S antigen


Gene Symbol: S antigen
Description: S-antigen visual arrestin
Alias: SAGMR, SANTI, S-arrestin, 48 kDa protein, S-AG, S-antigen; retina and pineal gland (arrestin), retina and pineal gland (arrestin), retinal S-antigen, rod photoreceptor arrestin
Species: rat
Products:     S antigen

Top Publications

  1. Abe T, Shinohara T. S-antigen from the rat retina and pineal gland have identical sequences. Exp Eye Res. 1990;51:111-2 pubmed
  2. Abe T, Yamaki K, Tsuda M, Singh V, Suzuki S, McKinnon R, et al. Rat pineal S-antigen: sequence analysis reveals presence of alpha-transducin homologous sequence. FEBS Lett. 1989;247:307-11 pubmed
    ..These sequences may play a role in the action of pineal S-Ag in transmembrane signal transduction. ..
  3. McKechnie N, Al Mahdawi S, Dutton G, Forrester J. Ultrastructural localization of retinal S antigen in the human retina. Exp Eye Res. 1986;42:479-87 pubmed
    b>Retinal S antigen, a uveitogenic protein implicated in several forms of clinical and experimental uveoretinitis, has been localized by immunoelectron microscopy in the human photoreceptor outer segment using a protein A-gold technique ..
  4. Zhu X, Li A, Brown B, Weiss E, Osawa S, Craft C. Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors. Mol Vis. 2002;8:462-71 pubmed
    ..However, prominent differences exist between rod arrestin and CAR, suggesting other functions for CAR. ..
  5. Codega P, Della Santina L, Gargini C, Bedolla D, Subkhankulova T, Livesey F, et al. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation. J Physiol. 2009;587:2457-72 pubmed publisher
  6. Wright A, Chakarova C, Abd El Aziz M, Bhattacharya S. Photoreceptor degeneration: genetic and mechanistic dissection of a complex trait. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Although genetic and mechanistic diversity creates challenges for therapy, some approaches--particularly gene-replacement therapy--are showing considerable promise. ..
  7. Mockel A, Obringer C, Hakvoort T, Seeliger M, Lamers W, Stoetzel C, et al. Pharmacological modulation of the retinal unfolded protein response in Bardet-Biedl syndrome reduces apoptosis and preserves light detection ability. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37483-94 pubmed publisher
  8. Daiger S, Sullivan L, Bowne S. Genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa. Clin Genet. 2013;84:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the current approaches to gene discovery and mutation detection for RP, and indicate pitfalls and unsolved problems. Similar considerations apply to other forms of inherited retinal disease. ..
  9. Craft C, Whitmore D, Donoso L. Differential expression of mRNA and protein encoding retinal and pineal S-antigen during the light/dark cycle. J Neurochem. 1990;55:1461-73 pubmed
    ..The differences observed in the mRNA and protein analyses suggest tissue-specific structural components for S-antigen in the retina and pineal gland that are not regulated in the same manner. ..

More Information


  1. Fuchs S, Nakazawa M, Maw M, Tamai M, Oguchi Y, Gal A. A homozygous 1-base pair deletion in the arrestin gene is a frequent cause of Oguchi disease in Japanese. Nat Genet. 1995;10:360-2 pubmed
  2. Seiler M, Aramant R, Ball S. Photoreceptor function of retinal transplants implicated by light-dark shift of S-antigen and rod transducin. Vision Res. 1999;39:2589-96 pubmed
    ..Rhodopsin distribution did not change. The shift of signal transduction proteins correlated to the light conditions indicates that normal phototransduction processes were established in photoreceptors of transplanted retinal sheets. ..
  3. Gurevich V, Hanson S, Song X, Vishnivetskiy S, Gurevich E. The functional cycle of visual arrestins in photoreceptor cells. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011;30:405-30 pubmed publisher
  4. Arshavsky V, Burns M. Photoreceptor signaling: supporting vision across a wide range of light intensities. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1620-6 pubmed publisher