Gene Symbol: Sp3
Description: Sp3 transcription factor
Alias: transcription factor Sp3, trans-acting transcription factor 3
Species: rat
Products:     Sp3

Top Publications

  1. Lv P, Jia H, Gao X. Immunohistochemical localization of transcription factor Sp3 during dental enamel development in rat tooth germ. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114:93-5 pubmed
    b>Sp3, a member of the Sp family of transcription factors, has previously been thought to be ubiquitously expressed, and its expression pattern in tooth development is not clear...
  2. García Ruiz I, Gómez Izquierdo E, Díaz Sanjuán T, Grau M, Solís Muñoz P, Muñoz Yagüe T, et al. Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors mediate leptin-induced collagen ?1(I) gene expression in primary culture of male rat hepatic stellate cells. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5845-56 pubmed publisher
    ..assays demonstrated that leptin induced the binding of transcription factors specific protein (Sp)-1 and Sp3 to two elements located between -161 and -110 bp of the Col1a(I) promoter...
  3. Davis W, Chen Z, Ile K, Tew K. Reciprocal regulation of expression of the human adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding cassette, sub-family A, transporter 2 (ABCA2) promoter by the early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and Sp-family transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1097-107 pubmed
    ..We observed that oligonucleotides containing overlapping EGR-1/Sp1 sites bind the Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors...
  4. Stains J, Lecanda F, Screen J, Towler D, Civitelli R. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24377-87 pubmed
    ..We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in a ..
  5. Krüger I, Vollmer M, Simmons D, Simmons D, Elsässer H, Philipsen S, et al. Sp1/Sp3 compound heterozygous mice are not viable: impaired erythropoiesis and severe placental defects. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2235-44 pubmed
    The ubiquitously expressed zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 play critical roles in embryonic development. Sp1 knockout mice die around embryonic day 10.5. Mice lacking Sp3 are postnatal lethal...
  6. Sunyakumthorn P, Boonsaen T, Boonsaeng V, Wallace J, Jitrapakdee S. Involvement of specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) and nuclear factor Y in basal transcription of the distal promoter of the rat pyruvate carboxylase gene in beta-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:188-96 pubmed
    ..mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift EMSAs using nuclear extract from INS-1 cells demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 bind a GC box while the nuclear factor Y was shown to bind the proximal but not the distal CCAAT box.
  7. Canaff L, Zhou X, Hendy G. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, up-regulates calcium-sensing receptor gene transcription via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13586-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Stat1/3 directly controls promoter P1, and the Stats indirectly regulate promoter P2 via Sp1/3 in response to IL-6. By this mechanism, the cytokine likely contributes to altered extracellular calcium homeostasis. ..
  8. Yu H, Chan W, Chai K, Lee C, Chang R, Yu M, et al. Transcriptional regulation of human FE65, a ligand of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein, by Sp1. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, reduced levels of Sp1 resulted in downregulation of endogenous FE65 mRNA and protein. These findings reveal that Sp1 plays a crucial role in transcriptional control of the human FE65 gene. ..
  9. Kim C, Choi H, Hwang C, Song K, Lee B, Law P, et al. Evidence of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) interaction with Sp3 and its synergic repression to the mu opioid receptor (MOR) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6392-403 pubmed
    ..In the co-immunoprecipitation experiment, NRSF interacted with the full-length Sp3 factor, but not with Sp1 or two short Sp3 isoforms...

More Information


  1. Boylan M, Jepeal L, Wolfe M. Sp1/Sp3 binding is associated with cell-specific expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor gene. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1287-95 pubmed
    ..three putative Sp1 binding motifs, located at positions -77, -60, and -50, that can specifically bind both Sp1 and Sp3. Whereas mutation of the Sp1 sites at -50 and -60 led to 36 and 40% reduction in promoter activity, respectively, ..
  2. Fedorov A, Lukyanov D, Podgornaya O. Identification of the proteins specifically binding to the rat LINE1 promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:553-9 pubmed
    ..Using an EMSA and Southwestern blotting methods, we identified Sp1 and Sp3 proteins, which specifically bind to the rat LINE1 promoter in vitro...
