Ryr2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ryr2
Description: ryanodine receptor 2
Alias: RYR-2, RyR, ryanodine receptor 2, cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor, cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel, cardiac-type ryaodine receptor, ryanodine receptor 2, cardiac, ryanodine receptor type II, type 2 ryanodine receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Ryr2

Top Publications

  1. Xiao J, Tian X, Jones P, Bolstad J, Kong H, Wang R, et al. Removal of FKBP12.6 does not alter the conductance and activation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor or the susceptibility to stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34828-38 pubmed
    The 12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12.6) is considered to be a key regulator of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), but its precise role in RyR2 function is complex and controversial...
  2. Marx S, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N, et al. PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts. Cell. 2000;101:365-76 pubmed
    ..The channel is a tetramer comprised of four type 2 RyR polypeptides (RyR2) and four FK506 binding proteins (FKBP12.6)...
  3. Adasme T, Haeger P, Paula Lima A, Espinoza I, Casas Alarcón M, Carrasco M, et al. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes...
  4. Guo T, Cornea R, Huke S, Camors E, Yang Y, Picht E, et al. Kinetics of FKBP12.6 binding to ryanodine receptors in permeabilized cardiac myocytes and effects on Ca sparks. Circ Res. 2010;106:1743-52 pubmed publisher
    FK506-binding proteins FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 are associated with cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2), and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 was proposed to interrupt FKBP12...
  5. Thai T, Fellner S, Arendshorst W. ADP-ribosyl cyclase and ryanodine receptor activity contribute to basal renal vasomotor tone and agonist-induced renal vasoconstriction in vivo. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F1107-14 pubmed
    ..role for the enzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ADPR cyclase) and its downstream targets, the ryanodine receptors (RyR), is emerging for a variety of vascular systems...
  6. Bull R, Finkelstein J, Galvez J, Sanchez G, Donoso P, Behrens M, et al. Ischemia enhances activation by Ca2+ and redox modification of ryanodine receptor channels from rat brain cortex. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Both control and ischemic cortical vesicles contained the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in a 3:1 proportion, with undetectable amounts of RyR1...
  7. Zissimopoulos S, West D, Williams A, Lai F. Ryanodine receptor interaction with the SNARE-associated protein snapin. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2386-97 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the identification of snapin as a novel RyR2-interacting protein...
  8. Yaras N, Ugur M, Ozdemir S, Gurdal H, Purali N, Lacampagne A, et al. Effects of diabetes on ryanodine receptor Ca release channel (RyR2) and Ca2+ homeostasis in rat heart. Diabetes. 2005;54:3082-8 pubmed
    ..These defects result partially from a dysfunction of cardiac ryanodine receptor calcium release channel (RyR2)...
  9. Johnson J, Han Z, Otani K, Ye H, Zhang Y, Wu H, et al. RyR2 and calpain-10 delineate a novel apoptosis pathway in pancreatic islets. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24794-802 pubmed
    Cells are programmed to die when critical signaling and metabolic pathways are disrupted. Inhibiting the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in human and mouse pancreatic beta-cells markedly increased apoptosis...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Huang F, Shan J, Reiken S, Wehrens X, Marks A. Analysis of calstabin2 (FKBP12.6)-ryanodine receptor interactions: rescue of heart failure by calstabin2 in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3456-61 pubmed
    ..b>RyR2, the predominant isoform in cardiac myocytes, comprises a macromolecular complex that includes calstabin2 (FKBP12...
  2. Sigalas C, Bent S, Kitmitto A, O NEILL S, Sitsapesan R. Ca(2+)-calmodulin can activate and inactivate cardiac ryanodine receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:794-806 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+)-calmodulin (Ca(2+)CaM) is widely accepted as an inhibitor of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2); however, the effects of physiologically relevant CaM concentrations have not been fully investigated...
  3. Wehrens X, Lehnart S, Huang F, Vest J, Reiken S, Mohler P, et al. FKBP12.6 deficiency and defective calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) function linked to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death. Cell. 2003;113:829-40 pubmed
    ..In cardiac muscle, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases the calcium required for muscle contraction...
