Gene Symbol: Slc1a2
Description: solute carrier family 1 member 2
Alias: Eaat2, Glt, Glt-1, excitatory amino acid transporter 2, glial glutamate transporter GLT1/V3, glial glutamate transporter GLT1/V4, glutamate transporter 1, high affinity glucose transporter, sodium-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter 2, solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2
Species: rat
Products:     Slc1a2

Top Publications

  1. Wu X, Kihara T, Akaike A, Niidome T, Sugimoto H. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling regulates glutamate transporter 1 in astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:514-8 pubmed publisher
    Reduction in or dysfunction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is linked to several neuronal disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
  2. Han F, Shioda N, Moriguchi S, Qin Z, Fukunaga K. Downregulation of glutamate transporters is associated with elevation in extracellular glutamate concentration following rat microsphere embolism. Neurosci Lett. 2008;430:275-80 pubmed
    ..with the persistent increase in extracellular glutamate, expression of the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and GLT-1 significantly decreased 6h after insult without a change in GLAST levels...
  3. Tanaka K, Watase K, Manabe T, Yamada K, Watanabe M, Takahashi K, et al. Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Science. 1997;276:1699-702 pubmed
    ..Homozygous mice deficient in GLT-1, a widely distributed astrocytic glutamate transporter, show lethal spontaneous seizures and increased ..
  4. Harada T, Harada C, Watanabe M, Inoue Y, Sakagawa T, Nakayama N, et al. Functions of the two glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:4663-6 pubmed
    In the retina, the glutamate transporter GLAST is expressed in Müller cells, whereas the glutamate transporter GLT-1 is found only in cones and various types of bipolar cells...
  5. Lehre K, Danbolt N. The number of glutamate transporter subtype molecules at glutamatergic synapses: chemical and stereological quantification in young adult rat brain. J Neurosci. 1998;18:8751-7 pubmed quantitative immunoblotting that the numbers of the astroglial glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and GLT (EAAT2) are 3200 and 12,000 per micrometer3 tissue in the stratum radiatum of adult rat hippocampus (CA1) and 18,000 and ..
  6. Schmitt A, Asan E, Lesch K, Kugler P. A splice variant of glutamate transporter GLT1/EAAT2 expressed in neurons: cloning and localization in rat nervous system. Neuroscience. 2002;109:45-61 pubmed
    Rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate via the high affinity glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1; EAAT2) is important for limiting transmitter signalling and prevents a harmful receptor overstimulation...
  7. Yeh T, Hwang H, Chen J, Wu T, Li A, Wang H. Glutamate transporter function of rat hippocampal astrocytes is impaired following the global ischemia. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;18:476-83 pubmed
    Astroglial glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, play an essential role in removing released glutamate from the extracellular space and are essential for maintaining a low concentration of extracellular glutamate in the brain...
  8. Arriza J, Fairman W, Wadiche J, Murdoch G, Kavanaugh M, Amara S. Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5559-69 pubmed
    ..Three glutamate transporters expressed in human motor cortex, termed EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3 (for excitatory amino acid transporter), have been characterized by their molecular cloning and ..
  9. Utsunomiya Tate N, Endou H, Kanai Y. Tissue specific variants of glutamate transporter GLT-1. FEBS Lett. 1997;416:312-6 pubmed
    cDNA cloning of glutamate transporter GLT-1 from mouse brain and liver has revealed that 5'-ends of the messages are different between brain and liver...

More Information


  1. González González I, García Tardón N, Cubelos B, Giménez C, Zafra F. The glutamate transporter GLT1b interacts with the scaffold protein PSD-95. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1834-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This tight association might also facilitate the regulation of GLT1b through the signaling pathways initiated by the activation of glutamate receptors. ..
  2. Tian G, Lai L, Guo H, Lin Y, Butchbach M, Chang Y, et al. Translational control of glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 expression. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1727-37 pubmed
    ..The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is the main mediator of glutamate clearance...
