Gene Symbol: Smad1
Description: SMAD family member 1
Alias: Madh1, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1, MAD (mothers against decapentaplegic, Drosophila) homolog 1, MAD homolog 1, MAD homolog1 (mothers against decapentaplegic, Drosophila), SMAD 1, SMAD, mothers against DPP homolog 1, mothers against DPP homolog 1
Species: rat
Products:     Smad1

Top Publications

  1. Qin B, Chacko B, Lam S, de Caestecker M, Correia J, Lin K. Structural basis of Smad1 activation by receptor kinase phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1303-12 pubmed
    Phosphorylation of Smad1 at the conserved carboxyl terminal SVS sequence activates BMP signaling...
  2. Caubit X, Lye C, Martin E, Coré N, Long D, Vola C, et al. Teashirt 3 is necessary for ureteral smooth muscle differentiation downstream of SHH and BMP4. Development. 2008;135:3301-10 pubmed publisher
  3. Izumi M, Fujio Y, Kunisada K, Negoro S, Tone E, Funamoto M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 inhibits serum deprivation-induced apoptosis of neonatal cardiac myocytes through activation of the Smad1 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31133-41 pubmed
    ..receptors IA, IB, and II and activin receptor I were found to be expressed in myocytes, and BMP-2 phosphorylated Smad1 and p38 MAPK...
  4. Aubin J, Davy A, Soriano P. In vivo convergence of BMP and MAPK signaling pathways: impact of differential Smad1 phosphorylation on development and homeostasis. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1482-94 pubmed
    ..To understand the physiological significance of this observation, we have generated Smad1 mutant mice carrying mutations that prevent phosphorylation of either the C-terminal motif required for BMP ..
  5. Ji S, Jaffrey S. Intra-axonal translation of SMAD1/5/8 mediates retrograde regulation of trigeminal ganglia subtype specification. Neuron. 2012;74:95-107 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF induces the translation of axonally localized SMAD1/5/8 transcripts...
  6. Pangas S, Li X, Umans L, Zwijsen A, Huylebroeck D, Gutierrez C, et al. Conditional deletion of Smad1 and Smad5 in somatic cells of male and female gonads leads to metastatic tumor development in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:248-57 pubmed
    ..Single conditional knockouts for Smad1 or Smad5 or mice homozygous null for Smad8 are viable and fertile...
  7. Morikawa Y, Zehir A, Maska E, Deng C, Schneider M, Mishina Y, et al. BMP signaling regulates sympathetic nervous system development through Smad4-dependent and -independent pathways. Development. 2009;136:3575-84 pubmed publisher
  8. Cayli S, Erdemir F, Ocakli S, Ungor B, Kesici H, Yener T, et al. Interaction between Smad1 and p97/VCP in rat testis and epididymis during the postnatal development. Reprod Sci. 2012;19:190-201 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Smad1 is one of the signal transducers of BMP signaling and binds to several proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome ..
  9. Hou F, Liu R, Liu X, Cui L, Wen Y, Yan S, et al. Attenuation of liver fibrosis by herbal compound 861 via upregulation of BMP-7/Smad signaling in the bile duct ligation model rat. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:4335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP?7 and phospho (p)?Smad1/5/8 were localized predominantly in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes...

More Information


  1. Rosendahl A, Pardali E, Speletas M, Ten Dijke P, Heldin C, Sideras P. Activation of bone morphogenetic protein/Smad signaling in bronchial epithelial cells during airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:160-9 pubmed
    ..Inflamed bronchial epithelial cells and a few scattered alveolar cells expressed levels of phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1/5), indicative of active BMP/Smad signaling...
  2. Harada J, Kokura K, Kanei Ishii C, Nomura T, Khan M, Kim Y, et al. Requirement of the co-repressor homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 for ski-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein-induced transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38998-9005 pubmed
    ..we report that the co-repressor homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) directly binds to both c-Ski and Smad1. HIPK2 efficiently inhibited Smad1/4-induced transcription from the Smad site-containing promoter...
  3. Liu F, Pouponnot C, Massague J. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3157-67 pubmed
    ..complex to DNA; through its carboxy-terminal domain, Smad4 provides an activation function required for Smad1 or Smad2 to stimulate transcription...