  4. Min C, Yeom D, Lee K, Kwon H, Kang M, Kim Y, et al. Coupling of ryanodine receptor 2 and voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is essential for Ca²+ transfer from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria in the heart. Biochem J. 2012;447:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2-hybrid, glutathione transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry assays, we found that RyR2 (ryanodine receptor type 2), which is physically associated with VDAC2 (voltage-dependent anion channel 2), was co-..
  5. Zhao M, Li P, Li X, Zhang L, Winkfein R, Chen S. Molecular identification of the ryanodine receptor pore-forming segment. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25971-4 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this conserved region constitutes an essential part of the ryanodine binding site and the channel conduction pathway of the ryanodine receptor. ..
  6. Clark J, Kinnear N, Kalujnaia S, Cramb G, Fleischer S, Jeyakumar L, et al. Identification of functionally segregated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13542-9 pubmed publisher
    ..smooth muscle cells revealed striking differences in the spatial distribution of SERCA2a and SERCA2b and RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3, respectively. Almost all SERCA2a and RyR3 labeling was restricted to a region within 1...
  7. Pare G, Bauman A, McHenry M, Michel J, Dodge Kafka K, Kapiloff M. The mAKAP complex participates in the induction of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by adrenergic receptor signaling. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5637-46 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a novel function of the mAKAP complex involving the integration of cAMP and Ca2+ signals that promote myocyte hypertrophy. ..
  8. Fernandez Velasco M, Ruiz Hurtado G, Rueda A, Neco P, Mercado Morales M, Delgado C, et al. RyRCa2+ leak limits cardiac Ca2+ window current overcoming the tonic effect of calmodulinin mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20863 pubmed publisher
    ..between L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR), participating in key pathophysiological processes...
  9. Lanner J, Georgiou D, Joshi A, Hamilton S. Ryanodine receptors: structure, expression, molecular details, and function in calcium release. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2:a003996 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in RyR2 are associated with human disorders such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia whereas mutations ..
  10. Jie Y, Zhu S, Jiang Y, Zhang L, Fan F. [Changes of RyR2 mRNA expression in rats suffering from acute myocardial ischemia]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;24:327-9, 338 pubmed
    To investigate the changes of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) mRNA expression in rats suffering from acute myocardial ischemia. SD rats were divided randomly into normal control group, myocardial ischemia group and sudden death group...
  11. Jurkovicova D, Sedlakova B, Lacinova L, Kopacek J, Sulova Z, Sedlak J, et al. Hypoxia differently modulates gene expression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in mouse kidney and HEK 293 cell line. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) type 1 (IP3R1) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) type 2 (RyR2), in culture of HEK 293 cells the gene expression of all IP3Rs decreased without affecting viability of the cells...
  12. Song D, Lee K, Ryu J, Jeon H, Kim D. The molecular interaction of heart LIM protein (HLP) with RyR2 and caveolin-3 is essential for Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in the heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;463:975-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we have identified that HLP binds the cytosolic region of RyR2 in the heart using a bacterial two-hybrid system, LC-MS/MS, co-immunoprecipitation, and GST-pull down assays...
  13. Asghari P, Scriven D, Sanatani S, Gandhi S, Campbell A, Moore E. Nonuniform and variable arrangements of ryanodine receptors within mammalian ventricular couplons. Circ Res. 2014;115:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the arrangement of RYR2 tetramers in the dyads of mammalian cardiomyocytes and the effects of physiologically and pathologically relevant ..
  14. Ho H, Stevens S, Terentyeva R, Carnes C, Terentyev D, Gyorke S. Arrhythmogenic adverse effects of cardiac glycosides are mediated by redox modification of ryanodine receptors. J Physiol. 2011;589:4697-708 pubmed publisher
    ..spontaneous Ca(2+) waves, decreased the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load, and increased both ROS and RyR2 thiol oxidation. Additionally, pretreatment with DGT increased spark frequency in permeabilized myocytes...
  15. Xu X, Yano M, Uchinoumi H, Hino A, Suetomi T, Ono M, et al. Defective calmodulin binding to the cardiac ryanodine receptor plays a key role in CPVT-associated channel dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:660-6 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM), one of the accessory proteins of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), is known to play a significant role in the channel regulation of the RyR2...