  3. Goursaud S, Maloteaux J, Hermans E. Distinct expression and regulation of the glutamate transporter isoforms GLT-1a and GLT-1b in cultured astrocytes from a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (hSOD1G93A). Neurochem Int. 2009;55:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein characterised the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in cultured cortical astrocytes derived from a transgenic rat strain expressing an ALS-related ..
  4. Butchbach M, Tian G, Guo H, Lin C. Association of excitatory amino acid transporters, especially EAAT2, with cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains: importance for excitatory amino acid transporter localization and function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34388-96 pubmed
    ..Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2-mediated uptake was more sensitive to this effect...
  5. Pines G, Danbolt N, Bjørås M, Zhang Y, Bendahan A, Eide L, et al. Cloning and expression of a rat brain L-glutamate transporter. Nature. 1992;360:464-7 pubmed
    ..This protein therefore seems to be a member of a new family of transport molecules. ..
  6. Tilleux S, Goursaud S, Hermans E. Selective up-regulation of GLT-1 in cultured astrocytes exposed to soluble mediators released by activated microglia. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of the expression and activity of type 1 glutamate transporter (GLT-1) was examined after exposing cultures of rat astrocytes to conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide-activated ..
  7. Rauen T, Wiessner M, Sullivan R, Lee A, Pow D. A new GLT1 splice variant: cloning and immunolocalization of GLT1c in the mammalian retina and brain. Neurochem Int. 2004;45:1095-106 pubmed
    ..Similarly, cone photoreceptors express two glutamate transporters. We suggest that differential usage of these transporters by rod and cone photoreceptors may influence the kinetics of glutamate transmission by these neurons. ..
  8. Goursaud S, Focant M, Berger J, Nizet Y, Maloteaux J, Hermans E. The VPAC2 agonist peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) up-regulates glutamate transport in the corpus callosum of a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (hSOD1G93A) by inhibiting caspase-3 mediated inactivation of GLT-1a. FASEB J. 2011;25:3674-86 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate uptake, we have characterized the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter isoforms GLT-1a and GLT-1b in the corpus callosum of transgenic rats expressing a mutated form of the human superoxide dismutase ..
  9. Chen W, Aoki C, Mahadomrongkul V, Gruber C, Wang G, Blitzblau R, et al. Expression of a variant form of the glutamate transporter GLT1 in neuronal cultures and in neurons and astrocytes in the rat brain. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2142-52 pubmed
  10. Kawahara K, Hosoya R, Sato H, Tanaka M, Nakajima T, Iwabuchi S. Selective blockade of astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 with dihydrokainate prevents neuronal death during ouabain treatment of astrocyte/neuron cocultures. Glia. 2002;40:337-49 pubmed
    ..In this study, using mixed neuron/astrocyte cultures, we investigated whether astrocytic Glu transporter GLT-1 is crucial to the survival of neurons under various conditions...
  11. Lee A, Anderson A, Stevens M, Pow D. Exon 4-skipping GLT-1: a new form of an abundantly expressed glutamate transporter. Neurosci Lett. 2011;504:228-31 pubmed publisher
    GLT-1 (EAAT2) is an abundant glial glutamate transporter in the mammalian brain. It plays important roles, especially in the termination of neurotransmitter signals at excitatory synapses in grey matter...
  12. Niederberger E, Schmidtko A, Rothstein J, Geisslinger G, Tegeder I. Modulation of spinal nociceptive processing through the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Neuroscience. 2003;116:81-7 pubmed
    b>GLT-1 is the predominant glutamate transporter in most brain regions and therefore plays a major role in terminating synaptic transmission and protecting neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity...
  13. Park C, Cha J, Park S, Lee P, Kim J, Kim H, et al. Differential expression of two glutamate transporters, GLAST and GLT-1, in an experimental rat model of glaucoma. Exp Brain Res. 2009;197:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well known that glutamate transport, mainly via GLAST and GLT-1, is cardinal mechanism for maintaining glutamate homeostasis in normal and pathological conditions, including ..