  3. Sriraman V, Richards J. Cathepsin L gene expression and promoter activation in rodent granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:582-91 pubmed
    ..Mutation of all three Sp1/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) sites, which also mutated the early growth response protein-1 site, reduced the promoter activation...
  4. Bakovic M, Waite K, Vance D. Oncogenic Ha-Ras transformation modulates the transcription of the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha gene via p42/44MAPK and transcription factor Sp3. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14753-61 pubmed
    ..Electromobility shift assays indicated enhanced binding of the Sp3 transcription factor to the CTalpha promoter in Ha-Ras-transformed cells...
  5. Ye W, Zhou J, Markova D, Tian Y, Li J, Anderson D, et al. Xylosyltransferase-1 expression is refractory to inhibition by the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and IL-1β in nucleus pulposus cells: novel regulation by AP-1, Sp1, and Sp3. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion and mutation of the -730/-723 bp AP-1 motif, prompting us to investigate the role of AP-1 and Sp1/Sp3 in the regulation of XT-1 in healthy NP cells...
  6. Alfonso Jaume M, Mahimkar R, Lovett D. Co-operative interactions between NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) c1 and the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and Egr-1 regulate MT1-MMP (membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) transcription by glomerular mesangial cells. Biochem J. 2004;380:735-47 pubmed
    ..Suppression of MT1-MMP by commonly used calcineurin inhibitors may play a role in the development of renal fibrosis following renal transplantation. ..
  7. Her S, Lee M, Morita K. Trichostatin A stimulates steroid 5alpha-reductase gene expression in rat C6 glioma cells via a mechanism involving Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;41:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..elevation of 5alpha-R mRNA levels through the activation of the 5alpha-R promoter via a mechanism involving Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
  8. Ban K, Kozar R. Glutamine protects against apoptosis via downregulation of Sp3 in intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The result demonstrated that specificity protein 3 (Sp3) mRNA expression was downregulated 3.1-fold...
  9. Chandran N, Vunnava P, Wu Y, Kapatos G. Specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 interact with the rat GTP cyclohydrolase I proximal promoter to regulate transcription. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1233-48 pubmed
    ..studies show that the GC-box is composed of a triad of cis-elements that in vitro bind specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3. Sp1 and Sp3 were found associated with the native proximal promoter in PC12 cells but were not recruited to the ..
  10. Zhang X, Diab I, Zehner Z. ZBP-89 represses vimentin gene transcription by interacting with the transcriptional activator, Sp1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2900-14 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of hTAF(II)130 can alleviate ZBP-89 repression in S2 cells, suggesting how ZBP-89 might serve to block gene expression. ..
  11. Bergeron F, Bagu E, Tremblay J. Transcription of platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? in Leydig cells involves specificity protein 1 and 3. J Mol Endocrinol. 2011;46:125-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the proteins were identified as the transcription factors SP1 and SP3. Using transient transfections of TM3 Leydig cells, SP1 and SP3 were found to activate the Pdgfra promoter by ..
  12. Hua P, Xu H, Uno J, Lipko M, Dong J, Kiela P, et al. Sp1 and Sp3 mediate NHE2 gene transcription in the intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G146-53 pubmed
    ..Supershift assays revealed that Sp1 and Sp3 interact with this promoter region, but, contrary to the minimal promoter indispensable for renal expression of ..
  13. Wilmanski J, Siddiqi M, Deitch E, Spolarics Z. Augmented IL-10 production and redox-dependent signaling pathways in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse peritoneal macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:85-94 pubmed
    ..Alterations in signaling pathways and associated changes in cytokine production may play a role in modulating the inflammatory responses following bacterial or malarial infections in G6PD deficiency. ..
  14. Seyed M, DiMario J. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene expression is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation and is repressed by Sp3. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;44:510-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sp3 expression in neonatal cardiomyocytes and Drosophila SL2 cells reduced FGFR1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent ..
