Gene Symbol: Sp1
Description: Sp1 transcription factor
Alias: transcription factor Sp1, trans-acting transcription factor 1
Species: rat
Products:     Sp1

Top Publications

  1. Qiu Z, Norflus F, Singh B, Swindell M, Buzescu R, Bejarano M, et al. Sp1 is up-regulated in cellular and transgenic models of Huntington disease, and its reduction is neuroprotective. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16672-80 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that enhancement of transcription factor Sp1 contributes to the pathology of HD and demonstrates that its suppression is beneficial.
  2. Fountain S, Cheong A, Li J, Dondas N, Zeng F, Wood I, et al. K(v)1.5 potassium channel gene regulation by Sp1 transcription factor and oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2719-25 pubmed
    ..The promoter contained CACCC nucleotide motifs, which we have shown to bind the Sp1 transcription factor in the aorta under physiological conditions in vivo...
  3. Ryu H, Lee J, Zaman K, Kubilis J, Ferrante R, Ross B, et al. Sp1 and Sp3 are oxidative stress-inducible, antideath transcription factors in cortical neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3597-606 pubmed
    ..We report that basal DNA binding of the zinc finger transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 is unexpectedly low in cortical neurons in vitro and is significantly induced by glutathione depletion-..
  4. Mermod N, Williams T, Tjian R. Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro. Nature. 1988;332:557-61 pubmed
    ..Thus by manipulating the levels of different trans-acting factors in vitro, we can recreate the pattern of SV40 late initiation observed during the viral lytic cycle in vivo. ..
  5. Minekawa R, Sakata M, Okamoto Y, Hayashi M, Isobe A, Takeda T, et al. Involvement of RelA-associated inhibitor in regulation of trophoblast differentiation via interaction with transcriptional factor specificity protein-1. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5803-10 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that the protein levels of GLUT1 and nuclear transcription factor specificity protein-1 (Sp1) in rat choriocarcinoma cells (Rcho-1 cells) decreased during the differentiation of these cells to giant cells...
  6. Stains J, Lecanda F, Screen J, Towler D, Civitelli R. Gap junctional communication modulates gene transcription by altering the recruitment of Sp1 and Sp3 to connexin-response elements in osteoblast promoters. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24377-87 pubmed
    ..We identified an Sp1/Sp3 containing complex that assembles on a minimal element in the -70 to -57 region of the osteocalcin promoter in ..
  7. Nieto N, Cederbaum A. Increased Sp1-dependent transactivation of the LAMgamma 1 promoter in hepatic stellate cells co-cultured with HepG2 cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15360-72 pubmed
    ..Gel-shift assays demonstrated an increase in Sp1 binding to the laminin gamma1 promoter in HSC when co-incubated with E47 cells, which was blocked by an anti-Sp1 ..
  8. Lin C, Tuan J, Scalia P, Bui T, Comai L. The cell cycle regulatory factor TAF1 stimulates ribosomal DNA transcription by binding to the activator UBF. Curr Biol. 2002;12:2142-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, TAF1 may be involved in the coordinate expression of Pol I- and Pol II-transcribed genes required for protein biosynthesis and cell cycle progression. ..
  9. Gai Y, Zhang J, Wei C, Cao W, Cui Y, Cui S. miR-375 negatively regulates the synthesis and secretion of catecholamines by targeting Sp1 in rat adrenal medulla. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C663-C672 pubmed publisher
    ..These functions of miR-375 were accomplished by its binding to the 3'-untranslated region of Sp1, which was involved in the regulation of TH and DBH expressions...

More Information


  1. Canaff L, Zhou X, Hendy G. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, up-regulates calcium-sensing receptor gene transcription via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13586-600 pubmed publisher
    ..There are no Stat elements in the P2 promoter, but Sp1/3 elements are clustered at the transcription start site...
  2. Uchida C, Oda T, Sugiyama T, Otani S, Kitagawa M, Ichiyama A. The role of Sp1 and AP-2 in basal and protein kinase A--induced expression of mitochondrial serine:pyruvate aminotransferase in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39082-92 pubmed
    ..with HepG2 cells, DNase I footprinting analysis, and gel shift experiments, we identified the binding sites for Sp1 and AP-2 within the regions -125 to -89 and -14 to +10, respectively...
  3. Keembiyehetty C, Candelaria R, Majumdar G, Raghow R, Martinez Hernandez A, Solomon S. Paradoxical regulation of Sp1 transcription factor by glucagon. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1512-20 pubmed
    Insulin is a potent regulator of Sp1 transcription factor...