  16. Terentyev D, Belevych A, Terentyeva R, Martin M, Malana G, Kuhn D, et al. miR-1 overexpression enhances Ca(2+) release and promotes cardiac arrhythmogenesis by targeting PP2A regulatory subunit B56alpha and causing CaMKII-dependent hyperphosphorylation of RyR2. Circ Res. 2009;104:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of phospholamban was not altered, miR-1 overexpression increased phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) at S2814 (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase) but not at S2808 (protein kinase A)...
  17. Kapiloff M, Jackson N, Airhart N. mAKAP and the ryanodine receptor are part of a multi-component signaling complex on the cardiomyocyte nuclear envelope. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3167-76 pubmed
    ..By binding protein kinase A and ryanodine receptor, mAKAP may serve as the scaffold for a cAMP- and calcium ion-sensitive signaling complex. ..
  18. Lin A, Sun H, Paudel O, Lin M, Sham J. Conformation of ryanodine receptor-2 gates store-operated calcium entry in rat pulmonary arterial myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;111:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..It was blocked by Gd(3+) and the RyR2 modulator K201 but was unaffected by the RyR1/3 antagonist dantrolene and the InsP3R inhibitor xestospongin C, ..
  19. Nyegaard M, Overgaard M, Søndergaard M, Vranas M, Behr E, Hildebrandt L, et al. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;91:703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all ..
  20. Janiek R, Polakova E, Pavelkova J, Zahradnik I, Zahradnikova A. Calcium spike variability in cardiac myocytes results from activation of small cohorts of ryanodine receptor 2 channels. J Physiol. 2012;590:5091-106 pubmed publisher
    ..probability of occurrence of twin spikes were stochastically congruent with activation of only a few of the many RyR2 channels present in the release site cluster...
  21. Martin C, Hyvelin J, Chapman K, Marthan R, Ashley R, Savineau J. Pregnant rat myometrial cells show heterogeneous ryanodine- and caffeine-sensitive calcium stores. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:C243-52 pubmed
    ..mRNAs in the myometrium: ryr3 mRNA is the predominant subtype, with much lower levels of expression for ryr1 and ryr2 mRNAs, suggesting that the ryanodine Ca(2+) release mechanism in rat myometrium is largely encoded by ryr3...
  22. Hunt D, Jones P, Wang R, Chen W, Bolstad J, Chen K, et al. K201 (JTV519) suppresses spontaneous Ca2+ release and [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR2 irrespective of FKBP12.6 association. Biochem J. 2007;404:431-8 pubmed
    ..It is believed to stabilize the closed state of the RyR2 (cardiac ryanodine receptor) by increasing its affinity for the FKBP12.6 (12...
  23. Cavallaro S, Meiri N, Yi C, Musco S, Ma W, Goldberg J, et al. Late memory-related genes in the hippocampus revealed by RNA fingerprinting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9669-73 pubmed
    ..Successive RNA screening as illustrated here may help to reveal a spectrum of MRGs as they appear in distinct domains of memory storage. ..
  24. Martins Marques T, Anjo S, Pereira P, Manadas B, Girão H. Interacting Network of the Gap Junction (GJ) Protein Connexin43 (Cx43) is Modulated by Ischemia and Reperfusion in the Heart. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:3040-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002331. ..
  25. Oda T, Yang Y, Uchinoumi H, Thomas D, Chen Izu Y, Kato T, et al. Oxidation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and calmodulin enhance Ca release and pathologically alter, RyR structure and calmodulin affinity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;85:240-8 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress may contribute to cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) dysfunction in heart failure (HF) and arrhythmias...
  26. Oda T, Yang Y, Nitu F, Svensson B, Lu X, Fruen B, et al. In cardiomyocytes, binding of unzipping peptide activates ryanodine receptor 2 and reciprocally inhibits calmodulin binding. Circ Res. 2013;112:487-97 pubmed publisher
    One hypothesis for elevated Ca(2+) leak through cardiac ryanodine receptors (ryanodine receptor 2 [RyR2]) in heart failure is interdomain unzipping that can enhance aberrant channel activation...
