Gene Symbol: Sncg
Description: synuclein, gamma
Alias: gamma-synuclein, persyn, sensory neuron synuclein, synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific protein 1)
Species: rat
Products:     Sncg

Top Publications

  1. Surgucheva I, McMahan B, Ahmed F, Tomarev S, Wax M, Surguchov A. Synucleins in glaucoma: implication of gamma-synuclein in glaucomatous alterations in the optic nerve. J Neurosci Res. 2002;68:97-106 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that significant changes in the pattern of expression and/or localization occur in the glaucomatous optic nerve for gamma-synuclein but not for alpha- and beta-members of the synuclein family. ..
  2. Surgucheva I, Park B, Yue B, Tomarev S, Surguchov A. Interaction of myocilin with gamma-synuclein affects its secretion and aggregation. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005;25:1009-33 pubmed
    ..Since myocilin and gamma-synuclein have partially overlapping intracellular localization in cell types that are implicated in glaucoma development, their interaction may play an important role in glaucoma. ..
  3. Galvin J, Giasson B, Hurtig H, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, type 1 is characterized by alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein neuropathology. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:361-8 pubmed
    ..These findings expand the concept of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies by implicating alphaS, betaS, and gammaS in the pathogenesis of NBIA 1. ..
  4. Brenz Verca M, Bahi A, Boyer F, Wagner G, Dreyer J. Distribution of alpha- and gamma-synucleins in the adult rat brain and their modification by high-dose cocaine treatment. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1923-38 pubmed
    ..The role of synucleins in relation to cocaine-induced plasticity or neurotoxicity is discussed. ..
  5. Ninkina N, Papachroni K, Robertson D, Schmidt O, Delaney L, O Neill F, et al. Neurons expressing the highest levels of gamma-synuclein are unaffected by targeted inactivation of the gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8233-45 pubmed
    ..Nerve injury led to similar changes in sensory function in wild-type and mutant mice. Taken together, our data suggest that like alpha-synuclein, gamma-synuclein is dispensable for the development and function of the nervous system. ..
  6. Mukaetova Ladinska E, Milne J, Andras A, Abdel All Z, Cerejeira J, Greally E, et al. Alpha- and gamma-synuclein proteins are present in cerebrospinal fluid and are increased in aged subjects with neurodegenerative and vascular changes. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..It needs to be established whether using these markers may help to discriminate LBD from other types of neurodegenerative and vascular dementias. ..
  7. Buchman V, Hunter H, Pinon L, Thompson J, Privalova E, Ninkina N, et al. Persyn, a member of the synuclein family, has a distinct pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9335-41 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a new member of the synuclein family called persyn. In contrast to other synucleins, which are presynaptic proteins of CNS neurons, persyn is a cytosolic protein ..
  8. Galvin J, Uryu K, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Axon pathology in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia hippocampus contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13450-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings broaden the concept of neurodegenerative "synucleinopathies" by implicating betaS and gammaS, in addition to alphaS, in the onset/progression of PD and DLB. ..
  9. Buchman V, Adu J, Pinon L, Ninkina N, Davies A. Persyn, a member of the synuclein family, influences neurofilament network integrity. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:101-3 pubmed