  4. Majumdar G, Harmon A, Candelaria R, Martinez Hernandez A, Raghow R, Solomon S. O-glycosylation of Sp1 and transcriptional regulation of the calmodulin gene by insulin and glucagon. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E584-91 pubmed
    Both insulin and glucagon stimulate steady-state levels of Sp1 transcription factor, but only insulin stimulates transcription of the calmodulin (CaM) gene in liver...
  5. Yang J, Chen C, Ren H, Han Y, He D, Zhou L, et al. Angiotensin II AT(2) receptor decreases AT(1) receptor expression and function via nitric oxide/cGMP/Sp1 in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar-Kyoto rats. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CGP42112 decreased Sp1 serine phosphorylation and reduced the binding of Sp1 to AT(1) receptor DNA...
  6. Higaki Y, Schullery D, Kawata Y, Shnyreva M, Abrass C, Bomsztyk K. Synergistic activation of the rat laminin gamma1 chain promoter by the gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor (GKLF/KLF4) and Sp1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2270-9 pubmed
    ..The activity of GKLF is dependent on a synergism with another Kruppel-like factor, Sp1. The LAMC1 promoter appears to have multiple GKLF- and Sp1-responsive elements which may account for the ..
  7. Kubo T, Kinjyo N, Ikezawa A, Kambe T, Fukumori R. Sp1 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide decreases angiotensin receptor expression and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Brain Res. 2003;992:1-8 pubmed
    The transcriptional factor Sp1 is associated with GC-rich promoters and involved in basal promoter activity. A GC-box-related sequence is located within the -58 to -34 base pair region of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene promoter...
  8. Majumdar G, Harrington A, Hungerford J, Martinez Hernandez A, Gerling I, Raghow R, et al. Insulin dynamically regulates calmodulin gene expression by sequential o-glycosylation and phosphorylation of sp1 and its subcellular compartmentalization in liver cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3642-50 pubmed
    O-glycosylation and phosphorylation of Sp1 are thought to modulate the expression of a number of genes in normal and diabetic state...
  9. Beregovyi S, Chervinska T, Dranitsina A, Szabo S, Tolstanova G. REDOX-SENSITIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS EGR-1 AND SP1 IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF EXPERIMENTAL GASTRIC ULCER. Ukr Biochem J. 2015;87:70-7 pubmed
    ..We showed for the first time the competitive interaction between redox-sensitive transcription factors Egr-1 and Sp1 in the early phases of gastric ulcer development, which might facilitate inducible transcriptional activity of Egr-..
  10. Luk J, Tong M, Mok B, Tam P, Yeung W, Lee K. Sp1 site is crucial for the mouse claudin-19 gene expression in the kidney cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:251-6 pubmed
    ..resided in the -39 to -108 region, which contained a number of binding sites for transcription factors including Sp1. Site-directed mutagenesis using specific oligo probes confirmed that Sp1 was crucial for Cldn19 transactivation in ..
  11. Harrison S, Houzelstein D, Dunwoodie S, Beddington R. Sp5, a new member of the Sp1 family, is dynamically expressed during development and genetically interacts with Brachyury. Dev Biol. 2000;227:358-72 pubmed
    ..Sp5 encodes a protein having a C-terminal C(2)H(2) zinc finger domain closely related to that of the transcription factor Sp1. In vitro, DNA binding studies show that it binds to the GC box, a DNA motif present in the promoter of a ..
  12. Liu M, Eyries M, Zhang C, Santiago F, Khachigian L. Inducible platelet-derived growth factor D-chain expression by angiotensin II and hydrogen peroxide involves transcriptional regulation by Ets-1 and Sp1. Blood. 2006;107:2322-9 pubmed
    ..D3 supports the interaction of endogenous and recombinant Ets-1 and Sp1. Sp1, like Ets-1, induces PDGF-D transcription and mRNA expression, which is blocked by mutant Ets-1...
  13. Wang G, Leiter A, Englander E, Greeley G. Insulin-like growth factor I increases rat peptide YY promoter activity through Sp1 binding sites. Endocrinology. 2004;145:659-66 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis detected five putative Sp1 binding sites in the -127/+37-bp sequence...
  14. Giatzakis C, Papadopoulos V. Differential utilization of the promoter of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor by steroidogenic versus nonsteroidogenic cell lines and the role of Sp1 and Sp3 in the regulation of basal activity. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1113-23 pubmed
    ..the absence of TATA or CCAAT boxes, but the presence of many putative transcription factor-binding sites, including Sp1/Sp3, AP2, Ik2, AP1, SOX, GATA, and SRY...
