Slc2a4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Slc2a4
Description: solute carrier family 2 member 4
Alias: Glut4, solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, GLUT-4, Glucose transporter 4, insuline-responsive, glucose transporter type 4, insulin-responsive, insulin responsive glucose transporter, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4, solute carrier family 2 , member 4
Species: rat
Products:     Slc2a4

Top Publications

  1. Yang J, Holman G. Insulin and contraction stimulate exocytosis, but increased AMP-activated protein kinase activity resulting from oxidative metabolism stress slows endocytosis of GLUT4 in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4070-8 pubmed
    ..We show here that these separate signaling pathways converge on GLUT4 trafficking at separate steps...
  2. Talior Volodarsky I, Randhawa V, Zaid H, Klip A. Alpha-actinin-4 is selectively required for insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25115-23 pubmed publisher
    Insulin induces GLUT4 translocation to the muscle cell surface. Using differential amino acid labeling and mass spectrometry, we observed insulin-dependent co-precipitation of actinin-4 (ACTN4) with GLUT4 (Foster, L. J., Rudich, A...
  3. Lehnen A, Leguisamo N, Pinto G, Markoski M, de Angelis K, Machado U, et al. The beneficial effects of exercise in rodents are preserved after detraining: a phenomenon unrelated to GLUT4 expression. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:67 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY)...
  4. Zaid H, Antonescu C, Randhawa V, Klip A. Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks and tethers. Biochem J. 2008;413:201-15 pubmed publisher
    Glucose entry into muscle cells is precisely regulated by insulin, through recruitment of GLUT4 (glucose transporter-4) to the membrane of muscle and fat cells...
  5. Liu M, Olson A, Edgington N, Moye Rowley W, Pessin J. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) binding site is essential for C2C12 myotube-specific expression of the rat GLUT4/muscle-adipose facilitative glucose transporter gene. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:28514-21 pubmed
    We have cloned and characterized the rat GLUT4 gene in order to identify the cis-DNA elements responsible for tissue-specific GLUT4 expression...
  6. Gray S, Feinberg M, Hull S, Kuo C, Watanabe M, Sen Banerjee S, et al. The Krüppel-like factor KLF15 regulates the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34322-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance is primarily caused by a defect in glucose transport. GLUT4 is the main insulin-responsive glucose transporter and is expressed predominantly in muscle and adipose tissues...
  7. Sun Y, Bilan P, Liu Z, Klip A. Rab8A and Rab13 are activated by insulin and regulate GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19909-14 pubmed publisher
    ..muscle is the primary site of dietary glucose disposal, a function that depends on insulin-mediated exocytosis of GLUT4 vesicles to its cell surface...
  8. Jessen N, Pold R, Buhl E, Jensen L, Schmitz O, Lund S. Effects of AICAR and exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, signaling, and GLUT-4 content in rat muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:1373-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, chronic AICAR administration and long-term exercise both improve insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in a fiber-type-specific way, and this is associated with an increase in GLUT-4 content. ..
  9. Antonescu C, Diaz M, Femia G, Planas J, Klip A. Clathrin-dependent and independent endocytosis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in myoblasts: regulation by mitochondrial uncoupling. Traffic. 2008;9:1173-90 pubmed publisher
    In myocytes and adipocytes, insulin increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) exocytosis by promoting GLUT4 vesicle docking/fusion with the membrane...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rose A, Jeppesen J, Kiens B, Richter E. Effects of contraction on localization of GLUT4 and v-SNARE isoforms in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1228-37 pubmed publisher
    In skeletal muscle, contractions increase glucose uptake due to a translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular storage sites to the surface membrane...
  2. Grillo C, Piroli G, Hendry R, Reagan L. Insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in rat hippocampus is PI3-kinase dependent. Brain Res. 2009;1296:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..the aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin stimulates similar signaling cascades and GLUT4 translocation in the rat hippocampus as has been described in peripheral tissues...
