Gene Symbol: S antigen
Description: S-antigen visual arrestin
Alias: SAGMR, SANTI, S-arrestin, 48 kDa protein, S-AG, S-antigen; retina and pineal gland (arrestin), retina and pineal gland (arrestin), retinal S-antigen, rod photoreceptor arrestin
Abe T, Shinohara T. S-antigen from the rat retina and pineal gland have identical sequences. Exp Eye Res. 1990;51:111-2 pubmed
Abe T, Yamaki K, Tsuda M, Singh V, Suzuki S, McKinnon R, et al
. Rat pineal S-antigen: sequence analysis reveals presence of alpha-transducin homologous sequence. FEBS Lett. 1989;247:307-11 pubmed
..These sequences may play a role in the action of pineal S-Ag in transmembrane signal transduction. ..
McKechnie N, Al Mahdawi S, Dutton G, Forrester J. Ultrastructural localization of retinal S antigen in the human retina. Exp Eye Res. 1986;42:479-87 pubmed
b>Retinal S antigen, a uveitogenic protein implicated in several forms of clinical and experimental uveoretinitis, has been localized by immunoelectron microscopy in the human photoreceptor outer segment using a protein A-gold technique ..
Zhu X, Li A, Brown B, Weiss E, Osawa S, Craft C. Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors. Mol Vis. 2002;8:462-71 pubmed
..However, prominent differences exist between rod arrestin and CAR, suggesting other functions for CAR. ..
Codega P, Della Santina L, Gargini C, Bedolla D, Subkhankulova T, Livesey F, et al
. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation. J Physiol. 2009;587:2457-72 pubmed publisher
Wright A, Chakarova C, Abd El Aziz M, Bhattacharya S. Photoreceptor degeneration: genetic and mechanistic dissection of a complex trait. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:273-84 pubmed publisher
..Although genetic and mechanistic diversity creates challenges for therapy, some approaches--particularly gene-replacement therapy--are showing considerable promise. ..
Mockel A, Obringer C, Hakvoort T, Seeliger M, Lamers W, Stoetzel C, et al
. Pharmacological modulation of the retinal unfolded protein response in Bardet-Biedl syndrome reduces apoptosis and preserves light detection ability. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37483-94 pubmed publisher
Daiger S, Sullivan L, Bowne S. Genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa. Clin Genet. 2013;84:132-41 pubmed publisher
..In this review, we summarize the current approaches to gene discovery and mutation detection for RP, and indicate pitfalls and unsolved problems. Similar considerations apply to other forms of inherited retinal disease. ..
Craft C, Whitmore D, Donoso L. Differential expression of mRNA and protein encoding retinal and pineal S-antigen during the light/dark cycle. J Neurochem. 1990;55:1461-73 pubmed
..The differences observed in the mRNA and protein analyses suggest tissue-specific structural components for S-antigen in the retina and pineal gland that are not regulated in the same manner. ..