More Information


  1. Robertson D, Schmidt O, Ninkina N, Jones P, Sharkey J, Buchman V. Developmental loss and resistance to MPTP toxicity of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra pars compacta of gamma-synuclein, alpha-synuclein and double alpha/gamma-synuclein null mutant mice. J Neurochem. 2004;89:1126-36 pubmed
  2. Surgucheva I, Weisman A, Goldberg J, SHNYRA A, Surguchov A. Gamma-synuclein as a marker of retinal ganglion cells. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1540-8 pubmed
    ..Future translational approaches might include using a gamma-synuclein promoter for the specific delivery of siRNA or therapeutic proteins to RGCs. ..
  3. Li Z, Sclabas G, Peng B, Hess K, Abbruzzese J, Evans D, et al. Overexpression of synuclein-gamma in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2004;101:58-65 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of synuclein-gamma may play a role in pancreatic carcinoma invasion. Further studies will be necessary to determine the role of synuclein-gamma in pancreatic carcinoma. ..
  4. Li J, Henning Jensen P, Dahlstrom A. Differential localization of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in the rat CNS. Neuroscience. 2002;113:463-78 pubmed
    ..Gamma-synuclein appears to be present in both cholinergic and catecholaminergic regions, but very weak in the forebrain. ..
  5. Volles M, Lansbury P. Relationships between the sequence of alpha-synuclein and its membrane affinity, fibrillization propensity, and yeast toxicity. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1510-22 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that yeast toxicity is caused by synuclein binding directly to membranes at levels sufficient to non-specifically disrupt homeostasis. ..
  6. Nishioka K, Wider C, Vilariño Güell C, Soto Ortolaza A, Lincoln S, Kachergus J, et al. Association of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Synuclein with diffuse lewy body disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:970-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine the association of the genes that encode alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein (SNCA, SNCB, and SNCG, respectively) with diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD).
  7. Malatynska E, Pinhasov A, Crooke J, Horowitz D, Brenneman D, Ilyin S. Levels of mRNA coding for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in the brains of newborn, juvenile, and adult rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29:269-77 pubmed
    ..The revealed pattern and dynamics of changes in the levels of mRNA coding for synucleins would support the conclusion for an important role of these molecules during development and the aging process. ..
  8. Wang Z, Udeshi N, O Malley M, Shabanowitz J, Hunt D, Hart G. Enrichment and site mapping of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine by a combination of chemical/enzymatic tagging, photochemical cleavage, and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this strategy, eight O-GlcNAc sites were mapped from a tau-enriched sample from rat brain. Sites of GlcNAcylation were characterized on important neuronal proteins such as tau, synucleins, and methyl CpG-binding protein 2. ..
  9. Surgucheva I, Shestopalov V, Surguchov A. Effect of gamma-synuclein silencing on apoptotic pathways in retinal ganglion cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Lowering Syn G causes Bad dephosphorylation, dissociation from phosphorylated 14-3-3, and translocation to mitochondria where it initiates apoptotic death cascade. ..
  10. Greten Harrison B, Polydoro M, Morimoto Tomita M, Diao L, Williams A, Nie E, et al. αβγ-Synuclein triple knockout mice reveal age-dependent neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that synucleins contribute importantly to the long-term operation of the nervous system and that alterations in their physiological function could contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. ..
  11. Wu K, Quan Z, Weng Z, Li F, Zhang Y, Yao X, et al. Expression of neuronal protein synuclein gamma gene as a novel marker for breast cancer prognosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;101:259-67 pubmed
    ..However, synuclein gamma (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer specific gene (BCSG1), is also highly expressed in breast carcinomas, ..
  12. Pinhasov A, Ilyin S, Crooke J, Amato F, Vaidya A, Rosenthal D, et al. Different levels of gamma-synuclein mRNA in the cerebral cortex of dominant, neutral and submissive rats selected in the competition test. Genes Brain Behav. 2005;4:60-4 pubmed
    ..05). No changes in alpha- or beta-synuclein expression were observed among the groups. These studies indicate that gamma-synuclein levels in the cerebral cortex were differentially associated with dominant and submissive behavior. ..
  13. Boyer F, Balado E, Piazza P, Dreyer J, Deroche Gamonet V. A decrease in gamma-synuclein expression within the nucleus accumbens increases cocaine intravenous self-administration in the rat. Addict Biol. 2011;16:120-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was associated with an increase in cocaine-induced reinstatement. The present data reveal that GSyn exert a specific negative control on cocaine-induced reinforcing and incentive effects. ..
  14. Giasson B, Duda J, Forman M, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Prominent perikaryal expression of alpha- and beta-synuclein in neurons of dorsal root ganglion and in medullary neurons. Exp Neurol. 2001;172:354-62 pubmed
  15. JEANNOTTE A, McCarthy J, Sidhu A. Desipramine induced changes in the norepinephrine transporter, alpha- and gamma-synuclein in the hippocampus, amygdala and striatum. Neurosci Lett. 2009;467:86-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Akopian A, Wood J. Peripheral nervous system-specific genes identified by subtractive cDNA cloning. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21264-70 pubmed
    ..In addition, the DRG-specific clones provide probes to define the regulatory elements that specify peripheral nervous-system-specific gene expression. ..
  17. Specht C, Tigaret C, Rast G, Thalhammer A, Rudhard Y, Schoepfer R. Subcellular localisation of recombinant alpha- and gamma-synuclein. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;28:326-34 pubmed
    ..However, gamma-synuclein lacks a C-terminal domain that causes nuclear localisation of the fusion protein, suggesting that the two synucleins might have different roles relating to the cell nucleus. ..
  18. Ninkina N, Peters O, Millership S, Salem H, van der Putten H, Buchman V. Gamma-synucleinopathy: neurodegeneration associated with overexpression of the mouse protein. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1779-94 pubmed publisher
  19. Uryu K, Giasson B, Longhi L, Martinez D, Murray I, Conte V, et al. Age-dependent synuclein pathology following traumatic brain injury in mice. Exp Neurol. 2003;184:214-24 pubmed
    ..This model of age-dependent TBI-induced transient alterations in alpha-Syn provides an opportunity to examine possible links between TBI and mechanisms of disease in synucleinopathies. ..
  20. Senior S, Ninkina N, Deacon R, Bannerman D, Buchman V, Cragg S, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release and hyperdopaminergic-like behaviour in mice lacking both alpha-synuclein and gamma-synuclein. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:947-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, we propose that loss of both alpha- and gamma-synuclein causes an increase in release probability from dopaminergic synapses. ..
  21. JEANNOTTE A, McCarthy J, Redei E, Sidhu A. Desipramine modulation of alpha-, gamma-synuclein, and the norepinephrine transporter in an animal model of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are the first to implicate alpha-Syn or gamma-Syn in the pathophysiology of depression and suggest that targeting synucleins may provide a new therapeutic option for depression...
  22. Boyer F, Dreyer J. The role of gamma-synuclein in cocaine-induced behaviour in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2938-51 pubmed publisher
  23. Liu H, Liu W, Wu Y, Zhou Y, Xue R, Luo C, et al. Loss of epigenetic control of synuclein-gamma gene as a molecular indicator of metastasis in a wide range of human cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7635-43 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that the neuronal protein synuclein-gamma (SNCG) is abnormally expressed in a high percentage (67...