  4. Blount A, Vaughan J, Vale W, Bilezikjian L. A Smad-binding element in intron 1 participates in activin-dependent regulation of the follistatin gene. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7016-26 pubmed publisher
  5. Davis B, Hilyard A, Lagna G, Hata A. SMAD proteins control DROSHA-mediated microRNA maturation. Nature. 2008;454:56-61 pubmed publisher
  6. Yamaji M, Seki Y, Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Yuasa M, Shigeta M, et al. Critical function of Prdm14 for the establishment of the germ cell lineage in mice. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined evidence demonstrates that Prdm14 defines a previously unknown genetic pathway, initiating independently from Prdm1, for ensuring the launching of the mammalian germ cell lineage. ..
  7. Suzuki A, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Morita M, Matsui T, Nakashima K, et al. Nanog binds to Smad1 and blocks bone morphogenetic protein-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10294-10299 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that Nanog blocks BMP-induced mesoderm differentiation of ES cells by physically interacting with Smad1 and interfering with the recruitment of coactivators to the active Smad transcriptional complexes...
  8. Takai H, Mezawa M, Choe J, Nakayama Y, Ogata Y. Osteogenic transcription factors and proto-oncogene regulate bone sialoprotein gene transcription. J Oral Sci. 2013;55:209-15 pubmed
    Runt homeodomain protein 2 (Runx2), distalless 5 (Dlx5) and Smad1 are transcription factors that play critical roles in controlling the differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization of bone...
  9. Liu X, Liu S, Xu Y, Liu X, Sun D. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 regulates the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons by modulating Smad1 signaling in slow transit constipation. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:6547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of BMP‑2 on the expression of nNOS was also investigated in primary enteric neurons and the Smad1 signal transduction pathway by western blot analysis, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction ..
  10. Zhang W, Yatskievych T, Cao X, Antin P. Regulation of Hex gene expression by a Smads-dependent signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45435-41 pubmed
    ..The Hex BRE binds Smad4 and Smad1-Smad4 complexes in vitro, and in transfection assays, it is responsive to Smad1 and Smad4 but not to Smad2 and ..
  11. Fujiwara N, Doi T, Gosemann J, Kutasy B, Friedmacher F, Puri P. Smad1 and WIF1 genes are downregulated during saccular stage of lung development in the nitrofen rat model. Pediatr Surg Int. 2012;28:189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Smad1, one of the bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins, plays a key role in ..
  12. Hutchins A, Choo S, Mistri T, Rahmani M, Woon C, Ng C, et al. Co-motif discovery identifies an Esrrb-Sox2-DNA ternary complex as a mediator of transcriptional differences between mouse embryonic and epiblast stem cells. Stem Cells. 2013;31:269-81 pubmed publisher
  13. Fan J, Shen H, Sun Y, Li P, Burczynski F, Namaka M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis through activation of Smad1 and ERK1/2 in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:499-505 pubmed
    ..The increase in BMP4 protein showed two peaks during 6 weeks after BDL. The expression and phosphorylation of Smad1, ERK1/2 and p38 were also elevated after BDL...
  14. Matsubara T, Abe H, Arai H, Nagai K, Mima A, Kanamori H, et al. Expression of Smad1 is directly associated with mesangial matrix expansion in rat diabetic nephropathy. Lab Invest. 2006;86:357-68 pubmed
    ..Recently, we have reported that Smad1 transcriptionally regulates expression of Col4 under diabetic conditions in vitro...
  15. Meynard D, Kautz L, Darnaud V, Canonne Hergaux F, Coppin H, Roth M. Lack of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP6 induces massive iron overload. Nat Genet. 2009;41:478-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite their severe iron overload, the livers of Bmp6-deficient mice have low levels of phosphorylated Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8, and these Smads are not significantly translocated to the nucleus...
  16. Xiao C, Shim J, Klüppel M, Zhang S, Dong C, Flavell R, et al. Ecsit is required for Bmp signaling and mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2933-49 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis demonstrates that Ecsit associates constitutively with Smad4 and associates with Smad1 in a Bmp-inducible manner. Together with Smad1 and Smad4, Ecsit binds to the promoter of specific Bmp target genes...