  15. Wang L, Zheng A, Yi L, Xu C, Ding M, Deng H. Identification of potential nuclear reprogramming and differentiation factors by a novel selection method for cloning chromatin-binding proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:302-7 pubmed
    ..The method can be used to study epigenetic modification of chromatin during nuclear reprogramming, cell differentiation, and transdifferentiation. ..
  16. Subramanian S, Polikandriotis J, Kelm R, David J, Orosz C, Strauch A. Induction of vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcription in transforming growth factor beta1-activated myofibroblasts mediated by dynamic interplay between the Pur repressor proteins and Sp1/Smad coactivators. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4532-43 pubmed
    ..Interplay between Pur repressor isoforms and Sp1 and Smad coactivators may regulate SMA enhancer output in TGFbeta1-activated myofibroblasts during episodes of wound repair and tissue remodeling. ..
  17. Wu C, Zhao W, Kishi H, Dokan J, Jin Z, Wei X, et al. Activation of mouse RAG-2 promoter by Myc-associated zinc finger protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:1096-102 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that MAZ synergistically activates the murine RAG-2 promoter with Pax-5/c-Myb/LEF-1 complex. These results first demonstrate that MAZ participates in activation of mouse RAG-2 promoter. ..
  18. Giatzakis C, Papadopoulos V. Differential utilization of the promoter of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor by steroidogenic versus nonsteroidogenic cell lines and the role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the regulation of basal activity. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1113-23 pubmed
    ..absence of TATA or CCAAT boxes, but the presence of many putative transcription factor-binding sites, including Sp1/Sp3, AP2, Ik2, AP1, SOX, GATA, and SRY...
  19. Billon N, Carlisi D, Datto M, van Grunsven L, Watt A, Wang X, et al. Cooperation of Sp1 and p300 in the induction of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 during NGF-mediated neuronal differentiation. Oncogene. 1999;18:2872-82 pubmed
    ..This GC-rich region was shown to interact specifically with the transcription factor Sp1 and the related protein Sp3, in either exponentially-growing or NGF-treated PC12 cells...
  20. Morales Lázaro S, González Ramírez R, Gomez P, Tapia Ramírez V, de León M, Cisneros B. Induction of dystrophin Dp71 expression during neuronal differentiation: opposite roles of Sp1 and AP2alpha in Dp71 promoter activity. J Neurochem. 2010;112:474-85 pubmed publisher
  21. Van Loo P, Bouwman P, Ling K, Middendorp S, Suske G, Grosveld F, et al. Impaired hematopoiesis in mice lacking the transcription factor Sp3. Blood. 2003;102:858-66 pubmed
    As the zinc-finger transcription factor specificity protein 3 (Sp3) has been implicated in the regulation of many hematopoietic-specific genes, we analyzed the role of Sp3 in hematopoiesis. At embryonic day 18.5 (E18...
  22. Wilkerson D, Wolfe S, Grimes S. H1t/GC-box and H1t/TE1 element are essential for promoter activity of the testis-specific histone H1t gene. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:1157-64 pubmed
    ..transcription-factor family members, experiments were performed demonstrating that two Sp family members, Sp1 and Sp3, were present in testis cells from 9-day-old and adult rats and in pachytene primary spermatocytes and early ..
  23. Lei N, Heckert L. Sp1 and Egr1 regulate transcription of the Dmrt1 gene in Sertoli cells. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:675-84 pubmed
    ..The positive elements bind the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Egr1, suggesting that these transcription factors play a critical role in Dmrt1 regulation in the testis.
  24. Tsika G, Ji J, Tsika R. Sp3 proteins negatively regulate beta myosin heavy chain gene expression during skeletal muscle inactivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10777-91 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that increased binding of Sp3 to GC-rich elements in the betaMyHC promoter is a critical event in down-regulation of betaMyHC gene expression ..
  25. Armstrong L, Lako M, van Herpe I, Evans J, Saretzki G, Hole N. A role for nucleoprotein Zap3 in the reduction of telomerase activity during embryonic stem cell differentiation. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1509-22 pubmed
    ..This analysis indicated that Sp1, Sp3 and c-Myc bind to the GC-boxes and E-boxes, respectively, within the promoter and help activate the transcription ..