  27. Lehnart S, Wehrens X, Laitinen P, Reiken S, Deng S, Cheng Z, et al. Sudden death in familial polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) leak. Circulation. 2004;109:3208-14 pubmed
    ..exercise-induced arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death due to missense mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), an intracellular Ca2+ release channel required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart...
  28. Kim S, Yun H, Baik J, Chung K, Nah S, Rhim H. Functional interaction of neuronal Cav1.3 L-type calcium channel with ryanodine receptor type 2 in the rat hippocampus. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32877-89 pubmed
    ..3 alpha(1) subunit interacts with a partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot assays revealed high expression of both Ca(v)1...
  29. Gómez Hurtado N, Boczek N, Kryshtal D, Johnson C, Sun J, Nitu F, et al. Novel CPVT-Associated Calmodulin Mutation in CALM3 (CALM3-A103V) Activates Arrhythmogenic Ca Waves and Sparks. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2016;9: pubmed publisher
    ..of CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3 gene-coding regions, in vitro measurement of CaM-Ca(2+) (Ca)-binding affinity, ryanodine receptor 2-CaM binding, Ca handling, L-type Ca current, and action potential duration...
  30. Moore C, Shao C, Nagai R, Kutty S, Singh J, Bidasee K. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts are not formed on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) in diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;376:121-35 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we reported an elevated level of glucose-generated carbonyl adducts on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) in hearts of streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
  31. George C, Higgs G, Lai F. Ryanodine receptor mutations associated with stress-induced ventricular tachycardia mediate increased calcium release in stimulated cardiomyocytes. Circ Res. 2003;93:531-40 pubmed
    Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum mediated by the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a fundamental event in cardiac muscle contraction...
  32. Fauconnier J, Meli A, Thireau J, Roberge S, Shan J, Sassi Y, et al. Ryanodine receptor leak mediated by caspase-8 activation leads to left ventricular injury after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..At 1 and 15 d after reperfusion, caspase-8 activation resulted in S-nitrosylation of the RyR2 and depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex, resulting in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak...
  33. Llanos P, Contreras Ferrat A, Barrientos G, Valencia M, Mears D, Hidalgo C. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129238 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform...
  34. Gangopadhyay J, Ikemoto N. Aberrant interaction of calmodulin with the ryanodine receptor develops hypertrophy in the neonatal cardiomyocyte. Biochem J. 2011;438:379-87 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that the inter-domain interaction between the two domains of RyR (ryanodine receptor), CaMBD [CaM (calmodulin)-binding domain] and CaMLD (CaM-like domain), activates the Ca(2+) channel, and this process is called ..
  35. Tykocki N, Thompson J, Jackson W, Watts S. Ryanodine receptors are uncoupled from contraction in rat vena cava. Cell Calcium. 2013;53:112-9 pubmed publisher
    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) are Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane, and are important effectors of SR Ca(2+) release and smooth muscle excitation-contraction coupling...
  36. Tuncay E, Okatan E, Toy A, Turan B. Enhancement of cellular antioxidant-defence preserves diastolic dysfunction via regulation of both diastolic Zn2+ and Ca2+ and prevention of RyR2-leak in hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:290381 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis demonstrated that the NAC treatment also antagonized hyperphosphorylation of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) and significantly restored depleted protein levels of both RyR2 and calstabin2...
  37. Takeshima H, Komazaki S, Hirose K, Nishi M, Noda T, Iino M. Embryonic lethality and abnormal cardiac myocytes in mice lacking ryanodine receptor type 2. EMBO J. 1998;17:3309-16 pubmed
    The ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR-2) functions as a Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) channel on intracellular Ca2+ stores and is distributed in most excitable cells with the exception of skeletal muscle cells...
  38. Zissimopoulos S, Thomas N, Jamaluddin W, Lai F. FKBP12.6 binding of ryanodine receptors carrying mutations associated with arrhythmogenic cardiac disease. Biochem J. 2009;419:273-8 pubmed publisher
    In the present paper we show that distinct human RyR2 (ryanodine receptor type 2) inherited mutations expressed in mammalian cells exhibit either unaltered or increased FKBP12.6 (12...