  3. Guilherme A, Soriano N, Furcinitti P, Czech M. Role of EHD1 and EHBP1 in perinuclear sorting and insulin-regulated GLUT4 recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40062-75 pubmed
    ..in muscle and adipose tissues by recruiting intracellular membrane vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane...
  4. Lizunov V, Lisinski I, Stenkula K, Zimmerberg J, Cushman S. Insulin regulates fusion of GLUT4 vesicles independent of Exo70-mediated tethering. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7914-9 pubmed publisher
    Insulin regulates cellular glucose uptake by changing the amount of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane through stimulation of GLUT4 exocytosis...
  5. Stenkula K, Lizunov V, Cushman S, Zimmerberg J. Insulin controls the spatial distribution of GLUT4 on the cell surface through regulation of its postfusion dispersal. Cell Metab. 2010;12:250-9 pubmed publisher
    While the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) is fundamental to insulin-regulated glucose metabolism, its dynamic spatial organization in the plasma membrane (PM) is unclear...
  6. Lizunov V, Matsumoto H, Zimmerberg J, Cushman S, Frolov V. Insulin stimulates the halting, tethering, and fusion of mobile GLUT4 vesicles in rat adipose cells. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:481-9 pubmed
    Glucose transport in adipose cells is regulated by changing the distribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) between the cell interior and the plasma membrane (PM)...
  7. Brozinick J, Hawkins E, Strawbridge A, Elmendorf J. Disruption of cortical actin in skeletal muscle demonstrates an essential role of the cytoskeleton in glucose transporter 4 translocation in insulin-sensitive tissues. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40699-706 pubmed
    ..represents a required pathway for the optimal redistribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane...
  8. Aledo J, Lavoie L, Volchuk A, Keller S, Klip A, Hundal H. Identification and characterization of two distinct intracellular GLUT4 pools in rat skeletal muscle: evidence for an endosomal and an insulin-sensitive GLUT4 compartment. Biochem J. 1997;325 ( Pt 3):727-32 pubmed
    In skeletal muscle, acute insulin treatment results in the recruitment of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular vesicular structures to the plasma membrane...
  9. Shewan A, van Dam E, Martin S, Luen T, Hong W, Bryant N, et al. GLUT4 recycles via a trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain enriched in Syntaxins 6 and 16 but not TGN38: involvement of an acidic targeting motif. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:973-86 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by triggering exocytosis of the glucose transporter GLUT4. To define the intracellular trafficking of GLUT4, we have studied the internalization of an epitope-tagged version of ..
  10. Niu W, Huang C, Nawaz Z, Levy M, Somwar R, Li D, et al. Maturation of the regulation of GLUT4 activity by p38 MAPK during L6 cell myogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17953-62 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and fat cells by promoting the rapid translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane...
  11. Yang J, Gillingham A, Hodel A, Koumanov F, Woodward B, Holman G. Insulin-stimulated cytosol alkalinization facilitates optimal activation of glucose transport in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;283:E1299-307 pubmed
    ..In contrast, glucose transport activity and the levels of functional GLUT4 at the plasma membrane (detected using an exofacial photolabel) were reduced by approximately 50%...
  12. Chiappe De Cingolani G, Caldiz C. Insulin resistance and GLUT-4 glucose transporter in adipocytes from hypertensive rats. Metabolism. 2004;53:382-7 pubmed
  13. Birnbaum M. Identification of a novel gene encoding an insulin-responsive glucose transporter protein. Cell. 1989;57:305-15 pubmed
  14. Vassilopoulos S, Esk C, Hoshino S, Funke B, Chen C, Plocik A, et al. A role for the CHC22 clathrin heavy-chain isoform in human glucose metabolism. Science. 2009;324:1192-6 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from storage compartments to the plasma membrane is triggered in muscle and fat during the body's response to insulin...
  15. Chiu T, Sun Y, Koshkina A, Klip A. Rac-1 superactivation triggers insulin-independent glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation that bypasses signaling defects exerted by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and ceramide-induced insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17520-31 pubmed publisher
    ..cascade of signaling molecules, including Rac-1, Akt, and AS160, to promote the net gain of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) at the plasma membrane of muscle cells...
