Gene Symbol: Snap23
Description: synaptosome associated protein 23
Alias: synaptosomal-associated protein 23, SNAP-23, synaptosomal-associated protein, 23 kD, vesicle-membrane fusion protein SNAP-23
Species: rat
Products:     Snap23

Top Publications

  1. Banerjee A, Li G, Alexander E, Schwartz J. Role of SNAP-23 in trafficking of H+-ATPase in cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C775-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SNAP-23 is a substrate for botulinum toxin proteolysis and has a critical role in the regulation of H+-ATPase exocytosis and H+ secretion in these renal epithelial cells...
  2. Sander L, Frank S, Bolat S, Blank U, Galli T, Bigalke H, et al. Vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP)-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, are required for activation-induced degranulation of mature human mast cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data show that mature human MC express a specific pattern of SNARE and that VAMP-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2, are required for rapid degranulation...
  3. Suzuki K, Verma I. Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 by IkappaB kinase 2 regulates mast cell degranulation. Cell. 2008;134:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that IKK2 is a central player in allergic reactions. ..
  4. Cosen Binker L, Binker M, Wang C, Hong W, Gaisano H. VAMP8 is the v-SNARE that mediates basolateral exocytosis in a mouse model of alcoholic pancreatitis. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2535-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that VAMP8 is the ZG-SNARE that mediates basolateral exocytosis in alcoholic pancreatitis and that VAMP8 is critical for ZG-ZG homotypic fusion. ..
  5. Brochetta C, Vita F, Tiwari N, Scandiuzzi L, Soranzo M, Guérin Marchand C, et al. Involvement of Munc18 isoforms in the regulation of granule exocytosis in neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Munc18-2 acts as a regulator of primary granule exocytosis, while Munc18-3 may preferentially regulate the fusion of secondary granules. ..
  6. Procino G, Barbieri C, Tamma G, De Benedictis L, Pessin J, Svelto M, et al. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct -- involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Both VAMP2 and VAMP3 were associated with immunoisolated AQP2 vesicles, whereas syntaxin 3 (Stx3), SNAP23 and Munc18 were associated with the apical plasma membrane...
  7. Lu M, Forsberg L, Höög A, Juhlin C, Vukojevic V, Larsson C, et al. Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..1micromol/l). SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) appears to be a tumour-specific protein(s) in parathyroid tissues since its expression was restricted to pathological tissues. ..
  8. Abonyo B, Gou D, Wang P, Narasaraju T, Wang Z, Liu L. Syntaxin 2 and SNAP-23 are required for regulated surfactant secretion. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3499-506 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, introduction of anti-syntaxin 2 or anti-SNAP-23 antibodies into permeabilized type II cells also inhibited surfactant release. Our results suggest that syntaxin 2 and SNAP-23 are required for regulated surfactant secretion. ..
  9. Yoon M, Won K, Kim D, Hwang D, Yoon S, Jung S, et al. Diminished Lipid Raft SNAP23 Increases Blood Pressure by Inhibiting the Membrane Fluidity of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells. J Vasc Res. 2015;52:321-33 pubmed publisher
    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types, but its functional role in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not yet been defined...

More Information


  1. Boone M, Deen P. Physiology and pathophysiology of the vasopressin-regulated renal water reabsorption. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:1005-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on our recent increase in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-regulated renal water transport in both health and disease. ..
  2. Mistry A, Mallick R, Klein J, Weimbs T, Sands J, Fröhlich O. Syntaxin specificity of aquaporins in the inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In pull-down studies, snapin detected AQP2, syntaxin-3, syntaxin-4, and SNAP23 from the inner medullary collecting duct...
  3. Wang P, Chintagari N, Gou D, Su L, Liu L. Physical and functional interactions of SNAP-23 with annexin A2. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:467-76 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that annexin A2 and SNAP-23 are involved in the same pathway in the regulation of lung surfactant secretion. ..
  4. Greaves J, Gorleku O, Salaun C, Chamberlain L. Palmitoylation of the SNAP25 protein family: specificity and regulation by DHHC palmitoyl transferases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SNAP23 is 60% identical to SNAP25 and has a distinct cysteine-rich domain to both SNAP25a and SNAP25b...
  5. Zaid H, Antonescu C, Randhawa V, Klip A. Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks and tethers. Biochem J. 2008;413:201-15 pubmed publisher
  6. Gu Y, Chiu S, Liu B, Wu P, Delannoy M, Lin D, et al. Differential vesicular sorting of AMPA and GABAA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E922-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of AMPA receptors requires SNAP25-syntaxin1A/B-VAMP2 complexes, whereas insertion of GABAA receptors relies on SNAP23-syntaxin1A/B-VAMP2 complexes...
  7. Sakiyama H, Tadokoro S, Nakanishi M, Hirashima N. Membrane fusion between liposomes containing SNARE proteins involved in mast cell exocytosis. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..associated membrane protein (VAMP) -7 or -8 and liposomes containing synaptosomal-associated protein 23 kDa (SNAP23) and syntaxin-3 or -4 was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer...
  8. Salinas E, Quintanar Stephano A, Córdova L, Ouintanar J. Allergen-sensitization increases mast-cell expression of the exocytotic proteins SNAP-23 and syntaxin 4, which are involved in histamine secretion. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:366-71 pubmed
    ..Sensitization with OVA increases the expression of SNAP-23 and syntaxin 4 in MCs. Furthermore, our data suggest that these exocytotic proteins participate in histamine secretion. ..
  9. Mandolesi G, Vanni V, Cesa R, Grasselli G, Puglisi F, Cesare P, et al. Distribution of the SNAP25 and SNAP23 synaptosomal-associated protein isoforms in rat cerebellar cortex. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1084-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We extended our analysis to the SNAP23 homolog; this is expressed at different levels in both gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing terminals (GABAergic) ..
  10. Suh Y, Terashima A, Petralia R, Wenthold R, Isaac J, Roche K, et al. A neuronal role for SNAP-23 in postsynaptic glutamate receptor trafficking. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..SNAP-23 is therefore important for the functional regulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. ..
  11. Takuma T, Shitara A, Arakawa T, Okayama M, Mizoguchi I, Tajima Y. Isoproterenol stimulates transient SNAP23-VAMP2 interaction in rat parotid glands. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When SNARE complexes were immunoprecipitated by anti-SNAP23, the coprecipitation of VAMP2 was significantly increased in response to ISO and/or CyD, although the ..
  12. Okamoto M, Schoch S, Sudhof T. EHSH1/intersectin, a protein that contains EH and SH3 domains and binds to dynamin and SNAP-25. A protein connection between exocytosis and endocytosis?. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18446-54 pubmed
    ..The ability of multiple SH3 domains in EHSH1 to bind to dynamin suggests that EHSH1 can cluster several dynamin molecules in a manner that is regulated by alternative splicing. ..
  13. Logan M, Lacy P, Odemuyiwa S, Steward M, Davoine F, Kita H, et al. A critical role for vesicle-associated membrane protein-7 in exocytosis from human eosinophils and neutrophils. Allergy. 2006;61:777-84 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time a critical role for VAMP-7 in both eosinophil and neutrophil mediator release. ..
  14. Salaun C, Gould G, Chamberlain L. The SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 display different affinities for lipid rafts in PC12 cells. Regulation by distinct cysteine-rich domains. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1236-40 pubmed
    ..These different raft-targeting signals within SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 are likely important for fine-tuning the exocytic pathways in which these proteins operate. ..
  15. Larance M, Ramm G, James D. The GLUT4 code. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:226-33 pubmed
    ..Many are now taking on this challenge. ..
  16. Hepp R, Puri N, Hohenstein A, Crawford G, Whiteheart S, Roche P. Phosphorylation of SNAP-23 regulates exocytosis from mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6610-20 pubmed
  17. Kwong J, Roundabush F, Hutton Moore P, Montague M, Oldham W, Li Y, et al. Hrs interacts with SNAP-25 and regulates Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2273-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, overexpression of Hrs in PC12 cells inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. These results suggest that Hrs is involved in regulation of neurosecretion through interaction with SNAP-25. ..
  18. Weber P, Batoulis H, Rink K, Dahlhoff S, Pinkwart K, Sollner T, et al. Electrostatic anchoring precedes stable membrane attachment of SNAP25/SNAP23 to the plasma membrane. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    The SNAREs SNAP25 and SNAP23 are proteins that are initially cytosolic after translation, but then become stably attached to the cell membrane through palmitoylation of cysteine residues...
  19. Rao S, Huynh C, Proux Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Andrews N. Identification of SNAREs involved in synaptotagmin VII-regulated lysosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20471-9 pubmed
  20. Fournier K, Robinson M. A dominant-negative variant of SNAP-23 decreases the cell surface expression of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1 by slowing constitutive delivery. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:596-603 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that syntaxin 1A is not required for EAAC1 trafficking and provide evidence that SNAP-23 is required for constitutive recycling of EAAC1. ..
  21. Gerelsaikhan T, Vasa P, Chander A. Annexin A7 and SNAP23 interactions in alveolar type II cells and in vitro: a role for Ca(2+) and PKC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:1796-806 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated in vivo and in vitro interactions of A7 with the t-SNARE protein, SNAP23. Immuno-fluorescence studies showed time-dependent increases in co-localization of A7 with SNAP23 in PMA- and in ..
  22. Tsujimoto S, Pelto Huikko M, Aitola M, Meister B, Vik Mo E, Davanger S, et al. The cellular and developmental expression of hrs-2 in rat. Eur J Neurosci. 1999;11:3047-63 pubmed
    ..The wide distribution, the interaction with SNAP-23 and the localization on multivesicular body membranes suggest a general role for hrs-2 in cellular machinery. ..
  23. St Denis J, Cabaniols J, Cushman S, Roche P. SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 3):709-15 pubmed
  24. Lin M, Jiang M, Ding F, Cao Z. Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 act as exocytic SNAREs to release NGF from cultured Schwann cells. Neurosci Lett. 2017;653:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23 were co-localized with NGF by immunocytochemistry...