  14. Howland D, Liu J, She Y, Goad B, Maragakis N, Kim B, et al. Focal loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in a transgenic rat model of SOD1 mutant-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1604-9 pubmed
    ..Focal loss of the EAAT2 glutamate transporter in the ventral horn of the spinal cord coincided with gliosis, but appeared before motor ..
  15. Chu K, Lee S, Sinn D, Ko S, Kim E, Kim J, et al. Pharmacological Induction of Ischemic Tolerance by Glutamate Transporter-1 (EAAT2) Upregulation. Stroke. 2007;38:177-82 pubmed
    Astrocytic glutamate transporter protein, GLT-1 (EAAT2), recovers extracellular glutamate and ensures that neurons are protected from excess stimulation...
  16. Xin W, Weng H, Dougherty P. Plasticity in expression of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST in spinal dorsal horn glial cells following partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mol Pain. 2009;5:15 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamatergic neurotransmission, is carried out by glutamate transporters, most especially glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and the glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) that are located in astrocytes...
  17. Escartin C, Brouillet E, Gubellini P, Trioulier Y, Jacquard C, Smadja C, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates astrocytes, redistributes their glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 to raft microdomains, and improves glutamate handling in vivo. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5978-89 pubmed
    ..immature intermediate filament proteins and highly glycosylated forms of their glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1...
  18. Yang Y, Gozen O, Watkins A, Lorenzini I, Lepore A, Gao Y, et al. Presynaptic regulation of astroglial excitatory neurotransmitter transporter GLT1. Neuron. 2009;61:880-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Astroglia regulate synaptic glutamate, via neurotransmitter transport by GLT1/EAAT2. Astroglial mechanisms underlying this essential neuron-glial communication are not known...
  19. Vollbrecht P, Simmler L, Blakely R, Deutch A. Dopamine denervation of the prefrontal cortex increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1. J Neurochem. 2014;130:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..are essential elements in the termination of glutamatergic signaling: the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for > 90% of cortical glutamate uptake...
  20. Dumont A, Goursaud S, Desmet N, Hermans E. Differential regulation of glutamate transporter subtypes by pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? in cortical astrocytes from a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97649 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of the astroglial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) where a loss of GLT-1 protein expression and activity is ..
  21. Sterley T, Howells F, Dimatelis J, Russell V. Genetic predisposition and early life experience interact to determine glutamate transporter (GLT1) and solute carrier family 12 member 5 (KCC2) levels in rat hippocampus. Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31:169-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest significant involvement of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the neuropathophysiology of ADHD, and implicates changes in glutamatergic transmission as a result of early life stress. ..
  22. Mohammadi M, Zare Z, Allah Moradi E, Vaezi N, Valadan R, Tehrani M. Alterations in mRNA and protein expression of glutamate transporters in rat hippocampus after paraoxon exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2016;57:251-257 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the expression of glial (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters at mRNA and protein levels in paraoxon-treated rat hippocampus...
  23. Arranz A, Gottlieb M, Pérez Cerdá F, Matute C. Increased expression of glutamate transporters in subcortical white matter after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:156-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluates the expression of the main glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in subcortical white matter of the rat after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
  24. Berger U, Hediger M. Distribution of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 (SLC1A2) and GLAST (SLC1A3) in peripheral organs. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2006;211:595-606 pubmed
    The glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST are widely expressed in astrocytes in the brain where they fulfill important functions during glutamatergic neurotransmission...
  25. Tsai W, Wu J, Liu C, Cherng C, Tsai R, Jean Y, et al. Early intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid attenuates osteoarthritis progression in anterior cruciate ligament-transected rats. Connect Tissue Res. 2013;54:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Early intraarticular injection of HA attenuates the progression of cartilage destruction in the ACLT knee, and the downregulation of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system [Formula: see text] was accompanied by the progression of OA. ..
