Slc18a2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Slc18a2
Description: solute carrier family 18 member A2
Alias: MNAT, VMAT-2, VMAT2, synaptic vesicular amine transporter, Solute carrier family 18 A2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2), VAT2, monoamine transporter, solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 2, solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 2, solute carrier family 18 member 2, vesicular amine transporter 2
Species: rat
Products:     Slc18a2

Top Publications

  1. Midde N, Gomez A, Zhu J. HIV-1 Tat protein decreases dopamine transporter cell surface expression and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function in rat striatal synaptosomes. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:629-39 pubmed publisher
    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) proteins interact as a biochemical complex to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission...
  2. Gao Y, Liu L, Li X, Song Y, Zhang Y, Zhu J. The predominant distribution of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in the ? cells and ? cells, not ? cells, in rat islets. Pancreas. 2011;40:1149-51 pubmed publisher
  3. Tillinger A, Sollas A, Serova L, Kvetnansky R, Sabban E. Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) in adrenal chromaffin cells: stress-triggered induction of VMAT2 and expression in epinephrine synthesizing cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two VMAT isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, encoded by separate genes and displaying different cellular distributions and pharmacological properties...
  4. Kumar A, Ahmad I, Shukla S, Singh B, Patel D, Pandey H, et al. Effect of zinc and paraquat co-exposure on neurodegeneration: Modulation of oxidative stress and expression of metallothioneins, toxicant responsive and transporter genes in rats. Free Radic Res. 2010;44:950-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) are also documented in PD...
  5. Jovanovic P, Spasojevic N, Stefanovic B, Dronjak S. Differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and transporters in the right and left stellate ganglion of socially isolated rats. Auton Neurosci. 2014;181:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TH) and neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the right stellate ganglia, while vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) level remained unchanged...
  6. Raffo A, Hancock K, Polito T, Xie Y, Andan G, Witkowski P, et al. Role of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in rodent insulin secretion and glucose metabolism revealed by its specific antagonist tetrabenazine. J Endocrinol. 2008;198:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One shared gene product, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2, also known as SLC18A2), is highly expressed in human beta-cells relative to other cells in ..
  7. Riezzo I, Cerretani D, Fiore C, Bello S, Centini F, D Errico S, et al. Enzymatic-nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense systems response and immunohistochemical detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and apoptosis as biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong positive reaction to the antivesicular monoamine transporter 2 was observed in the frontal section, in the basal ganglia and thalamus...
  8. Glatt C, Wahner A, White D, Ruiz Linares A, Ritz B. Gain-of-function haplotypes in the vesicular monoamine transporter promoter are protective for Parkinson disease in women. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:299-305 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter can protect against toxins that induce an acute parkinsonian syndrome...
  9. Ugolev Y, Segal T, Yaffe D, Gros Y, Schuldiner S. Identification of conformationally sensitive residues essential for inhibition of vesicular monoamine transport by the noncompetitive inhibitor tetrabenazine. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32160-71 pubmed publisher
    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) transports monoamines into storage vesicles in a process that involves exchange of the charged monoamine with two protons...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Cruz Muros I, Afonso Oramas D, Abreu P, Rodriguez M, Gonzalez M, Gonzalez Hernandez T. Deglycosylation and subcellular redistribution of VMAT2 in the mesostriatal system during normal aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:1702-11 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein responsible for the vesicular monoamine uptake in the brain...
  2. Liu D, Bi Y, Liu Z, Liu H, Li Z. The expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Brain Res Bull. 2014;100:93-106 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and play an important role in packing the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles...
  3. Fukui M, Rodriguiz R, Zhou J, Jiang S, Phillips L, Caron M, et al. Vmat2 heterozygous mutant mice display a depressive-like phenotype. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10520-9 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is localized primarily within the CNS and is responsible for transporting monoamines from the cytoplasm into secretory vesicles...
  4. Souza F, Simpson N, Raffo A, Saxena C, Maffei A, Hardy M, et al. Longitudinal noninvasive PET-based beta cell mass estimates in a spontaneous diabetes rat model. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1506-13 pubmed
    ..Type 2 vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT2) are expressed in human islet beta cells, as well as in tissues of the CNS...
  5. Iritani S, Tohgi M, Arai T, Ikeda K. Immunohistochemical study of the serotonergic neuronal system in an animal model of the mood disorder. Exp Neurol. 2006;201:60-5 pubmed
    ..To elucidate these issues, we immunohistochemically examined vesicle monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), serotonin receptor type 1a (5HT1a), and serotonin transporter (5HTT) in the hippocampal region ..
  6. Yasumoto S, Tamura K, Karasawa J, Hasegawa R, Ikeda K, Yamamoto T, et al. Inhibitory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Neurosci Lett. 2009;454:229-32 pubmed publisher
    The neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is the target molecule of action of some psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)...
  7. Zucker M, Weizman A, Rehavi M. Repeated swim stress leads to down-regulation of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in rat brain nucleus accumbens and striatum. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15:199-201 pubmed
    We assessed the impact of chronic swim stress in rats (daily for 3 weeks) on vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the nucleus accumbens and striatum...
  8. Cartier E, Parra L, Baust T, Quiroz M, Salazar G, Faundez V, et al. A biochemical and functional protein complex involving dopamine synthesis and transport into synaptic vesicles. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In the brain, the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT(2)) is responsible for the loading of dopamine (DA) and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles...
  9. Northrop N, Smith L, Yamamoto B, Eyerman D. Regulation of glutamate release by ?7 nicotinic receptors: differential role in methamphetamine-induced damage to dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:900-7 pubmed publisher
    ..terminals, including DA reuptake transporter (DAT), serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter-2, vesicular DA, and vesicular 5-HT content in the rat striatum, were measured...
  10. Spasojevic N, Stanisavljevic D, Gavrilovic L, Jovanovic P, Cucakovic A, Dronjak S. Hippocampal asymmetry in expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme and transporters in socially isolated rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012;33:631-5 pubmed
    ..changes in protein levels of dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2) in the right and left hippocampus of socially isolated adult male rats during 12 weeks by ..
  11. Adam Y, Edwards R, Schuldiner S. Expression and function of the rat vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C1004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we present the high-level expression of rat VMAT2 (rVMAT2) in a stable a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293), generated using the resistance to the neurotoxin ..
  12. Jovanovic P, Spasojevic N, Stefanovic B, Bozovic N, Jasnic N, Djordjevic J, et al. Peripheral oxytocin treatment affects the rat adreno-medullary catecholamine content modulating expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Peptides. 2014;51:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..content and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), norepinephrine transporter (NET) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in the adrenal medulla. Our results show a significant increase of epinephrine (1.7-fold, p<0...
  13. Yaffe D, Radestock S, Shuster Y, Forrest L, Schuldiner S. Identification of molecular hinge points mediating alternating access in the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1332-41 pubmed publisher
    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) catalyzes transport of monoamines into storage vesicles in a process that involves exchange of the charged monoamine with two protons...
  14. Schwartz K, Yadid G, Weizman A, Rehavi M. Decreased limbic vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in a genetic rat model of depression. Brain Res. 2003;965:174-9 pubmed
    ..We studied the expression of the brain-type vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) in the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, which represent a genetic animal model for clinical ..
  15. Wang L, Kang Y, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Cui R, Yan W, et al. Deficits in coordinated motor behavior and in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system ameliorated and VMAT2 expression up-regulated in aged male rats by administration of testosterone propionate. Exp Gerontol. 2016;78:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..motor behavioral deficits, the reduced activity of NSDA system and the decreased expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in 24 month-old male rats...
  16. Dimaline R, Struthers J. Expression and regulation of a vesicular monoamine transporter in rat stomach: a putative histamine transporter. J Physiol. 1996;490 ( Pt 1):249-56 pubmed
    ..cloning using oligonucleotide primers to DNA sequences conserved within the VMAT family provided evidence for VMAT2, but not VMAT1 in rat gastric corpus...
  17. Pan X, Guo X, Xiong F, Cheng G, Lu Q, Yan H. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system. Toxicol Lett. 2015;236:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum...
  18. Lambrecht N, Yakubov I, Sachs G. Fasting-induced changes in ECL cell gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2007;31:183-92 pubmed
    ..significantly decreased expression of the cellular L-histidine uptake transporter SN2 and of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) responsible for histamine uptake into secretory vesicles...
  19. Takahashi N, Miner L, Sora I, Ujike H, Revay R, Kostic V, et al. VMAT2 knockout mice: heterozygotes display reduced amphetamine-conditioned reward, enhanced amphetamine locomotion, and enhanced MPTP toxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9938-43 pubmed
    The brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) pumps monoamine neurotransmitters and Parkinsonism-inducing dopamine neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-phenypyridinium (MPP+) from neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, from ..
  20. Mooslehner K, Chan P, Xu W, Liu L, Smadja C, Humby T, et al. Mice with very low expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene survive into adulthood: potential mouse model for parkinsonism. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5321-31 pubmed
    We have created a transgenic mouse with a hypomorphic allele of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (Vmat2) gene by gene targeting. These mice (KA1) have profound changes in monoamine metabolism and function and survive into adulthood...
  21. Lizarraga L, Cholanians A, Phan A, Herndon J, Lau S, Monks T. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and the acute and long-term response to 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Toxicol Sci. 2015;143:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is responsible for packaging monoamine neurotransmitters into cytosolic vesicles...
  22. Hong F, Liu L, Fan R, Chen Y, Chen H, Zheng R, et al. New perspectives of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 chemical characteristics in mammals and its constant expression in type 1 diabetes rat models. Transl Res. 2014;163:171-82 pubmed publisher
    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) has been exploited as a biomarker of ?-cell mass in human islets. However, a current report suggested no immunoreactivity of VMAT2 in the ? cells of rat islets...
  23. Gros Y, Schuldiner S. Directed evolution reveals hidden properties of VMAT, a neurotransmitter transporter. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5076-84 pubmed publisher
    The vesicular neurotransmitter transporter VMAT2 is responsible for the transport of monoamines into synaptic and storage vesicles. VMAT2 is the target of many psychoactive drugs and is essential for proper neurotransmission and survival...
  24. Bohnen N, Albin R, Koeppe R, Wernette K, Kilbourn M, Minoshima S, et al. Positron emission tomography of monoaminergic vesicular binding in aging and Parkinson disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:1198-212 pubmed
    The type-2 vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) might serve as an objective biomarker of Parkinson disease (PD) severity...
  25. Krantz D, Peter D, Liu Y, Edwards R. Phosphorylation of a vesicular monoamine transporter by casein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6752-9 pubmed
    ..One isoform occurs in the adrenal gland (VMAT1) and another in the brain (VMAT2). To assess their potential for regulation, we have investigated the phosphorylation of the VMATs...
  26. Alves S, Regulier E, Nascimento Ferreira I, Hassig R, Dufour N, Koeppen A, et al. Striatal and nigral pathology in a lentiviral rat model of Machado-Joseph disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of ubiquitinated ataxin-3 aggregates; alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity; and loss of dopaminergic markers (TH and VMAT2). No neuropathological changes were observed upon wild-type ataxin-3 overexpression...
  27. Nirenberg M, Liu Y, Peter D, Edwards R, Pickel V. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 is present in small synaptic vesicles and preferentially localizes to large dense core vesicles in rat solitary tract nuclei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8773-7 pubmed
    ..Recent molecular cloning techniques have identified the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) that is expressed in brain...
  28. Erickson J, Eiden L, Hoffman B. Expression cloning of a reserpine-sensitive vesicular monoamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10993-7 pubmed
    A cDNA for a rat vesicular monoamine transporter, designated MAT, was isolated by expression cloning in a mammalian cell line (CV-1). The cDNA sequence predicts a protein of 515 amino acids with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains...
  29. Onoa B, Li H, Gagnon Bartsch J, Elias L, Edwards R. Vesicular monoamine and glutamate transporters select distinct synaptic vesicle recycling pathways. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7917-27 pubmed publisher
    ..dopamine and serotonin neurons can also release glutamate in vitro and in vivo, we have used the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 and the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 to compare the localization and recycling of synaptic ..
  30. Minton G, Young A, McQuade R, Fairchild G, Ingram C, Gartside S. Profound changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex in response to flattening of the diurnal glucocorticoid rhythm: implications for bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:2265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ hybridization histochemistry showed that mRNAs coding tyrosine hydroxylase and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 were elevated in the VTA of corticosterone-treated rats...
  31. Gustafsson B, Bakke I, Hauso Ø, Kidd M, Modlin I, Fossmark R, et al. Parietal cell activation by arborization of ECL cell cytoplasmic projections is likely the mechanism for histamine induced secretion of hydrochloric acid. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole tissue samples of Sprague-Dawley and cotton rat oxyntic mucosa were investigated with IHC using HDC, VMAT2 and H+/K+-ATPase antibodies, and electron microscopy was performed to further delineate the precise anatomic ..
  32. Goland R, Freeby M, PARSEY R, Saisho Y, Kumar D, Simpson N, et al. 11C-dihydrotetrabenazine PET of the pancreas in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:382-9 pubmed publisher
    Type 2 vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), found in the brain, is also expressed by beta-cells of the pancreas in association with insulin...
  33. Volz T, Farnsworth S, Rowley S, Hanson G, Fleckenstein A. Age-dependent differences in dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function and their implications for methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Synapse. 2009;63:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..voltammetry and western blotting techniques to investigate whether there are age-dependent differences in monoamine transporter function in PND38-42 and PND88-92 rats that could contribute to this phenomenon...
  34. Brunk I, Blex C, Speidel D, Brose N, Ahnert Hilger G. Ca2+-dependent activator proteins of secretion promote vesicular monoamine uptake. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1050-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPS1 and CAPS2 promote monoamine uptake and storage mediated by the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and VMAT2. Monoamine uptake of vesicular preparations from embryonic brains of CAPS1 deletion mutants is decreased as ..
  35. Volz T, Farnsworth S, Hanson G, Fleckenstein A. Method development and validation of an in vitro model of the effects of methylphenidate on membrane-associated synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;177:177-82 pubmed publisher
    In vivo methylphenidate (MPD) administration decreases vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) immunoreactivity in membrane-associated vesicles isolated from the striata of treated rats while concurrently kinetically upregulating VMAT-..
  36. Volz T, Hanson G, Fleckenstein A. Kinetic analysis of developmental changes in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function. Synapse. 2006;60:474-7 pubmed
    The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) sequesters cytoplasmic dopamine (DA) into vesicles and may thus protect neurons from DA-associated oxidative damage...
  37. Brunk I, Blex C, Rachakonda S, Höltje M, Winter S, Pahner I, et al. The first luminal domain of vesicular monoamine transporters mediates G-protein-dependent regulation of transmitter uptake. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33373-85 pubmed
    ..We show here that no such regulation is observed when VMAT1 or VMAT2 are expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
  38. Maurel A, Spreux Varoquaux O, Amenta F, Tayebati S, Tomassoni D, Seguelas M, et al. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 mediates dopamine secretion in rat proximal tubular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1592-8 pubmed
    ..These data represent the first step toward the comprehension of the role of this transporter in renal dopamine handling and its involvement in pathological situations. ..
  39. Schäfer M, Hartwig N, Kalmbach N, Klietz M, Anlauf M, Eiden L, et al. Species-specific vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression in mammalian pancreatic beta cells: implications for optimising radioligand-based human beta cell mass (BCM) imaging in animal models. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1047-56 pubmed publisher
    Imaging of beta cell mass (BCM) is a major challenge in diabetes research. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is abundantly expressed in human beta cells...
  40. Liu Y, Peter D, Roghani A, Schuldiner S, Prive G, Eisenberg D, et al. A cDNA that suppresses MPP+ toxicity encodes a vesicular amine transporter. Cell. 1992;70:539-51 pubmed
    ..We have detected messenger RNA transcripts for this transporter only in the adrenal gland. Monoamine cell populations in the brain stem express a distinct but highly related protein. ..