  39. Scriven D, Dan P, Moore E. Distribution of proteins implicated in excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes. Biophys J. 2000;79:2682-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude that if either the slip mode conductance of the Na(+) channel or the reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are to contribute to the contractile force, the fuzzy space must extend outside of the dyad. ..
  40. Ellison G, Torella D, Karakikes I, Purushothaman S, Curcio A, Gasparri C, et al. Acute beta-adrenergic overload produces myocyte damage through calcium leakage from the ryanodine receptor 2 but spares cardiac stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11397-409 pubmed
    ..ISO administration resulted in significant ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) hyperphosphorylation and RyR2-calstabin dissociation...
  41. Chen Izu Y, Ward C, Stark W, Banyasz T, Sumandea M, Balke C, et al. Phosphorylation of RyR2 and shortening of RyR2 cluster spacing in spontaneously hypertensive rat with heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2409-17 pubmed
    ..As a critical step toward understanding the role of abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR(2)) during the development of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, this study examines two ..
  42. Cerrone M, Noujaim S, Tolkacheva E, Talkachou A, O Connell R, Berenfeld O, et al. Arrhythmogenic mechanisms in a mouse model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Circ Res. 2007;101:1039-48 pubmed
    ..Catecholaminergic polymorphic VT is caused by enhanced Ca2+ release through defective ryanodine receptor (RyR2) channels...
  43. Chopra N, Yang T, Asghari P, Moore E, Huke S, Akin B, et al. Ablation of triadin causes loss of cardiac Ca2+ release units, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, and cardiac arrhythmias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7636-41 pubmed publisher
    ..2) triggers Ca(2+) release from juxtaposed Ca(2+) release channels (RyR2) located in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR)...
  44. Bidasee K, Dincer U, Besch H. Ryanodine receptor dysfunction in hearts of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:1356-64 pubmed
    ..this decrease might be ascribed to a reduction in expression and/or alteration in function of ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and whether changes could be minimized with insulin treatment...
  45. Jiao G, Hao L, Gao C, Chen L, Sun X, Yang H, et al. Reduced DHPR?1S and RyR1 expression levels are associated with diaphragm contractile dysfunction during sepsis. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48:745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR?1s and DHPR?1c) and ryanodine receptors (RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3) are essential for excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscles...
  46. Chugun A, Sato O, Takeshima H, Ogawa Y. Mg2+ activates the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) at intermediate Ca2+ concentrations. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C535-44 pubmed
    To clarify whether activity of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) is reduced in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac muscle, as is the case with the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1), Ca(2+)-dependent [(3)H]ryanodine binding, a ..
  47. Baddeley D, Jayasinghe I, Lam L, Rossberger S, Cannell M, Soeller C. Optical single-channel resolution imaging of the ryanodine receptor distribution in rat cardiac myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..localization to examine the peripheral distribution of a cardiac signaling protein, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), in rat ventricular myocytes...
  48. Jayasinghe I, Baddeley D, Kong C, Wehrens X, Cannell M, Soeller C. Nanoscale organization of junctophilin-2 and ryanodine receptors within peripheral couplings of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Biophys J. 2012;102:L19-21 pubmed publisher
    The peripheral distributions of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) and a junctional protein, junctophilin-2 (JPH2), were examined using single fluorophore localization-based super-resolution microscopy in rat ventricular myocytes...
  49. Huke S, Bers D. Ryanodine receptor phosphorylation at Serine 2030, 2808 and 2814 in rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:80-5 pubmed publisher
    The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) controls Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during excitation-contraction coupling. Three phosphorylation sites have been identified: Serine-(S)2808, S2814 and recently S2030...
  50. Shao C, Rozanski G, Patel K, Bidasee K. Dyssynchronous (non-uniform) Ca2+ release in myocytes from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:234-46 pubmed
    Using biochemical/pharmacological approaches, we previously showed that type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) become dysfunctional in hearts of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats...
  51. Xiao B, Zhong G, Obayashi M, Yang D, Chen K, Walsh M, et al. Ser-2030, but not Ser-2808, is the major phosphorylation site in cardiac ryanodine receptors responding to protein kinase A activation upon beta-adrenergic stimulation in normal and failing hearts. Biochem J. 2006;396:7-16 pubmed
    We have recently shown that RyR2 (cardiac ryanodine receptor) is phosphorylated by PKA (protein kinase A/cAMP-dependent protein kinase) at two major sites, Ser-2030 and Ser-2808...