  26. Zou S, Pita Almenar J, Eskin A. Regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 by MAGI-1. J Neurochem. 2011;117:833-40 pubmed publisher
    The sodium-dependent glutamate transporter, glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1) is one of the main glutamate transporters in the brain...
  27. Liu A, Hu Y, Li W, Xu J, Zhang M. Cerebral ischemic pre-conditioning enhances the binding characteristics and glutamate uptake of glial glutamate transporter-1 in hippocampal CA1 subfield of rats. J Neurochem. 2011;119:202-9 pubmed publisher
    Glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is the predominant subtype of glutamate transporters which are responsible for the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate...
  28. Macnab L, Pow D. Expression of the exon 9-skipping form of EAAT2 in astrocytes of rats. Neuroscience. 2007;150:705-11 pubmed
    mRNA for the exon 9-skipping form of the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 2 (glutamate transporter 1, GLT-1) is known to be expressed in brain and spinal cord, and such expression was initially proposed to ..
  29. Marie H, Billups D, Bedford F, Dumoulin A, Goyal R, Longmore G, et al. The amino terminus of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 interacts with the LIM protein Ajuba. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;19:152-64 pubmed
    We have identified a cytoplasmic LIM protein, Ajuba, which interacts with the amino terminus of GLT-1, the most abundant plasma membrane glutamate transporter in the brain...
  30. Persson M, Brantefjord M, Liljeqvist J, Bergstrom T, Hansson E, Rönnbäck L. Microglial GLT-1 is upregulated in response to herpes simplex virus infection to provide an antiviral defence via glutathione. Glia. 2007;55:1449-58 pubmed
    ..Microglia have been shown to express the glutamate transporter GLT-1 during pathological events, leading to increased microglial glutamate uptake and glutathione synthesis...
  31. Cholet N, Pellerin L, Magistretti P, Hamel E. Similar perisynaptic glial localization for the Na+,K+-ATPase alpha 2 subunit and the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in the rat somatosensory cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2002;12:515-25 pubmed
    ..of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase containing the alpha(2) subunit, together with the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, participate in a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and energy metabolism taking place in astrocytes...
  32. Benediktsson A, Marrs G, Tu J, Worley P, Rothstein J, Bergles D, et al. Neuronal activity regulates glutamate transporter dynamics in developing astrocytes. Glia. 2012;60:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the subcellular distribution and dynamic remodeling of the predominant GluT GLT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2, EAAT2) in developing hippocampal astrocytes...
  33. Holmseth S, Scott H, Real K, Lehre K, Leergaard T, Bjaalie J, et al. The concentrations and distributions of three C-terminal variants of the GLT1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) glutamate transporter protein in rat brain tissue suggest differential regulation. Neuroscience. 2009;162:1055-71 pubmed publisher
    ..neurotransmitter glutamate is inactivated by cellular uptake; mostly catalyzed by the glutamate transporter GLT1 (slc1a2, excitatory amino acid transporter [EAAT2]) subtype which is expressed at high levels in brain astrocytes and at ..
  34. Uehara T, Sumiyoshi T, Itoh H, Kurachi M. Role of glutamate transporters in the modulation of stress-induced lactate metabolism in the rat brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;195:297-302 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that glutamate transporters regulate lactate availability in astrocytes and indicate that the rapid energy demand induced by glutamate contributes to local lactate production. ..
  35. Lee M, Martinez Lozada Z, Krizman E, Robinson M. Brain endothelial cells induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by a Notch-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2017;143:489-506 pubmed publisher
    Neuron-secreted factors induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2)...
  36. Matott M, Kline D, Hasser E. Glial EAAT2 regulation of extracellular nTS glutamate critically controls neuronal activity and cardiorespiratory reflexes. J Physiol. 2017;595:6045-6063 pubmed publisher
    b>Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is present on astrocytes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), an important nucleus in cardiorespiratory control...