  16. Watson R, Pessin J. GLUT4 translocation: the last 200 nanometers. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2209-17 pubmed
    ..the cellular level, insulin stimulates glucose uptake by inducing the translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane, where the transporter facilitates the diffusion of ..
  17. Bose A, Guilherme A, Robida S, Nicoloro S, Zhou Q, Jiang Z, et al. Glucose transporter recycling in response to insulin is facilitated by myosin Myo1c. Nature. 2002;420:821-4 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in muscle and adipocytes by signalling the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters from intracellular membranes to the cell surface...
  18. Vettor R, Fabris R, Serra R, Lombardi A, Tonello C, Granzotto M, et al. Changes in FAT/CD36, UCP2, UCP3 and GLUT4 gene expression during lipid infusion in rat skeletal and heart muscle. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:838-47 pubmed
    ..availability of NEFA on gene expression of proteins involved in transmembrane fatty acid (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transport and of the uncoupling proteins UCP2 and 3 at the heart and skeletal muscle level...
  19. McCarthy A, Spisak K, Brozinick J, Elmendorf J. Loss of cortical actin filaments in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells impairs GLUT4 vesicle trafficking and glucose transport. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C860-8 pubmed
    ..In L6 myotubes stably expressing GLUT4 that carries an exofacial myc-epitope tag, acute insulin stimulation (20 min, 100 nM) increased GLUT4myc ..
  20. Boguslavsky S, Chiu T, Foley K, Osorio Fuentealba C, Antonescu C, Bayer K, et al. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4065-78 pubmed publisher
    b>GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments...
  21. Piroli G, Grillo C, Reznikov L, Adams S, McEwen B, Charron M, et al. Corticosterone impairs insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 in the rat hippocampus. Neuroendocrinology. 2007;85:71-80 pubmed
    ..such as peripheral insulin resistance and impairment in insulin-stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in muscle and fat...
  22. Berwick D, Dell G, Welsh G, Heesom K, Hers I, Fletcher L, et al. Protein kinase B phosphorylation of PIKfyve regulates the trafficking of GLUT4 vesicles. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5985-93 pubmed
    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves the recruitment of the glucose transporter 4 isoform (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the plasma membrane of fat and muscle cells...
  23. Torok D, Patel N, Jebailey L, Thong F, Randhawa V, Klip A, et al. Insulin but not PDGF relies on actin remodeling and on VAMP2 for GLUT4 translocation in myoblasts. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5447-55 pubmed
    Insulin promotes the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from intracellular pools to the surface of muscle and fat cells via a mechanism dependent on phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase, actin cytoskeletal remodeling and ..
  24. Ishikura S, Klip A. Muscle cells engage Rab8A and myosin Vb in insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1016-25 pubmed publisher
    Insulin causes translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the membrane of muscle and fat cells, a process requiring Akt activation. Two Rab-GTPase-activating proteins (Rab-GAP), AS160 and TBC1D1, were identified as Akt substrates...
  25. James D, Strube M, Mueckler M. Molecular cloning and characterization of an insulin-regulatable glucose transporter. Nature. 1989;338:83-7 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that this cDNA encodes a membrane protein with the characteristics of the translocatable glucose transporter expressed in insulin-responsive tissues. ..
  26. Bogan J, Hendon N, McKee A, Tsao T, Lodish H. Functional cloning of TUG as a regulator of GLUT4 glucose transporter trafficking. Nature. 2003;425:727-33 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in fat and muscle by mobilizing the GLUT4 glucose transporter...
  27. Cormont M, Tanti J, Zahraoui A, Van Obberghen E, Tavitian A, Le Marchand Brustel Y. Insulin and okadaic acid induce Rab4 redistribution in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:19491-7 pubmed
    Insulin stimulation of glucose transport involves the translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter Glut 4 to the plasma membrane...
  28. Charron M, Brosius F, Alper S, Lodish H. A glucose transport protein expressed predominately in insulin-responsive tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2535-9 pubmed
    ..This GT-like cDNA is the fourth member of the mammalian GT-related gene family identified to date. We propose that it encodes an insulin-sensitive GT. ..