  17. Doi T, Mima A, Matsubara T, Tominaga T, Arai H, Abe H. The current clinical problems for early phase of diabetic nephropathy and approach for pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82 Suppl 1:S21-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We need to search a new clinical marker for renal injury. We have first shown that Smad1 is a transcription factor for alpha1 and 2 of type 4 collagen (Col4), which is a major component of ..
  18. Masaki M, Izumi M, Oshima Y, Nakaoka Y, Kuroda T, Kimura R, et al. Smad1 protects cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2005;111:2752-9 pubmed
    ..protein 2 (BMP2) protected against apoptosis of serum-deprived cardiomyocytes via induction of Bcl-xL through the Smad1 pathway...
  19. Sun Y, Fei T, Yang T, Zhang F, Chen Y, Li H, et al. The suppression of CRMP2 expression by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD gradient signaling controls multiple stages of neuronal development. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the BMP signaling downstream transcription factor SMAD1 and CRMP2 (collapsin response mediator protein-2) are inversely and complementarily expressed in the developing ..
  20. Liu C, Chang E, Yu J, Carlson C, Prazak L, Yu X, et al. The interferon-inducible p204 protein acts as a transcriptional coactivator of Cbfa1 and enhances osteoblast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2788-96 pubmed probably due to the activation of the gene encoding 204 (Ifi204) by Smad transcription factor, including Smad1, -4, and -5...
  21. Angley C, Kumar M, Dinsio K, Hall A, Siegel R. Signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins and Smad1 modulates the postnatal differentiation of cerebellar cells. J Neurosci. 2003;23:260-8 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) activate the Smad1 signaling pathway to regulate cell determination and differentiation in the embryonic nervous system...
  22. Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu X, Wang R, Jin Y, Xu R. Expression and localization of Smad1, Smad2 and Smad4 proteins in rat testis during postnatal development. Asian J Androl. 2003;5:51-5 pubmed
    To study the expression and regulation of Smad1, Smad2 and Smad4 proteins (intracellular signaling molecules of transforming growth factor-b family) in rat testis during postnatal development...
  23. Hata A, Lagna G, Massague J, Hemmati Brivanlou A. Smad6 inhibits BMP/Smad1 signaling by specifically competing with the Smad4 tumor suppressor. Genes Dev. 1998;12:186-97 pubmed
    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors signal by phosphorylating Smad1, which then associates with Smad4; this complex moves into the nucleus and activates transcription...
  24. Izumi M, Masaki M, Hiramoto Y, Sugiyama S, Kuroda T, Terai K, et al. Cross-talk between bone morphogenetic protein 2 and leukemia inhibitory factor through ERK 1/2 and Smad1 in protection against doxorubicin-induced injury of cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;40:224-33 pubmed
    ..BMP2 and LIF induce distinct signal transduction pathways that each activate a different transcription factor [Smad1 and signal transducing activating transcriptional factor (Stat) 3, respectively] and common signal pathway [..
  25. Zhao Y, Xiao M, Sun B, Zhang Z, Shen T, Duan X, et al. C-terminal domain (CTD) small phosphatase-like 2 modulates the canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and mesenchymal differentiation via Smad dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:26441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A key step in the canonical BMP signaling is the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 (collectively Smad1/5/8) by the type I BMP receptors...
  26. Peng Y, Zhao S, Song L, Wang M, Jiao K. Sertad1 encodes a novel transcriptional co-activator of SMAD1 in mouse embryonic hearts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP signaling plays complex roles in multiple cardiogenic processes in mammals. SMAD1 is a canonical nuclear mediator of BMP signaling, the activity of which is critically regulated through its ..
  27. Rath B, Nam J, Deschner J, Schaumburger J, Tingart M, Grassel S, et al. Biomechanical forces exert anabolic effects on osteoblasts by activation of SMAD 1/5/8 through type 1 BMP receptor. Biorheology. 2011;48:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Osteoblasts cultured in 3-D scaffolds exhibited increased constitutive SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation, as compared to monolayers cultures...
  28. Bucelli R, Gonsiorek E, Kim W, Bruun D, Rabin R, Higgins D, et al. Statins decrease expression of the proinflammatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in sensory neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324:1172-80 pubmed
    ..BMPs signal via Smad activation, and cholesterol depletion by statins inhibited Smad1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
  29. Yue J, Hartsough M, Frey R, Frielle T, Mulder K. Cloning and expression of a rat Smad1: regulation by TGFbeta and modulation by the Ras/MEK pathway. J Cell Physiol. 1999;178:387-96 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested that the Smad1 subfamily is regulated primarily by the TGFbeta superfamily member bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)...