  37. Bellesi M, Conti F. The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 blocks the effects of GLT-1 upregulation on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in adult rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1253-60 pubmed publisher
    The main glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and contributes to the shaping of glutamatergic transmission...
  38. Yan H, Li C, Li Y, Gong Z. [Effect of spinal glutamate transporter 1 on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve and morphine tolerance of rats]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009;44:581-5 pubmed
    In order to investigate the role of spinal glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in the neuropathic pain and morphine tolerance, rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve was performed, and the mechanical allodynia was evaluated ..
  39. Yernool D, Boudker O, Jin Y, Gouaux E. Structure of a glutamate transporter homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii. Nature. 2004;431:811-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that transport of glutamate is achieved by movements of the hairpins that allow alternating access to either side of the membrane...
  40. Cao M, Zhang M, Zhang L, Gong J, Liang C, Li W. Up-regulation of neuronal and astrocytic GLT-1 mRNA in the hippocampal CA1 subfield during the induction of brain ischemic tolerance in rats. Arch Ital Biol. 2013;151:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..that 3-min cerebral ischemic preconditioning (CIP) up-regulated the expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) protein, which protects pyramidal neurons, allowing them to survive an 8-min ischemic insult that usually ..
  41. Zhang X, Jia N, Zhao X, Tang G, Guan L, Wang D, et al. Involvement of pGluR1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in offspring depression induced by prenatal stress. Neuroscience. 2013;250:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..acid receptor (AMPAR), the Na+-dependent glutamate transporters excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and EAAT3 in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex of 1-month-old rat offspring ..
  42. Autry A, Grillo C, Piroli G, Rothstein J, McEwen B, Reagan L. Glucocorticoid regulation of GLT-1 glutamate transporter isoform expression in the rat hippocampus. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;83:371-9 pubmed
    In the rat hippocampus, the predominate glutamate transporters are GLT-1 and its recently identified isoform, GLT-1b...
  43. Fan M, Fernandes H, Zhang L, Hayden M, Raymond L. Altered NMDA receptor trafficking in a yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3768-79 pubmed
    ..This polyQ length-dependent, neuronal-specific change in NMDAR activity induced by mhtt may contribute to selective neuronal degeneration in HD. ..
  44. Ouyang Y, Voloboueva L, Xu L, Giffard R. Selective dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 astrocytes contributes to delayed neuronal damage after transient forebrain ischemia. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4253-60 pubmed
    ..CA1 astrocytes lose glutamate transport activity and immunoreactivity for GFAP, S100beta, and glutamate transporter GLT-1 within a few hours of reperfusion, but without astrocyte cell death...
  45. Jiménez E, Núñez E, Ibáñez I, Draffin J, Zafra F, Giménez C. Differential regulation of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST by GSK3β. Neurochem Int. 2014;79:33-43 pubmed publisher
    The glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 are mainly expressed in glial cells and regulate glutamate levels in the synapses. GLAST and GLT-1 are the targets of several signaling pathways...
  46. Sogaard R, Borre L, Braunstein T, Madsen K, MacAulay N. Functional modulation of the glutamate transporter variant GLT1b by the PDZ domain protein PICK1. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20195-207 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be particularly relevant in pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral hypoxia, which are associated with neuronal GLT1b up-regulation. ..
  47. Herard A, Dubois A, Escartin C, Tanaka K, Delzescaux T, Hantraye P, et al. Decreased metabolic response to visual stimulation in the superior colliculus of mice lacking the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1807-11 pubmed
    ..the superior colliculus during visual stimulation in young adult mice deficient in the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1. A similar reduction was not observed in the glial glutamate transporter GLAST-knockout mice...