  15. Starzynski R, Gonçalves A, Muzeau F, Tyrolczyk Z, Smuda E, Drapier J, et al. STAT5 proteins are involved in down-regulation of iron regulatory protein 1 gene expression by nitric oxide. Biochem J. 2006;400:367-75 pubmed
    ..putative binding sites for transcription factor(s) regulated by NO and/or changes in intracellular iron level: Sp1 (promoter-selective transcription factor 1) and MTF1 (metal transcription factor 1), plus GAS (interferon-gamma-..
  16. Adam C, Cyr D. Role of Specificity Protein-1 and Activating Protein-2 Transcription Factors in the Regulation of the Gap Junction Protein Beta-2 Gene in the Epididymis of the Rat. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:120 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational analysis revealed several TFAP2A, SP1, and KLF4 putative binding sites. A 1...
  17. Imayama I, Ichiki T, Patton D, Inanaga K, Miyazaki R, Ohtsubo H, et al. Liver X receptor activator downregulates angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression through dephosphorylation of Sp1. Hypertension. 2008;51:1631-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Luciferase construct with a mutation in Sp1 binding site located in this segment lost its response to T0901317. T0901317 decreased Sp1 serine phosphorylation...
  18. Patella F, Leucci E, Evangelista M, Parker B, Wen J, Mercatanti A, et al. MiR-492 impairs the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:1006-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that miR-492 exerts a potent anti-angiogenic activity in endothelial cells and therefore miR-492 seems a promising tool for anti-angiogenic therapy. ..
  19. Wu N, Siow Y, O K. Ischemia/reperfusion reduces transcription factor Sp1-mediated cystathionine beta-synthase expression in the kidney. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfection of kidney proximal tubular cells with transcription factor (Sp1) small interfering RNA caused a marked reduction in CBS mRNA, indicating a pivotal role for Sp1 in regulating CBS ..
  20. Kang Q, Chen A. Curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro by reducing the activity of specificity protein-1. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits LDL-induced HSC activation. ..
  21. Prasanna Kumar S, Thippeswamy G, Sheela M, Prabhakar B, Salimath B. Butyrate-induced phosphatase regulates VEGF and angiogenesis via Sp1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;478:85-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Sp1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor and master regulator of various eukaryotic gene expression...
  22. Curtin D, Ferris H, Hakli M, Gibson M, Janne O, Palvimo J, et al. Small nuclear RING finger protein stimulates the rat luteinizing hormone-beta promoter by interacting with Sp1 and steroidogenic factor-1 and protects from androgen suppression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1263-76 pubmed
    ..It has been hypothesized that the transcription factors binding to these regions, Sp1, Egr-1, and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), may interact directly or indirectly via a coactivator...
  23. Deng X, Zhang W, O Sullivan I, Williams J, Dong Q, Park E, et al. FoxO1 inhibits sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expression via transcription factors Sp1 and SREBP-1c. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin stimulates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1 and via "feed forward" regulation by newly synthesized SREBP-1c...
  24. Zhang X, Wang L, Su D, Zhu D, Li Q, Chi M. MicroRNA-29b promotes the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, the relationship between miR-29b, SP1, and TNF-? was examined...
  25. Zhang X, Zheng B, Gu C, Fu J, Wen J. TGF-?1 downregulates AT1 receptor expression via PKC-?-mediated Sp1 dissociation from KLF4 and Smad-mediated PPAR-? association with KLF4. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays were performed, with the results suggesting that Sp1 forms a complex with KLF4 bound to the TCE of the AT1R promoter and cooperatively activates AT1R transcription in ..
  26. Yun S, Dardik A, Haga M, Yamashita A, Yamaguchi S, Koh Y, et al. Transcription factor Sp1 phosphorylation induced by shear stress inhibits membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase expression in endothelium. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34808-14 pubmed
    ..Previous studies demonstrated that a mechanical force, cyclic strain, increases MT1-MMP expression by displacing Sp1 with increased Egr-1 expression and binding to the promoter site...
  27. Wen J, Liu C, Bi W, Hu Y, Chen Q, Huang H, et al. Adiponectin inhibits KISS1 gene transcription through AMPK and specificity protein-1 in the hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, gAd and AICAR decreased the translocation of specificity protein-1 (SP1) from cytoplasm to nucleus; however, Compound C and AMPK?1-siRNA played an inverse role...
  28. Chu C, Zavala K, Fahimi A, Lee J, Xue Q, Eilers H, et al. Transcription factors Sp1 and Sp4 regulate TRPV1 gene expression in rat sensory neurons. Mol Pain. 2011;7:44 pubmed publisher
    ..system for the rat TRPV1 gene, we investigated the proximal TRPV1 P2-promoter by first identifying candidate Sp1-like transcription factors bound in vivo to the P2-promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay...
