Gene Symbol: Sncb
Description: synuclein, beta
Alias: beta-synuclein, PNP 14, phosphoneuroprotein 14
Species: rat
Products:     Sncb

Top Publications

  1. Chandra S, Gallardo G, Fernandez Chacon R, Schlüter O, Sudhof T. Alpha-synuclein cooperates with CSPalpha in preventing neurodegeneration. Cell. 2005;123:383-96 pubmed
  2. Nakajo S, Tsukada K, Omata K, Nakamura Y, Nakaya K. A new brain-specific 14-kDa protein is a phosphoprotein. Its complete amino acid sequence and evidence for phosphorylation. Eur J Biochem. 1993;217:1057-63 pubmed
    ..primary structure of this protein, found that it is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo, and designated it phosphoneuroprotein 14 (PNP 14)...
  3. De Ricco R, Valensin D, Dell Acqua S, Casella L, Gaggelli E, Valensin G, et al. Differences in the binding of copper(I) to α- and β-synuclein. Inorg Chem. 2015;54:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These new insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of copper and synuclein proteins are a basis to understand the molecular mechanism by which βS might inhibit αS aggregation. ..
  4. Murphy D, Rueter S, Trojanowski J, Lee V. Synucleins are developmentally expressed, and alpha-synuclein regulates the size of the presynaptic vesicular pool in primary hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:3214-20 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that one function of alpha-synuclein may be to regulate the size of distinct pools of synaptic vesicles in mature neurons. ..
  5. JEANNOTTE A, McCarthy J, Redei E, Sidhu A. Desipramine modulation of alpha-, gamma-synuclein, and the norepinephrine transporter in an animal model of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are the first to implicate alpha-Syn or gamma-Syn in the pathophysiology of depression and suggest that targeting synucleins may provide a new therapeutic option for depression...
  6. Giasson B, Duda J, Forman M, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Prominent perikaryal expression of alpha- and beta-synuclein in neurons of dorsal root ganglion and in medullary neurons. Exp Neurol. 2001;172:354-62 pubmed
  7. Malatynska E, Pinhasov A, Crooke J, Horowitz D, Brenneman D, Ilyin S. Levels of mRNA coding for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in the brains of newborn, juvenile, and adult rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;29:269-77 pubmed
    ..The revealed pattern and dynamics of changes in the levels of mRNA coding for synucleins would support the conclusion for an important role of these molecules during development and the aging process. ..
  8. Volles M, Lansbury P. Relationships between the sequence of alpha-synuclein and its membrane affinity, fibrillization propensity, and yeast toxicity. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1510-22 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that yeast toxicity is caused by synuclein binding directly to membranes at levels sufficient to non-specifically disrupt homeostasis. ..
  9. Quilty M, Gai W, Pountney D, West A, Vickers J. Localization of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein during neuronal development and alterations associated with the neuronal response to axonal trauma. Exp Neurol. 2003;182:195-207 pubmed
    ..In addition, synuclein proteins accumulate rapidly in damaged axons and may have a role in regenerative sprouting. ..