  48. Stenovec M, Kreft M, Grilc S, Pangrsic T, Zorec R. EAAT2 density at the astrocyte plasma membrane and Ca(2 + )-regulated exocytosis. Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..transporter density in cultured astrocytes, in which the expression of a fluorescently labeled excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2-EGFP) predominantly labeled the plasma membrane...
  49. Wang W, Wang W, Wang Y, Huang J, Wu S, Li Y. Temporal changes of astrocyte activation and glutamate transporter-1 expression in the spinal cord after spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:513-8 pubmed publisher
    Astrocyte activation is involved in the neuropathic pain. As a glutamate scavenger, the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is exclusively expressed on the astrocytes and probably correlates with astrocyte activation...
  50. Romera C, Hurtado O, Mallolas J, Pereira M, Morales J, Romera A, et al. Ischemic preconditioning reveals that GLT1/EAAT2 glutamate transporter is a novel PPARgamma target gene involved in neuroprotection. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27:1327-38 pubmed
    ..Glutamate transport, mainly by glutamate transporter GLT1/EAAT2, is the only mechanism for maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels in the ..
  51. Lee E, Sidoryk Wegrzynowicz M, Wang N, Webb A, Son D, Lee K, et al. GPR30 regulates glutamate transporter GLT-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that E2 increases astrocytic expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which would prevent excitotoxic-induced neuronal death, we proposed that GPR30 mediates E2 action on GLT-1 ..
  52. Krzyżanowska W, Pomierny B, Bystrowska B, Pomierny Chamioło L, Filip M, Budziszewska B, et al. Ceftriaxone- and N-acetylcysteine-induced brain tolerance to ischemia: Influence on glutamate levels in focal cerebral ischemia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186243 pubmed publisher
    ..In the brain, Glu concentrations are regulated by Glu transporters, including Glu transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/Glu antiporter (system xc-)...
  53. Bette S, Unger T, Lakowa N, Friedrich M, Engele J. Sequences of the non-coding RNA, NTAB, are contained within the 3'-UTR of human and rat EAAT2/GLT-1 transcripts and act as transcriptional enhancers. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate is predominantly cleared by astroglial cells through the high-affinity glutamate transporter subtype, EAAT2/GLT-1...
  54. Tozaki H, Kanno T, Nomura T, Kondoh T, Kodama N, Saito N, et al. Role of glial glutamate transporters in the facilitatory action of FK960 on hippocampal neurotransmission. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;97:7-12 pubmed
    ..FK960 inhibited responses of the glial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and a similar effect was found with cultured rat astrocytes...
  55. Yi J, Pow D, Hazell A. Early loss of the glutamate transporter splice-variant GLT-1v in rat cerebral cortex following lateral fluid-percussion injury. Glia. 2005;49:121-33 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the effects of lateral fluid percussion on the levels of the glutamate transporter proteins GLT-1alpha, its splice variant GLT-1v, GLAST, and EAAC1 in the rat in order to evaluate their pathogenetic role in this ..
  56. Vallejo Illarramendi A, Torres Ramos M, Melone M, Conti F, Matute C. Clozapine reduces GLT-1 expression and glutamate uptake in astrocyte cultures. Glia. 2005;50:276-9 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that clozapine-induced reduction of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression is mediated by astrocytes, we studied the effects of clozapine on Glu transporters and Glu uptake in primary astrocyte cultures of the ..
  57. Gendreau S, Voswinkel S, Torres Salazar D, Lang N, Heidtmann H, Detro Dassen S, et al. A trimeric quaternary structure is conserved in bacterial and human glutamate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39505-12 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that an evolutionarily conserved trimeric quaternary structure represents the sole native and functional state of glutamate transporters. ..
  58. Al Awabdh S, Gupta Agarwal S, Sheehan D, Muir J, Norkett R, Twelvetrees A, et al. Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures. Glia. 2016;64:1252-64 pubmed publisher
    The astrocytic GLT-1 (or EAAT2) is the major glutamate transporter for clearing synaptic glutamate...