  29. Brunetto E, Teixeira S, Giannocco G, Machado U, Nunes M. T3 rapidly increases SLC2A4 gene expression and GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle of rat and improves glucose homeostasis. Thyroid. 2012;22:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue, where triiodothyronine (T(3)) induces solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (SLC2A4) gene transcription...
  30. Larance M, Ramm G, James D. The GLUT4 code. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:226-33 pubmed
    ..Glucose transport is accomplished by a shift in the distribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in the presence of insulin...
  31. Williams D, Pessin J. Mapping of R-SNARE function at distinct intracellular GLUT4 trafficking steps in adipocytes. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..R-SNAREs, we have taken advantage of the temporal requirements of adipocyte biosynthetic sorting of a dual-tagged GLUT4 reporter (myc-GLUT4-GFP) coupled with small interfering RNA gene silencing...
  32. van Oort M, van Doorn J, Bonen A, Glatz J, Van der Horst D, Rodenburg K, et al. Insulin-induced translocation of CD36 to the plasma membrane is reversible and shows similarity to that of GLUT4. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1781:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..translocation of CD36 from intracellular pools to the plasma membrane (PM), similar to glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation...
  33. Sajan M, Bandyopadhyay G, Kanoh Y, Standaert M, Quon M, Reed B, et al. Sorbitol activates atypical protein kinase C and GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation/glucose transport through proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and phospholipase D. Biochem J. 2002;362:665-74 pubmed
    Sorbitol, "osmotic stress", stimulates GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose transport by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-independent mechanism that reportedly involves non-receptor ..
  34. Horie T, Ono K, Nagao K, Nishi H, Kinoshita M, Kawamura T, et al. Oxidative stress induces GLUT4 translocation by activation of PI3-K/Akt and dual AMPK kinase in cardiac myocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:733-42 pubmed publisher
    In response to metabolic stress, GLUT4, the most abundant glucose transporter, translocates from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. This appears to play an important role in protecting cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury...
  35. Koumanov F, Jin B, Yang J, Holman G. Insulin signaling meets vesicle traffic of GLUT4 at a plasma-membrane-activated fusion step. Cell Metab. 2005;2:179-89 pubmed
    A hypothesis that accounts for most of the available literature on insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is that insulin action controls the access of GLUT4 vesicles to a constitutively active plasma-membrane fusion process...
  36. Sunil C, Duraipandiyan V, Agastian P, Ignacimuthu S. Antidiabetic effect of plumbagin isolated from Plumbago zeylanica L. root and its effect on GLUT4 translocation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..zeylanica L. root and its effect on GLUT4 translocation in STZ-induced diabetic rats...
  37. Chiu T, Patel N, Shaw A, Bamburg J, Klip A. Arp2/3- and cofilin-coordinated actin dynamics is required for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation to the surface of muscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3529-39 pubmed publisher
    b>GLUT4 vesicles are actively recruited to the muscle cell surface upon insulin stimulation...
  38. de Lima E Santos C, Arnoni C, Schor N, Boim M. Effects of glucose deprivation or glucose instability on mesangial cells in culture. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neither glucose deprivation nor glucose instability, at least during short periods, is involved in the mesangial matrix overproduction observed in diabetes. ..
  39. Ishiki M, Randhawa V, Poon V, Jebailey L, Klip A. Insulin regulates the membrane arrival, fusion, and C-terminal unmasking of glucose transporter-4 via distinct phosphoinositides. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28792-802 pubmed
    Insulin increases glucose uptake into muscle via glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation to the cell membrane, but the regulated events in GLUT4 traffic are unknown...
  40. Kaddai V, Gonzalez T, Keslair F, Gremeaux T, Bonnafous S, Gugenheim J, et al. Rab4b is a small GTPase involved in the control of the glucose transporter GLUT4 localization in adipocyte. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5257 pubmed publisher
    ..GTPases of the Rab family, among them Rab4a, play an essential role in the control of the glucose transporter GLUT4 trafficking, which is essential for insulin-mediated glucose uptake...