  30. Hester M, Thompson J, Mills J, Liu Y, El Hodiri H, Weinstein M. Smad1 and Smad8 function similarly in mammalian central nervous system development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4683-92 pubmed
    ..Previous research has shown that Smad1 is important in the formation of the allantois, while Smad5 has been shown to be critical in the process of ..
  31. Baburajendran N, Jauch R, Tan C, Narasimhan K, Kolatkar P. Structural basis for the cooperative DNA recognition by Smad4 MH1 dimers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the R-Smads Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 homodimerize with substantially decreased efficiency despite pronounced structural similarities ..
  32. Zhao M, Ko S, Liu J, Chen D, Zhang J, Wang B, et al. Inhibition of microtubule assembly in osteoblasts stimulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and bone formation through transcription factor Gli2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1291-305 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, inhibition of microtubule assembly enhances BMP-2 gene transcription and subsequent bone formation, in part, through inhibiting proteasomal processing of Gli2 and increasing intracellular Gli2 concentrations. ..
  33. Yew K, Hembree M, Prasadan K, Preuett B, McFall C, Benjes C, et al. Cross-talk between bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta signaling is essential for exendin-4-induced insulin-positive differentiation of AR42J cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32209-17 pubmed
  34. Takahashi H, Goto N, Kojima Y, Tsuda Y, Morio Y, Muramatsu M, et al. Downregulation of type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;290:L450-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest abrogation of BMP signaling may be a common molecular pathogenesis in the development of PH with various pathophysiological events, including primary and hypoxic PH. ..
  35. Kim I, Drahushuk K, Kim W, Gonsiorek E, Lein P, Andres D, et al. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate dendritic growth in rat sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3304-12 pubmed
    ..Exposure to BMP-7 induces nuclear translocation of Smad1 (Sma- and Mad-related protein 1), and PD 98059 treatment potentiated nuclear accumulation of Smad-1 induced by BMP-..
  36. Prall O, Menon M, Solloway M, Watanabe Y, Zaffran S, Bajolle F, et al. An Nkx2-5/Bmp2/Smad1 negative feedback loop controls heart progenitor specification and proliferation. Cell. 2007;128:947-59 pubmed
    ..We now show that feedback repression of Bmp2/Smad1 signaling by Nkx2-5 critically regulates SHF proliferation and outflow tract (OFT) morphology...
  37. Yang X, Meng X, Su X, Mauchley D, Ao L, Cleveland J, et al. Bone morphogenic protein 2 induces Runx2 and osteopontin expression in human aortic valve interstitial cells: role of Smad1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in Runx2 and osteopontin levels were preceded by phosphorylation of Smad1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase...
  38. Yang L, Cai C, Lin L, Qyang Y, Chung C, Monteiro R, et al. Isl1Cre reveals a common Bmp pathway in heart and limb development. Development. 2006;133:1575-85 pubmed
    ..Tbx3 is required for heart and limb formation, and is mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome. We provide evidence that the Tbx3 promoter is directly regulated by Bmp Smads in vivo. ..
  39. Sowa H, Kaji H, Hendy G, Canaff L, Komori T, Sugimoto T, et al. Menin is required for bone morphogenetic protein 2- and transforming growth factor beta-regulated osteoblastic differentiation through interaction with Smads and Runx2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40267-75 pubmed
    ..Menin was co-immunoprecipitated with Smad1/5 in ST2 and MC3T3-E1 cells, and inactivation of menin antagonized BMP-2-induced transcriptional activity of Smad1/..
  40. Icli B, WARA A, Moslehi J, Sun X, Plovie E, Cahill M, et al. MicroRNA-26a regulates pathological and physiological angiogenesis by targeting BMP/SMAD1 signaling. Circ Res. 2013;113:1231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..regulates pathological and physiological angiogenesis by targeting endothelial cell (EC) bone morphogenic protein/SMAD1 signaling in vitro and in vivo...