  59. Zhang M, Gong J, Wang J, Jiang M, Li L, Hu Y, et al. p38 MAPK Participates in the Mediation of GLT-1 Up-regulation During the Induction of Brain Ischemic Tolerance by Cerebral Ischemic Preconditioning. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:58-71 pubmed publisher
    Our previous study has proved that the up-regulation of glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) played an important role in the acquisition of brain ischemic tolerance after cerebral ischemic preconditioning (CIP) in rats...
  60. Lehmann C, Bette S, Engele J. High extracellular glutamate modulates expression of glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase in cultured astrocytes. Brain Res. 2009;1297:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Astroglial cells clear extracellular glutamate through the glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, and subsequently convert the incorporated glutamate into glutamine by the enzyme, glutamine synthetase (GS)...
  61. Krzyżanowska W, Pomierny B, Budziszewska B, Filip M, Pera J. N-Acetylcysteine and Ceftriaxone as Preconditioning Strategies in Focal Brain Ischemia: Influence on Glutamate Transporters Expression. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..drugs on brain infarct volume, neurological deficits and the mRNA and protein expression of the Glu transporter-1 (GLT-1) and xc- with the effects of ischemic preconditioning and chemical preconditioning using 3-nitropropionic acid...
  62. Zschocke J, Bayatti N, Behl C. Caveolin and GLT-1 gene expression is reciprocally regulated in primary astrocytes: association of GLT-1 with non-caveolar lipid rafts. Glia. 2005;49:275-87 pubmed cAMP or TGF-alpha coincided with reciprocal and brain-region specific changes in glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 expression...
  63. Sakurai M, Kurokawa H, Shimada A, Nakamura K, Miyata H, Morita T. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat. Neuropathology. 2015;35:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial ..
  64. Matos Ocasio F, Hernández López A, Thompson K. Ceftriaxone, a GLT-1 transporter activator, disrupts hippocampal learning in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014;122:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..shown that the ?-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (Rocephin) induces an up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1...
  65. Fujio M, Nakagawa T, Sekiya Y, Ozawa T, Suzuki Y, Minami M, et al. Gene transfer of GLT-1, a glutamate transporter, into the nucleus accumbens shell attenuates methamphetamine- and morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2744-54 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the effects of gene transfer of a glial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, into the NAc shell by recombinant adenoviruses on methamphetamine- and morphine-induced conditioned place ..
  66. Xiao L, Lan A, Mo L, Xu W, Jiang N, Hu F, et al. Hydrogen sulfide protects PC12 cells against reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mediated downregulation of glutamate transporter-1 expression induced by chemical hypoxia. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in the protection of H2S against chemical hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells...
  67. Yamada T, Kawahara K, Kosugi T, Tanaka M. Nitric oxide produced during sublethal ischemia is crucial for the preconditioning-induced down-regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 in neuron/astrocyte co-cultures. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:49-56 pubmed
    ..of glutamate during ischemia caused by the reversed uptake of glutamate (Glu) by the astrocytic Glu transporter GLT-1 was markedly suppressed by the prior PC treatment, but the suppression was reversed by treatment with an ..
  68. Bragina L, Melone M, Fattorini G, Torres Ramos M, Vallejo Illarramendi A, Matute C, et al. GLT-1 down-regulation induced by clozapine in rat frontal cortex is associated with synaptophysin up-regulation. J Neurochem. 2006;99:134-41 pubmed the expression of synaptophysin, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), three major presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release...
  69. Xie B, Jiao Q, Cheng Y, Zhong Y, Shen X. Effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor on glutamate uptake in retinal Muller cells under high-glucose conditions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:1023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that PEDF acts as an antioxidative agent against the decrease in Kir4.1 and GLAST expression and compromise of glutamate uptake activity in retinal Müller cells in diabetic conditions. ..