More Information


  1. Wang Z, Udeshi N, O Malley M, Shabanowitz J, Hunt D, Hart G. Enrichment and site mapping of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine by a combination of chemical/enzymatic tagging, photochemical cleavage, and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this strategy, eight O-GlcNAc sites were mapped from a tau-enriched sample from rat brain. Sites of GlcNAcylation were characterized on important neuronal proteins such as tau, synucleins, and methyl CpG-binding protein 2. ..
  2. Ia K, Jeschke G, Deng Y, Kamaruddin M, Williamson N, Scanlon D, et al. Defining the substrate specificity determinants recognized by the active site of C-terminal Src kinase-homologous kinase (CHK) and identification of ?-synuclein as a potential CHK physiological substrate. Biochemistry. 2011;50:6667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, besides assisting in the identification of potential CHK physiological substrates, our findings shed new light on how CHK recognizes SFKs and other protein substrates. ..
  3. Ohtake H, Limprasert P, Fan Y, Onodera O, Kakita A, Takahashi H, et al. Beta-synuclein gene alterations in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology. 2004;63:805-11 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the beta-synuclein gene may predispose to DLB. ..
  4. Kahle P, Neumann M, Ozmen L, Muller V, Jacobsen H, Schindzielorz A, et al. Subcellular localization of wild-type and Parkinson's disease-associated mutant alpha -synuclein in human and transgenic mouse brain. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6365-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutant [A30P]alphaSYN does not fail to be transported to synapses, but its transgenic overexpression apparently leads to abnormal cellular accumulations. ..
  5. Maitta R, Wolgast L, Wang Q, Zhang H, Bhattacharyya P, Gong J, et al. Alpha- and beta-synucleins are new diagnostic tools for acute erythroid leukemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:230-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Hashimoto M, Rockenstein E, Mante M, Crews L, Bar On P, Gage F, et al. An antiaggregation gene therapy strategy for Lewy body disease utilizing beta-synuclein lentivirus in a transgenic model. Gene Ther. 2004;11:1713-23 pubmed
  7. Uryu K, Giasson B, Longhi L, Martinez D, Murray I, Conte V, et al. Age-dependent synuclein pathology following traumatic brain injury in mice. Exp Neurol. 2003;184:214-24 pubmed
    ..This model of age-dependent TBI-induced transient alterations in alpha-Syn provides an opportunity to examine possible links between TBI and mechanisms of disease in synucleinopathies. ..
  8. Bodega G, Suarez I, López Fernández L, Almonacid L, Zaballos A, Fernandez B. Possible implication of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and beta-synuclein in the ammonia effect on cultured rat astroglial cells: a study using DNA and protein microarrays. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:729-38 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the use of microarrays as tools to ascertain the possible implication of previously unidentified proteins in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. ..
  9. Galvin J, Uryu K, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Axon pathology in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia hippocampus contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13450-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings broaden the concept of neurodegenerative "synucleinopathies" by implicating betaS and gammaS, in addition to alphaS, in the onset/progression of PD and DLB. ..
  10. Li J, Henning Jensen P, Dahlstrom A. Differential localization of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in the rat CNS. Neuroscience. 2002;113:463-78 pubmed
    ..Gamma-synuclein appears to be present in both cholinergic and catecholaminergic regions, but very weak in the forebrain. ..
  11. Brighina L, Okubadejo N, Schneider N, Lesnick T, de Andrade M, Cunningham J, et al. Beta-synuclein gene variants and Parkinson's disease: a preliminary case-control study. Neurosci Lett. 2007;420:229-34 pubmed was to investigate the association of two polymorphisms (rs35035889 and rs1352303) in the beta-synuclein (SNCB) gene with PD...
  12. Rockenstein E, Hansen L, Mallory M, Trojanowski J, Galasko D, Masliah E. Altered expression of the synuclein family mRNA in Lewy body and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res. 2001;914:48-56 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that a critical balance among products of the synuclein gene is important to maintain normal brain function and that alterations in this balance might be associated with neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  13. Suzuki K, Iseki E, Katsuse O, Yamaguchi A, Katsuyama K, Aoki I, et al. Neuronal accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in the brain of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Neuroreport. 2003;14:551-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that neuronal synucleins may accumulate secondarily to GM2 ganglioside in SD mouse brains, and that neuronal accumulation of synucleins may be more critical than that of GM2 ganglioside for SD mice. ..
  14. Mor F, Quintana F, Mimran A, Cohen I. Autoimmune encephalomyelitis and uveitis induced by T cell immunity to self beta-synuclein. J Immunol. 2003;170:628-34 pubmed
  15. Nielsen M, Vorum H, Lindersson E, Jensen P. Ca2+ binding to alpha-synuclein regulates ligand binding and oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22680-4 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Ca(2+) ions may both participate in normal alpha-synuclein functions in the nerve terminal and exercise pathological effects involved in the formation of Lewy bodies. ..
  16. Chandra S, Fornai F, Kwon H, Yazdani U, Atasoy D, Liu X, et al. Double-knockout mice for alpha- and beta-synucleins: effect on synaptic functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14966-71 pubmed
    ..These results show that synucleins are not essential components of the basic machinery for neurotransmitter release but may contribute to the long-term regulation and/or maintenance of presynaptic function. ..
  17. Tobe T, Nakajo S, Tanaka A, Mitoya A, Omata K, Nakaya K, et al. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel brain-specific 14-kDa protein. J Neurochem. 1992;59:1624-9 pubmed
    ..A computer search of the amino acid sequence of the 14-kDa protein indicated no homology to any other protein reported so far. ..
  18. Greten Harrison B, Polydoro M, Morimoto Tomita M, Diao L, Williams A, Nie E, et al. αβγ-Synuclein triple knockout mice reveal age-dependent neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that synucleins contribute importantly to the long-term operation of the nervous system and that alterations in their physiological function could contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. ..
  19. Mori F, Hayashi S, Yamagishi S, Yoshimoto M, Yagihashi S, Takahashi H, et al. Pick's disease: alpha- and beta-synuclein-immunoreactive Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;104:455-61 pubmed
  20. Galvin J, Giasson B, Hurtig H, Lee V, Trojanowski J. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, type 1 is characterized by alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein neuropathology. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:361-8 pubmed
    ..These findings expand the concept of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies by implicating alphaS, betaS, and gammaS in the pathogenesis of NBIA 1. ..