  41. Truksa J, Lee P, Beutler E. Two BMP responsive elements, STAT, and bZIP/HNF4/COUP motifs of the hepcidin promoter are critical for BMP, SMAD1, and HJV responsiveness. Blood. 2009;113:688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a robust BMP, hemojuvelin, and SMAD1 response by murine Hamp1 is dependent on a distal BMP responsive element (BMP-RE2), the adjacent bZIP, HNF4alpha/..
  42. Takahashi T, Abe H, Arai H, Matsubara T, Nagai K, Matsuura M, et al. Activation of STAT3/Smad1 is a key signaling pathway for progression to glomerulosclerosis in experimental glomerulonephritis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7100-6 pubmed
    ..type IV collagen (Col IV), a major component of mesangial extracellular matrix, is transcriptionally regulated by Smad1 in diabetic glomerulosclerosis...
  43. Xu H, Wu F, Zhang H, Yang C, Li K, Wang H, et al. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity. Biochimie. 2017;138:184-193 pubmed publisher
    ..the actin microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B (CB), reduced BMP2-induced activation, translocation of Smad1/5/8 and Runx2 expression...
  44. Liu Y, Meyer C, Muller A, Herweck F, Li Q, Mullenbach R, et al. IL-13 induces connective tissue growth factor in rat hepatic stellate cells via TGF-?-independent Smad signaling. J Immunol. 2011;187:2814-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Smad1 and Smad2 were identified as the key mediators of IL-13-dependent CTGF expression...
  45. Morty R, Nejman B, Kwapiszewska G, Hecker M, Zakrzewicz A, Kouri F, et al. Dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein signaling in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1072-8 pubmed
    ..b>Smad1 phosphorylation and expression of BMP/Smad target genes id1 and id3 was also reduced, although ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK)..
  46. Cho Y, Yoon W, Woo K, Baek J, Park J, Ryoo H. The canonical BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial part in stimulation of dentin sialophosphoprotein expression by BMP-2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..the canonical BMP-2 signaling pathway in MDPC-23, preodontoblast cell, by overexpression of constitutively active Smad1/5 or downstream transcription factors Dlx5 and Runx2 stimulated Dspp expression...
  47. Babitt J, Huang F, Wrighting D, Xia Y, Sidis Y, Samad T, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression. Nat Genet. 2006;38:531-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a mechanism by which HFE2 mutations cause hemochromatosis: hemojuvelin dysfunction decreases BMP signaling, thereby lowering hepcidin expression. ..
  48. Fuller M, DeChant A, Rothstein B, Caprariello A, Wang R, Hall A, et al. Bone morphogenetic proteins promote gliosis in demyelinating spinal cord lesions. Ann Neurol. 2007;62:288-300 pubmed
    ..BMP-responsive cells were identified by expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8...
  49. Pan D, Estévez Salmerón L, Stroschein S, Zhu X, He J, Zhou S, et al. The integral inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1 physically interacts with the R-Smad proteins to repress signaling by the transforming growth factor-{beta} superfamily of cytokines. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15992-6001 pubmed
    ..Thus, MAN1 represents a new class of R-Smad regulators and defines a previously unrecognized regulatory step at the nuclear periphery. ..
  50. Yang J, Li X, Al Lamki R, Southwood M, Zhao J, Lever A, et al. Smad-dependent and smad-independent induction of id1 by prostacyclin analogues inhibits proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. Circ Res. 2010;107:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations lead to reduced Smad1/5-driven expression of inhibitor of DNA binding protein 1 (Id1) and loss of the growth suppressive effects of BMPs...
  51. Lin E, Kong L, Bai X, Luan Y, Liu C. miR-199a, a bone morphogenic protein 2-responsive MicroRNA, regulates chondrogenesis via direct targeting to Smad1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11326-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A computer-based prediction algorithm led to the identification of Smad1, a well established downstream molecule of BMP-2 signaling, as a putative target of miR-199a(*)...
  52. Fukada T, Civic N, Furuichi T, Shimoda S, Mishima K, Higashiyama H, et al. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3642 pubmed publisher
    ..The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction. ..
  53. Shen H, Fan J, Burczynski F, Minuk G, Cattini P, Gong Y. Increased Smad1 expression and transcriptional activity enhances trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:764-70 pubmed
    b>Smad1 is a receptor-activated intracellular signaling protein, which mediates signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins...