S100b

Summary

Gene Symbol: S100b
Description: S100 calcium binding protein B
Alias: S100P, protein S100-B, S-100 protein beta chain, S-100 protein subunit beta, S100 calcium-binding protein, beta (neural), S100 protein, beta polypeptide, neural
Species: rat
Products:     S100b

Top Publications

  1. Ostendorp T, Leclerc E, Galichet A, Koch M, Demling N, Weigle B, et al. Structural and functional insights into RAGE activation by multimeric S100B. EMBO J. 2007;26:3868-78 pubmed
    ..The EF-hand protein S100B is highly expressed in human brain...
  2. Quincozes Santos A, Rosa R, Leipnitz G, de Souza D, Seminotti B, Wajner M, et al. Induction of S100B secretion in C6 astroglial cells by the major metabolites accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I. Metab Brain Dis. 2010;25:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of GA I patients, in the present study we investigated the effects of GA and 3OHGA on glial activity determined by S100B release by rat C6-glioma cells...
  3. Nardin P, Tramontina F, Leite M, Tramontina A, Quincozes Santos A, de Almeida L, et al. S100B content and secretion decrease in astrocytes cultured in high-glucose medium. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:774-82 pubmed
    b>S100B is an astrocyte calcium-binding protein that plays a regulatory role in the cytoskeleton and cell cycle...
  4. Büyükuysal R. Protein S100B release from rat brain slices during and after ischemia: comparison with lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Neurochem Int. 2005;47:580-8 pubmed
    One hour of ischemia significantly increased protein S100B release from rat brain slices without altering lactate dehydrogenase leakage...
  5. Tramontina F, Tramontina A, Souza D, Leite M, Gottfried C, Souza D, et al. Glutamate uptake is stimulated by extracellular S100B in hippocampal astrocytes. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006;26:81-6 pubmed
    1.S100B is a calcium-binding protein expressed and secreted by astrocytes, which has been implicated in glial-neuronal communication. Extracellular S100B appears to protect hippocampal neurons against toxic concentrations of glutamate...
  6. Arcuri C, Bianchi R, Brozzi F, Donato R. S100B increases proliferation in PC12 neuronal cells and reduces their responsiveness to nerve growth factor via Akt activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4402-14 pubmed
    b>S100B is a Ca2+-modulated protein of the EF-hand type expressed in high abundance in a restricted set of cell types including certain neuronal populations...
  7. Sorci G, Giovannini G, Riuzzi F, Bonifazi P, Zelante T, Zagarella S, et al. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001315 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation...
  8. Mori T, Koyama N, Arendash G, Horikoshi Sakuraba Y, Tan J, Town T. Overexpression of human S100B exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and gliosis in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Glia. 2010;58:300-14 pubmed publisher
    ..One such molecule, S100B, is highly expressed by reactive astrocytes in close vicinity of beta-amyloid deposits...
  9. Oses J, Leke R, Portela L, Lara D, Schmidt A, Casali E, et al. Biochemical brain markers and purinergic parameters in rat CSF after seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:237-42 pubmed
    ..evaluated astrocyte and/or neuronal injury in rats in the pentylenetetrazol model of acute seizures by measuring S100B and NSE levels in cerebrospinal fluid...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Cai X, Lu L, Wang Y, Jin C, Zhang R, Zhang Q, et al. Association of increased S100B, S100A6 and S100P in serum levels with acute coronary syndrome and also with the severity of myocardial infarction in cardiac tissue of rat models with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:536-42 pubmed publisher
    We aim to check if serum levels of receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) ligands S100B, S100A6 and S100P were related to myocardial injury in acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
  2. Mazzini G, Schaf D, Vinadé E, Horowitz E, Bruch R, Brunm L, et al. Increased S100B serum levels in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. J Card Fail. 2007;13:850-4 pubmed
    The S100B protein is considered a biochemical marker for brain injuries. However, our group demonstrated that the isolated rat heart releases S100B...
  3. Ellis E, Willoughby K, Sparks S, Chen T. S100B protein is released from rat neonatal neurons, astrocytes, and microglia by in vitro trauma and anti-S100 increases trauma-induced delayed neuronal injury and negates the protective effect of exogenous S100B on neurons. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1463-70 pubmed
    b>S100B protein is found in brain, has been used as a marker for brain injury and is neurotrophic...
  4. Baydas G, Reiter R, Yasar A, Tuzcu M, Akdemir I, Nedzvetskii V. Melatonin reduces glial reactivity in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:797-804 pubmed
    ..Key indicators of this response are increased synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B, both astrocytic markers...
  5. Hsieh H, Schafer B, Weigle B, Heizmann C. S100 protein translocation in response to extracellular S100 is mediated by receptor for advanced glycation endproducts in human endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:949-59 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest a common cell surface receptor for S100 proteins on endothelial cells even though intracellular translocation induced by extracellular S100 proteins is specific. ..
  6. Hachem S, Aguirre A, Vives V, Marks A, Gallo V, Legraverend C. Spatial and temporal expression of S100B in cells of oligodendrocyte lineage. Glia. 2005;51:81-97 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to address an enduring discrepancy between several reported cases of S100B immunodetection in CNS myelin and myelinating OLs on the one hand, and the systematic use of the S100B protein as ..
  7. Adami C, Sorci G, Blasi E, Agneletti A, Bistoni F, Donato R. S100B expression in and effects on microglia. Glia. 2001;33:131-42 pubmed
    We evaluated the intracellular and extracellular biological role of S100B protein with respect to microglia...
  8. Tanga F, Raghavendra V, Nutile McMenemy N, Marks A, DeLeo J. Role of astrocytic S100beta in behavioral hypersensitivity in rodent models of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2006;140:1003-10 pubmed
    ..Together, these results from both series of experiments using a peripheral nerve injury model in two different species implicate the involvement of glial-derived S100beta in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. ..
  9. Smith S, Shaw G. A novel calcium-sensitive switch revealed by the structure of human S100B in the calcium-bound form. Structure. 1998;6:211-22 pubmed
    b>S100B is a homodimeric member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein superfamily...
  10. Lisachev P, Pustyl nik V, Shtark M. [Regulation of S100B expression during long term potentiation]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2014;100:953-63 pubmed
    In this study, contributions of intracellular regulatory cascades in the induction of S100B expression in rat hippocampal CA1 area during long term posttetanic potentiation (LTP) were estimated...
  11. Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, Scuderi C, et al. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation affords neuroprotection in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating S100B up-regulation in vitro. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:1379-92 pubmed
    In this study, we investigated the mechanism of S100B neurotoxicity and the effect of cannabinoids, in C6 cells treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and co-cultured with differentiated PC12 cells...
  12. Wang Z, Chai R, Yang W, Liu Y, Qin H, Wu H, et al. ApoE and S-100 expression and its significance in the brain tissue of rats with focal contusion. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:19275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that the expression of ApoE and S-100 correlated with the progression of focal cerebral contusion. This suggests that both proteins may serve as effective biomarkers of focal cerebral contusions. ..
  13. Sokolova O, Shtark M, Lisachev P, Pustylnyak V, Pan I, Epstein O. Expression of S100B and S100A6 genes during long-term posttetanic potentiation in the hippocampus. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;148:227-9 pubmed
    The expression of S100B and S100A6 mRNA in CA1 region of rat hippocampal sections was studied after tetanizing stimulation...
  14. Nishiyama H, Knopfel T, Endo S, Itohara S. Glial protein S100B modulates long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4037-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that calcium-binding protein S100B, which is synthesized in considerable amounts in astrocytes (a major glial cell subtype), modulates long-term ..
  15. Ye Y, Wang G, Wang H, Wang X. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion restored astrocytic plasticity in the hippocampus of a rat model of depression. Neurosci Lett. 2011;503:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..produced decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and increased s100 calcium binding protein b (s100b) expression in rat hippocampus, which were partially rescued by BDNF administration...
  16. Filipek A, Jastrzebska B, Nowotny M, Kuznicki J. CacyBP/SIP, a calcyclin and Siah-1-interacting protein, binds EF-hand proteins of the S100 family. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28848-52 pubmed
    ..CacyBP/SIP affinity chromatography, we found that this protein binds purified S100A1, S100A6, S100A12, S100B, and S100P but not S100A4, calbindin D(9k), parvalbumin, and calmodulin...
  17. Gazzolo D, Grutzfeld D, Michetti F, Toesca A, Lituania M, Bruschettini M, et al. Increased S100B in cerebrospinal fluid of infants with bacterial meningitis: relationship to brain damage and routine cerebrospinal fluid findings. Clin Chem. 2004;50:941-4 pubmed
  18. Hamed S, Hamed E, Abdella M. Septic encephalopathy: relationship to serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of adhesion molecules, lipid peroxides and S-100B protein. Neuropediatrics. 2009;40:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum from 25 normal children was used for comparison. Serum values of sICAM-1, NO, LPO and S100B were elevated in patients compared to controls...
  19. Petzold A, Groves M, Leis A, Scaravilli F, Stokic D. Neuronal and glial cerebrospinal fluid protein biomarkers are elevated after West Nile virus infection. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF levels of neuronal (neurofilaments, NfH-SMI35) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, S100B) biomarkers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
  20. Drohat A, Amburgey J, Abildgaard F, Starich M, Baldisseri D, Weber D. Solution structure of rat apo-S100B(beta beta) as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1996;35:11577-88 pubmed
    b>S100B(beta beta), a member of the S100 protein family, is a Ca(2+)-binding protein with noncovalent interactions at its dimer interface...
  21. Tanaka Y, Marumo T, Shibuta H, Omura T, Yoshida S. Serum S100B, brain edema, and hematoma formation in a rat model of collagenase-induced hemorrhagic stroke. Brain Res Bull. 2009;78:158-63 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B, a 21-kD Ca(2+) binding protein expressed in Schwann cells and astroglia, has often been reported as a promising biomarker for ischemic stroke...
  22. Son K, Son M, Ahn H, Oh S, Yum Y, Choi C, et al. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100?, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;477:271-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Huang P, Liu Y, Tuo Y, Zhang P, Ding C, Fang J, et al. [Time-dependent expression of astroglial S100beta following diffuse brain injury in rats]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006;22:4-6 pubmed
    ..The present study showed the time-dependent expression of S100beta is obvious following diffuse brain injury, and suggested S100beta be suitable as a marker for brain injury age determination. ..
  24. Tanaka Y, Marumo T, Omura T, Yoshida S. Early increases in serum S100B are associated with cerebral hemorrhage in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 2008;1227:248-54 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a 21-kD, Ca2+-binding protein that is mainly expressed in astroglial cells and Schwann cells in the nervous system...
  25. Luo K, Hong C, Liou Y, Hou S, Huang Y, Tsai S. Differential regulation of neurotrophin S100B and BDNF in two rat models of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have demonstrated that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are decreased and serum S100B levels are increased in patients with major depression...
  26. Muneoka K, Funahashi H, Ogawa T, Whitaker Azmitia P, Shioda S. Shared features of S100B immunohistochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the ventroposterior thalamus and lateral habenula in neonatal rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012;30:499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The glia-derived S100B protein plays a critical role in the development of the nervous system including the monoaminergic systems...
  27. Yao R, Lopez Beltran A, MacLennan G, Montironi R, Eble J, Cheng L. Expression of S100 protein family members in the pathogenesis of bladder tumors. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:3051-8 pubmed
    ..S100A5, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A14, S100A15, S100A16 and S100P, and underexpression of S100A1, S100A4 and S100B. S100A1, S10OA3, S100A8, S10A9, S100A14, S100A15 and S100A16 showed similar patterns of differential expression in ..
  28. Wear M, Cooper J. Capping protein binding to S100B: implications for the tentacle model for capping the actin filament barbed end. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14382-90 pubmed
    b>S100B binds tightly to a 12-amino acid peptide derived from heterodimeric capping protein. In native intact capping protein, this sequence is in the C terminus of the alpha-subunit, which is important for capping the actin filament...
  29. Fujii C, Tokuda T, Ishigami N, Mizuno T, Nakagawa M. Usefulness of serum S100B as a marker for the acute phase of aquaporin-4 autoimmune syndrome. Neurosci Lett. 2011;494:86-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we quantified the levels of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in CSF and serum samples simultaneously obtained in the acute phase ..
  30. Chadi G, Gomide V. FGF-2 and S100beta immunoreactivities increase in reactive astrocytes, but not in microglia, in ascending dopamine pathways following a striatal 6-OHDA-induced partial lesion of the nigrostriatal system. Cell Biol Int. 2004;28:849-61 pubmed
    ..Interactions between S100beta and FGF-2 may be relevant to neuronal maintenance and repair following dopamine injury. ..
  31. Chen L, Chen L, Lv Y, Cui Z, Bei G, Qin G, et al. Tetrandrine ameliorates cognitive impairment via inhibiting astrocyte-derived S100B activation in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurol Res. 2013;35:614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and its potential anti-inflammatory mechanism by modulating the expression of S100B, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (..
  32. Chohan G, Pennington C, MacKenzie J, Andrews M, Everington D, Will R, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 and other proteins in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK: a 10-year review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since that time, other CSF proteins, such as S100b and tau protein, have been proposed as surrogate markers for sCJD...
  33. Deloulme J, Assard N, Mbele G, Mangin C, Kuwano R, Baudier J. S100A6 and S100A11 are specific targets of the calcium- and zinc-binding S100B protein in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35302-10 pubmed
    In solution, S100B protein is a noncovalent homodimer composed of two subunits associated in an antiparallel manner...
  34. Funchal C, Tramontina F, Quincozes dos Santos A, Fraga de Souza D, Goncalves C, Pessoa Pureur R, et al. Effect of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease on S100B release from glial cells. J Neurol Sci. 2007;260:87-94 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the BCKA on S100B release from C6 glioma cells...
  35. Horiguchi K, Higuchi M, Yoshida S, Nakakura T, Tateno K, Hasegawa R, et al. Proton receptor GPR68 expression in dendritic-cell-like S100?-positive cells of rat anterior pituitary gland: GPR68 induces interleukin-6 gene expression in extracellular acidification. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:515-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, S100?-positive dendritic-like cells can sense an increase in extracellular protons via GPR68 and respond by the production of IL-6 in order to suppress the up-regulation of Pomc expression. ..
  36. González Quevedo A, García S, Concepción O, Freixas R, Sotolongo L, Menéndez M, et al. Increased serum S-100B and neuron specific enolase - Potential markers of early nervous system involvement in essential hypertension. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum S100B protein and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were determined by employing immunoassay kits from CanAg Diagnostics AB (..
  37. Tsoporis J, Marks A, Van Eldik L, O Hanlon D, Parker T. Regulation of the S100B gene by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H193-203 pubmed
    We previously reported that S100B, a 20-kDa Ca(2+)-binding homodimer, inhibited the postinfarct myocardial hypertrophic response mediated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation through the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway...
  38. de Senna P, Ilha J, Baptista P, do Nascimento P, Leite M, Paim M, et al. Effects of physical exercise on spatial memory and astroglial alterations in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2011;26:269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B in hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid were measured using ELISA assay, and hippocampal GFAP immunoreactivity was ..
  39. Aviles Reyes R, Angelo M, Villarreal A, Rios H, Lazarowski A, Ramos A. Intermittent hypoxia during sleep induces reactive gliosis and limited neuronal death in rats: implications for sleep apnea. J Neurochem. 2010;112:854-69 pubmed publisher
    ..and hypertrophy in parietal brain cortex and hippocampus by studying gliofibrillary acidic protein, Vimentin, S100B and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression...
  40. Shaw S, Schmidt A, Banes A, Wang X, Stern D, Marrero M. S100B-RAGE-mediated augmentation of angiotensin II-induced activation of JAK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells is dependent on PLD2. Diabetes. 2003;52:2381-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that S100B, a ligand for the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), augmented both Ang II-induced tyrosine ..
  41. Cunha C, Giovannini G, Pierini A, Bell A, Sorci G, Riuzzi F, et al. Genetically-determined hyperfunction of the S100B/RAGE axis is a risk factor for aspergillosis in stem cell transplant recipients. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27962 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence has established a pivotal role for a danger sensing mechanism implicating the S100B/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) axis in antifungal immunity...
  42. Petzold A, Eikelenboom M, Gveric D, Keir G, Chapman M, Lazeron R, et al. Markers for different glial cell responses in multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological correlations. Brain. 2002;125:1462-73 pubmed
    ..b>S100B, ferritin and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were quantified in CSF and brain-tissue homogenate by ELISA (..
  43. Maeda T, Usui H, Araki K, Kuwano R, Takahashi Y, Suzuki Y. Structure and expression of rat S-100 beta subunit gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1991;10:193-202 pubmed
    ..A factor protein that binds to the 100 bp DNA fragment containing the promoter sequence was specifically detected in the rat brain nuclear extract. ..
  44. Lee S, Kim C, Lee K, Choe J, Kim S, Oh J, et al. Elevated serum S100B levels in acute spinal fracture without head injury. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:209-12 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is a biomarker that reflects injury to the central nervous system...
  45. Farina M, Cereser V, Portela L, Mendez A, Porciuncula L, Fornaguera J, et al. Methylmercury increases S100B content in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005;19:249-53 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B, a calcium binding protein physiologically produced and released by astrocytes, has been used as a peripheral marker of brain damage...
  46. Willoughby K, Kleindienst A, Muller C, Chen T, Muir J, Ellis E. S100B protein is released by in vitro trauma and reduces delayed neuronal injury. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1284-91 pubmed
    b>S100B protein in brain is produced primarily by astrocytes, has been used as a marker for brain injury and has also been shown to be neurotrophic and neuroprotective...
  47. Tsoporis J, Izhar S, Leong Poi H, Desjardins J, Huttunen H, Parker T. S100B interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE): a novel receptor-mediated mechanism for myocyte apoptosis postinfarction. Circ Res. 2010;106:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..infarction ventricular remodeling is associated with the expression of a variety of factors including S100B that can potentially modulate myocyte apoptosis...
  48. Tanaka Y, Koizumi C, Marumo T, Omura T, Yoshida S. Serum S100B is a useful surrogate marker for long-term outcomes in photochemically-induced thrombotic stroke rat models. Life Sci. 2007;81:657-63 pubmed
    In recent years, serum S100B has been used as a secondary endpoint in some clinical trials, in which serum S100B has successfully indicated the benefits or harm done by the tested agents...
  49. Pelinka L, Bahrami S, Szalay L, Umar F, Redl H. Hemorrhagic shock induces an S 100 B increase associated with shock severity. Shock. 2003;19:422-6 pubmed
    ..The data presented demonstrate for the first time that the S 100 B increase is induced by hemorrhagic shock and is associated with the severity of shock. ..
  50. Gankam Kengne F, Nicaise C, Soupart A, Boom A, Schiettecatte J, Pochet R, et al. Astrocytes are an early target in osmotic demyelination syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1834-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of the astrocyte-oligodendrocyte network, rapidly upregulated inflammatory cytokines genes, and increased serum S100B, which predicted clinical manifestations and outcome of osmotic demyelination...
  51. Yilmaz N, Karaali K, Ozdem S, Turkay M, Unal A, Dora B. Elevated S100B and neuron specific enolase levels in patients with migraine-without aura: evidence for neurodegeneration?. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..possible neuronal and/or glial damage at the cellular level in migraine, we measured and compared serum levels of S100B which is a protein marker of glial damage or activation, and neuron specific enolase (NSE) which is a marker of ..
  52. Canzobre M, Rios H. Pulpar tooth injury induces plastic changes in S100B positive astroglial cells in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Neurosci Lett. 2010;470:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the relationship between this tooth injury and the S100B expression in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis...
  53. Drohat A, Tjandra N, Baldisseri D, Weber D. The use of dipolar couplings for determining the solution structure of rat apo-S100B(betabeta). Protein Sci. 1999;8:800-9 pubmed
    ..For apo-S100B(betabeta) and the structurally homologous protein calcyclin, the solution structures determined by conventional ..