  41. Fecchi K, Volonte D, Hezel M, Schmeck K, Galbiati F. Spatial and temporal regulation of GLUT4 translocation by flotillin-1 and caveolin-3 in skeletal muscle cells. FASEB J. 2006;20:705-7 pubmed
    ..The glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT4) is primarily responsible for the insulin-stimulated increase in glucose uptake...
  42. Hatanaka T, Hatanaka Y, Setou M. Regulation of amino acid transporter ATA2 by ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35922-30 pubmed
  43. Koumanov F, Richardson J, Murrow B, Holman G. AS160 phosphotyrosine-binding domain constructs inhibit insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..a known Akt substrate that is phosphorylated downstream of insulin action and that leads to regulated traffic of GLUT4. As GLUT4 vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane is a highly regulated step in GLUT4 traffic, we investigated ..
  44. Taguchi A, Emoto M, Okuya S, Fukuda N, Nakamori Y, Miyazaki M, et al. Identification of Glypican3 as a novel GLUT4-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1204-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and muscle primarily by stimulating the translocation of vesicles containing facilitative glucose transporters, GLUT4, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane...
  45. Ishiki M, Nishida Y, Ishibashi H, Wada T, Fujisaka S, Takikawa A, et al. Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2600-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of astaxanthin on insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, glucose uptake, and insulin signaling in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using plasma membrane lawn ..
  46. Sun Y, Chiu T, Foley K, Bilan P, Klip A. Myosin Va mediates Rab8A-regulated GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in insulin-stimulated muscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..vesicle traffic, and we recently showed that Rab8A and Rab13 are activated by insulin in muscle to mobilize GLUT4-containing vesicles to the muscle cell surface...
  47. Baker E, Dennis R, Larkin L. Glucose transporter content and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle constructs engineered in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2003;39:434-9 pubmed
    ..3-fold greater than GLUT-4 protein content, suggesting that the glucose transport of the engineered myooids is similar in several respects to that observed in both fetal and denervated skeletal muscle tissue. ..
  48. Lee C, Ussher J, Mohammad A, Lam A, Lopaschuk G. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase increases glucose uptake independent of GLUT4 translocation in cardiac myocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;92:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..There are primarily 2 glucose transporters controlling glucose uptake into cardiac myocytes: GLUT1 and GLUT4. In the non-ischemic heart, insulin stimulates GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemmal membrane, while both GLUT1 ..
  49. Zheng X, Xu M, Fang Q. Role of AMPK ? in skeletal muscle glycometabolism regulation and adaptation in relation to sepsis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:390760 pubmed publisher
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein always involve disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism...
  50. Fang P, Yu M, He B, Guo L, Huang X, Kong G, et al. Central injection of GALR1 agonist M617 attenuates diabetic rat skeletal muscle insulin resistance through the Akt/AS160/GLUT4 pathway. Mech Ageing Dev. 2017;162:122-128 pubmed publisher
    ..study showed that administration of galanin could mitigate insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and translocation in skeletal muscle of rats, there is no literature available regarding to the effect ..
  51. Song H, Guan Y, Zhang L, Li K, Dong C. SPARC interacts with AMPK and regulates GLUT4 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..SPARC affects AMPK-mediated glucose metabolism through regulation of Glut4 expression in L6 myocytes...
  52. Tardy Cantalupi I, Montessuit C, Papageorgiou I, Remondino Müller A, Assimacopoulos Jeannet F, Morel D, et al. Effect of transient ischemia on the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in rat myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999;31:1143-55 pubmed
    ..Observed changes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying late changes of substrate metabolism during reperfusion. ..
  53. Deng B, Zhu X, Zhao Y, Zhang D, Pannu A, Chen L, et al. PKC and Rab13 mediate Ca2+ signal-regulated GLUT4 traffic. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1956-1963 pubmed publisher
    Exercise/muscle contraction increases cell surface glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), leading to glucose uptake to regulate blood glucose level...