  29. Sriraman V, Richards J. Cathepsin L gene expression and promoter activation in rodent granulosa cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:582-91 pubmed
    ..Within this region, three functional specificity protein 1 (Sp1) sites, an overlapping early growth response protein-1 site, and a cAMP regulatory element-binding protein site ..
  30. Hammer F, Compagnone N, Vigne J, Bair S, Mellon S. Transcriptional regulation of P450scc gene expression in the embryonic rodent nervous system. Endocrinology. 2004;145:901-12 pubmed
    ..Sp4 and Sp2 colocalize with P450scc in the nervous system early in development, whereas Sp1 and Sp4 colocalize later in development...
  31. Her S, Lee M, Morita K. Trichostatin A stimulates steroid 5alpha-reductase gene expression in rat C6 glioma cells via a mechanism involving Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;41:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the elevation of 5alpha-R mRNA levels through the activation of the 5alpha-R promoter via a mechanism involving Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
  32. Marinova Z, Ren M, Wendland J, Leng Y, Liang M, Yasuda S, et al. Valproic acid induces functional heat-shock protein 70 via Class I histone deacetylase inhibition in cortical neurons: a potential role of Sp1 acetylation. J Neurochem. 2009;111:976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..VPA treatment increased Sp1 acetylation, and a Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin, abolished the induction of HSP70 by HDAC inhibitors...
  33. Morales Lázaro S, González Ramírez R, Gomez P, Tapia Ramírez V, de León M, Cisneros B. Induction of dystrophin Dp71 expression during neuronal differentiation: opposite roles of Sp1 and AP2alpha in Dp71 promoter activity. J Neurochem. 2010;112:474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional deletion analysis of the Dp71 promoter revealed that a 5'-flanking 159-bp DNA fragment that contains Sp1 and AP2 binding sites is necessary and sufficient for basal expression of this TATA-less promoter, as well as for ..
  34. Hota S, Hota K, Prasad D, Ilavazhagan G, Singh S. Oxidative-stress-induced alterations in Sp factors mediate transcriptional regulation of the NR1 subunit in hippocampus during hypoxia. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:178-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This along with increased DNA binding activity of Sp1 leads to NR1 upregulation in the hippocampus during hypoxic stress...
  35. Roder K, Wolf S, Larkin K, Schweizer M. Interaction between the two ubiquitously expressed transcription factors NF-Y and Sp1. Gene. 1999;234:61-9 pubmed
    ..All three sites have a neighbouring Sp1-binding GC-box. This NF-Y/Sp1 motif is conserved in the FAS promoters of rat, human, goose and chicken...
  36. Chandran N, Vunnava P, Wu Y, Kapatos G. Specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 interact with the rat GTP cyclohydrolase I proximal promoter to regulate transcription. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1233-48 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the GC-box is composed of a triad of cis-elements that in vitro bind specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3...
  37. Luchsinger L, Patenaude C, Smith B, Layne M. Myocardin-related transcription factor-A complexes activate type I collagen expression in lung fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the COL1A2 proximal promoter revealed a noncanonical CArG box (CCAAACTTGG), flanked by several Sp1 sites important for MRTF-A activation...
  38. Kaytor E, Zhu J, Pao C, Phillips L. Insulin-responsive nuclear proteins facilitate Sp1 interactions with the insulin-like growth factor-I gene. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36896-901 pubmed
    ..Since region V contains both an Sp1 site and an AT-rich element that recognizes an insulin-responsive binding protein (IRBP), we tested the hypothesis ..
  39. Rajput B, Shaper N, Shaper J. Transcriptional regulation of murine beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in somatic cells. Analysis of a gene that serves both a housekeeping and a mammary gland-specific function. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:5131-42 pubmed
    ..1-kb start site is occupied mainly by the ubiquitous factor Sp1. In contrast, the region adjacent to the 3...
  40. Mottet D, Pirotte S, Lamour V, Hagedorn M, Javerzat S, Bikfalvi A, et al. HDAC4 represses p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression in human cancer cells through a Sp1-dependent, p53-independent mechanism. Oncogene. 2009;28:243-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Using small interfering RNAs, we found that HDAC4 participates in the repression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) through Sp1/Sp3-, but not p53-binding sites...