  41. Sriram K, Lin G, Jefferson A, Roberts J, Chapman R, Chen B, et al. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to manganese-containing welding fumes. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:521-40 pubmed publisher
    ..both fumes caused persistent down-regulation of dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2; 30-40%) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (Vmat2; 30-55%) mRNAs in the midbrain...
  42. Requena D, Parra L, Baust T, Quiroz M, Leak R, Garcia Olivares J, et al. The molecular chaperone Hsc70 interacts with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. J Neurochem. 2009;110:581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is essential for loading monoamines into vesicles and maintaining normal neurotransmission...
  43. Farnsworth S, Volz T, Hanson G, Fleckenstein A. Cocaine alters vesicular dopamine sequestration and potassium-stimulated dopamine release: the role of D2 receptor activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;328:807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Cocaine administration also causes a redistribution of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)-2-containing vesicles that co-fractionate with synaptosomal membranes after osmotic lysis (referred ..
  44. Sevigny C, Bassi J, Teschemacher A, Kim K, Williams D, Anderson C, et al. C1 neurons in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla differentially express vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in soma and axonal compartments. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1536-44 pubmed publisher
    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) packages biogenic amines into large dense core and synaptic vesicles for either somatodendritic or synaptic release from neurons of the CNS...
  45. Eyerman D, Yamamoto B. A rapid oxidation and persistent decrease in the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 after methamphetamine. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1219-27 pubmed
    ..A decrease in the function of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) has been associated with damage to striatal DA terminals caused by METH; however, a possible ..
  46. Li H, Waites C, Staal R, Dobryy Y, Park J, Sulzer D, et al. Sorting of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 to the regulated secretory pathway confers the somatodendritic exocytosis of monoamines. Neuron. 2005;48:619-33 pubmed
    ..Because the location of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) defines the secretory vesicles capable of monoamine release, we have studied its trafficking to ..
  47. Lee W, Lee E, Jeon M, Kang H, Park Y. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene therapy prevents development of motor complications in parkinsonian rats after chronic intermittent L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine administration. Exp Neurol. 2006;197:215-24 pubmed
    ..The loss of presynaptic storage contributes to short duration of action by dopamine. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) controls intraneuronal dopamine storage by packaging dopamine into synaptic vesicles, thereby ..
  48. Kilbourn M, Kemmerer E, Desmond T, Sherman P, Frey K. Differential effects of scopolamine on in vivo binding of dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter radioligands in rat brain. Exp Neurol. 2004;188:387-90 pubmed
    ..for the dopamine transporter (DAT), and +-alpha-[3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, a radioligand for the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), were examined in rat brain with and without prior administration of 5 mg/kg scopolamine...
  49. Li X, Xu C, Deng J, Li L, Ma S, Qu R. Protective effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang (ZWT) through keeping DA stable and VMAT 2/DAT mRNA in balance in rats with striatal lesions induced by MPTP. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..rats by HPLC-ECD, mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2) of the above three brain regions was investigated...
  50. Jiang G, Cao Q, Li J, Zhang Y, Liu X, Wang Z, et al. Altered expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in epileptic patients and experimental rats. Synapse. 2013;67:415-26 pubmed publisher
    In the central nervous system (CNS), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) transports cytoplasmic monoamines such as dopamine into synaptic vesicles for storage and subsequent exocytotic release...
  51. Headley D, Suhan N, Horn J. Different subcellular distributions of the vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, in subclasses of sympathetic neurons. Brain Res. 2007;1129:156-60 pubmed
    ..superior cervical ganglion (SCG) was found to lack immunostaining for VMAT2, an isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter that loads catecholamines into vesicles for release at the synapse...
  52. Choi W, Kim H, Xia Z. JNK inhibition of VMAT2 contributes to rotenone-induced oxidative stress and dopamine neuron death. Toxicology. 2015;328:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, rotenone inhibits VMAT2 activity but not VMAT2 protein levels...
  53. Yaffe D, Vergara Jaque A, Forrest L, Schuldiner S. Emulating proton-induced conformational changes in the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 by mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E7390-E7398 pubmed
    ..Vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), a member of the largest superfamily of transporters, mediates transport of monoamines to synaptic ..