  70. Nakagawa T, Otsubo Y, Yatani Y, Shirakawa H, Kaneko S. Mechanisms of substrate transport-induced clustering of a glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 in astroglial-neuronal cultures. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1719-30 pubmed publisher
    Glutamate uptake by the Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter GLT-1, which is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, is crucial for regulating glutamate concentration at the synaptic cleft and achieving proper excitatory ..
  71. Liu J, Zeng Y, You C, Yang Z. Analysis of the Expressions of TrkB and GLT-1 in Brain Tissues on a Rat Pentylenetetrazol Kindling Model of Chronic Epilepsy. Turk Neurosurg. 2016;26:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although studies have shown that BDNF promotes the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in the glial cells during neurodegeneration, evidence is lacking regarding whether BDNF/TrkB pathway is ..
  72. Melone M, Bellesi M, Conti F. Synaptic localization of GLT-1a in the rat somatic sensory cortex. Glia. 2009;57:108-17 pubmed publisher
    b>GLT-1a, the major glutamate transporter, plays an important role in both physiological and pathological conditions...
  73. Foran E, Rosenblum L, Bogush A, Pasinelli P, Trotti D. Sumoylation of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 governs its intracellular compartmentalization. Glia. 2014;62:1241-53 pubmed publisher
    b>EAAT2 is a predominantly astroglial glutamate transporter responsible for the majority of synaptic glutamate clearance in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)...
  74. Chen J, Yao L, Xu B, Qian K, Wang H, Liu Z, et al. Glutamate transporter 1-mediated antidepressant-like effect in a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014;34:838-844 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, more attention has been paid to the role of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1, EAAT2) in major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  75. Morgun A, Kuvacheva N, Khilazheva E, Taranushenko T, Salmina A. Expression of Glutamate and Glutamine Transporter Proteins in Neurovascular Unit Cells In Vitro. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015;159:614-6 pubmed publisher
    Glutamine transporter protein SLC1A5 and glutamate transporter protein EAAT2 responsible for cell-cell communication and energetic coupling were studied using in vitro model of multicellular neurovascular unit consisting of astrocytes, ..
  76. Gong H, Zheng F, Zhang C, Chen X, Liu J, Yue X. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2016;38:943-50 pubmed publisher the IBI group compared with the control group, accompanied by a decrease in glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT?1) expression as determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis...
  77. Odeon M, Andreu M, Yamauchi L, Grosman M, Acosta G. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats. Stress. 2015;18:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels...
  78. Domercq M, Etxebarria E, Perez Samartin A, Matute C. Excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and axonal damage induced by glutamate transporter inhibition. Glia. 2005;52:36-46 pubmed
    ..The present study describes the expression of functional glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in oligodendrocytes by means of electrophysiology, uptake assays, and immunocytochemistry...
  79. Arzberger T, Krampfl K, Leimgruber S, Weindl A. Changes of NMDA receptor subunit (NR1, NR2B) and glutamate transporter (GLT1) mRNA expression in Huntington's disease--an in situ hybridization study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997;56:440-54 pubmed
    ..A concomitant proliferation of astrocytes with GLT1 transcripts may represent a compensatory mechanism protecting neostriatal neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity...
  80. Zhang Y, Pines G, Kanner B. Histidine 326 is critical for the function of GLT-1, a (Na+ + K+)-coupled glutamate transporter from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:19573-7 pubmed
    ..One of these transporters, GLT-1, contains 573 amino acids and 6-10 putative membrane-spanning alpha-helices...
  81. Abousaab A, Warsi J, Elvira B, Lang F. Caveolin-1 Sensitivity of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3, and EAAT4. J Membr Biol. 2016;249:239-49 pubmed publisher
    Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 (SLC1A3), EAAT2 (SLC1A2), EAAT3 (SLC1A1), and EAAT4 (SLC1A6) serve to clear L-glutamate from the synaptic cleft and are thus important for the limitation of neuronal excitation...