alphaII-betaV spectrin, and not the conventional alphaII-betaII spectrin. ..
  17. Bockers T, Mameza M, Kreutz M, Bockmann J, Weise C, Buck F, et al. Synaptic scaffolding proteins in rat brain. Ankyrin repeats of the multidomain Shank protein family interact with the cytoskeletal protein alpha-fodrin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40104-12 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the Shank1 and -3 family members provide multiple independent connections between synaptic glutamate receptor complexes and the cytoskeleton. ..
  18. Noda Y, Horikawa S, Katayama Y, Sasaki S. Identification of a multiprotein "motor" complex binding to water channel aquaporin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:1041-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings show for the first time an AQP2-binding multiprotein "force generator" complex. This multiprotein complex may provide the machinery of driving AQP2 movement. ..
  19. Ursitti J, Petrich B, Lee P, Resneck W, Ye X, Yang J, et al. Role of an alternatively spliced form of alphaII-spectrin in localization of connexin 43 in cardiomyocytes and regulation by stress-activated protein kinase. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:572-81 pubmed
  20. Creighton J, Zhu B, Alexeyev M, Stevens T. Spectrin-anchored phosphodiesterase 4D4 restricts cAMP from disrupting microtubules and inducing endothelial cell gap formation. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:110-9 pubmed
    ..PDE4D4 interacts with alpha II spectrin within this membrane domain...
  21. Kontrogianni Konstantopoulos A, Frye C, Benz E, Huang S. The prototypical 4.1R-10-kDa domain and the 4.1g-10-kDa paralog mediate fodrin-actin complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20679-87 pubmed
    ..1G are distributed underneath the plasma membrane in PC12 cells. Collectively, these observations suggest that brain 4.1R and 4.1G may modulate the membrane mechanical properties of neuronal cells by promoting fodrin/actin association. ..
  22. Wechsler A, Teichberg V. Brain spectrin binding to the NMDA receptor is regulated by phosphorylation, calcium and calmodulin. EMBO J. 1998;17:3931-9 pubmed
    ..The highly regulated linkage of the NMDA-R to spectrin may underlie the morphological changes that occur in neuronal dendrites concurrently with synaptic activity and plasticity. ..
  23. Ozkan E, Lee F, Ueda T. A protein factor that inhibits ATP-dependent glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid accumulation into synaptic vesicles: purification and initial characterization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4137-42 pubmed
    ..glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake into synaptic vesicles and have termed this protein "inhibitory protein factor" (IPF)...