  41. Ye W, Zhou J, Markova D, Tian Y, Li J, Anderson D, et al. Xylosyltransferase-1 expression is refractory to inhibition by the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and IL-1β in nucleus pulposus cells: novel regulation by AP-1, Sp1, and Sp3. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..of human NP tissues showed that XT-1 expression is unaffected by degeneration severity; XT-1 and Jun, Fos, and Sp1 mRNA were positively correlated. Cytokines failed to inhibit XT-1 promoter activity and expression...
  42. Sunyakumthorn P, Boonsaen T, Boonsaeng V, Wallace J, Jitrapakdee S. Involvement of specific proteins (Sp1/Sp3) and nuclear factor Y in basal transcription of the distal promoter of the rat pyruvate carboxylase gene in beta-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:188-96 pubmed
    ..mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift EMSAs using nuclear extract from INS-1 cells demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp3 bind a GC box while the nuclear factor Y was shown to bind the proximal but not the distal CCAAT box.
  43. Uchida A, Oh hashi K, Kiuchi K, Hirata Y. Manganese regulates caspase-3 gene promoter activity by inducing Sp1 phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Toxicology. 2012;302:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..caspase-3 gene and identified both a core promoter and a manganese-responsive region that contains three putative Sp1 binding sites...
  44. Boylan M, Jepeal L, Wolfe M. Sp1/Sp3 binding is associated with cell-specific expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor gene. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E1287-95 pubmed
    ..Within this region, we identified three putative Sp1 binding motifs, located at positions -77, -60, and -50, that can specifically bind both Sp1 and Sp3...
  45. Kim J, Cordova A, Hirayama Y, Madri J, Sumpio B. Differential effects of shear stress and cyclic strain on Sp1 phosphorylation by protein kinase Czeta modulates membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase in endothelial cells. Endothelium. 2008;15:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if changes in levels of Sp1 phosphorylation induced by protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) in ECs exposed to SS but not CS are important for MT1-MMP ..
  46. Jiang L, Zhou Y, Xiong M, Fang L, Wen P, Cao H, et al. Sp1 mediates microRNA-29c-regulated type I collagen production in renal tubular epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2254-65 pubmed publisher
    Specificity protein 1 (Sp1), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, plays a potential pathogenic role for fibrotic disease in many organs by regulating the expression of several fibrosis-related genes, however, its role in kidney ..
  47. Li R, Xiao J, Qing X, Xing J, Xia Y, Qi J, et al. Sp1 Mediates a Therapeutic Role of MiR-7a/b in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis via Mechanism Involving the TGF-β and MAPKs Pathways in Cardiac Fibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125513 pubmed publisher
    ..ANG II stimulated the expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) and collagen I in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the overexpression of miR-7a/b significantly down-..
  48. Lin H, Lai S, Chau L. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide induces vascular endothelial growth factor expression via p38 kinase-dependent activation of Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that CO-induced VEGF promoter activation requires the binding of the Sp1 transcriptional factor to a cis-regulatory sequence located at the VEGF promoter...
  49. Li H, Liu J. Identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K as a transactivator for human low density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17789-97 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA probe containing the CT-rich element of R3, which is in contrast to the requirement of double-stranded DNA for Sp1 to bind to R3...
  50. Takeda T, Sakata M, Isobe A, Yamamoto T, Nishimoto F, Minekawa R, et al. Involvement of Sp-1 in the regulation of the Id-1 gene during trophoblast cell differentiation. Placenta. 2007;28:192-8 pubmed
    ..The protein level of Sp-1 was decreased during the differentiation. These results suggest that the Sp-1 protein level may regulate the Box-2-binding activity and the trophoblast giant-cell differentiation. ..
  51. Xie L, Collins J. Transcription factors Sp1 and Hif2? mediate induction of the copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene in intestinal epithelial cells during hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we sought to test the role of Sp1 in transcriptional regulation of Atp7a expression during iron deprivation/hypoxia...
  52. Deng X, Yellaturu C, Cagen L, Wilcox H, Park E, Raghow R, et al. Expression of the rat sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene in response to insulin is mediated by increased transactivating capacity of specificity protein 1 (Sp1). J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17517-29 pubmed
    ..Here we systematically dissected the role of these GC boxes and report that five bona fide Sp1-binding elements of the SREBP-1c promoter determine its basal and insulin-induced activation...
  53. Koitabashi N, Arai M, Tomaru K, Takizawa T, Watanabe A, Niwano K, et al. Carvedilol effectively blocks oxidative stress-mediated downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 gene transcription through modification of Sp1 binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:116-24 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that two Sp1 sites in the SERCA2 gene promoter region mediated the response to carvedilol under oxidative stress...