  52. George C, Sorathia R, Bertrand B, Lai F. In situ modulation of the human cardiac ryanodine receptor (hRyR2) by FKBP12.6. Biochem J. 2003;370:579-89 pubmed
    ..The precise mode of interaction and modulation of the cardiac RyR (RyR2) channel by FKBP12/FKBP12.6 remains to be fully defined...
  53. Jiang X, Liu W, Deng J, Lan L, Xue X, Zhang C, et al. Polydatin protects cardiac function against burn injury by inhibiting sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak by reducing oxidative modification of ryanodine receptors. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that the content of free thiols (the number of reduced cysteines) in RyR2 in cardiomyocytes determined by the monobromobimane fluorescence of RyR2 was decreased markedly in burn-traumatized ..
  54. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Mei Q, Wang Q, Collier M, Fleischer S, et al. FKBP12.6 and cADPR regulation of Ca2+ release in smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C538-46 pubmed
    ..Here we show that FK506 binding protein of 12.6 kDa (FKBP12.6) associates with and regulates type 2 RyRs (RyR2) in tracheal smooth muscle. FKBP12...
  55. Yang H, Tweedie D, Wang S, Guia A, Vinogradova T, Bogdanov K, et al. The ryanodine receptor modulates the spontaneous beating rate of cardiomyocytes during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9225-30 pubmed
    ..depressed in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with a functional knockout (KO) of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). KO myocytes show a slowing of the rate of spontaneous diastolic depolarization and an absence of calcium sparks...
  56. Yamaguchi N, Takahashi N, Xu L, Smithies O, Meissner G. Early cardiac hypertrophy in mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of cardiac muscle Ca release channel. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1344-53 pubmed
    ..have shown that calmodulin (CaM) inhibits the activity of cardiac muscle cell Ca(2+) release channel ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2)...
  57. Tomaskova Z, Gaburjakova M. The cardiac ryanodine receptor: looking for anomalies in permeation properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:2564-72 pubmed publisher
    Anomalies in the permeation properties of the cardiac RyR channel reconstituted into bilayer lipid membranes were investigated systematically...
  58. Wang R, Bolstad J, Kong H, Zhang L, Brown C, Chen S. The predicted TM10 transmembrane sequence of the cardiac Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor) is crucial for channel activation and gating. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3635-42 pubmed
    ..of mutations of each residue within the 24-amino acid TM10 sequence of the mouse cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) on channel activation by caffeine and Ca(2+)...
  59. Pérez C, Copello J, Li Y, Karko K, Gómez L, Ramos Franco J, et al. Ryanodine receptor function in newborn rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H2527-40 pubmed
    The role of ryanodine receptor (RyR) in cardiac excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in newborns (NB) is not completely understood...
  60. Takeda T, Asahi M, Yamaguchi O, Hikoso S, Nakayama H, Kusakari Y, et al. Presenilin 2 regulates the systolic function of heart by modulating Ca2+ signaling. FASEB J. 2005;19:2069-71 pubmed
    ..demonstrated that PS2 in brain interacts with sorcin, which serves as a modulator of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), we tested whether PS2 also interacts with RyR2...
  61. Moonga B, Li S, Iqbal J, Davidson R, Shankar V, Bevis P, et al. Ca(2+) influx through the osteoclastic plasma membrane ryanodine receptor. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;282:F921-32 pubmed
    We predict that the type 2 ryanodine receptor isoform (RyR-2) located in the osteoclastic membrane functions as a Ca(2+) influx channel and as a divalent cation (Ca(2+)) sensor...
  62. Xiao B, Tian X, Xie W, Jones P, Cai S, Wang X, et al. Functional consequence of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor: sensitization of store overload-induced Ca2+ release. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30256-64 pubmed
    The phosphorylation of the cardiac Ca(2+)-release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2) by protein kinase A (PKA) has been extensively characterized, but its functional consequence remains poorly defined and controversial...
  63. Reiken S, Gaburjakova M, Guatimosim S, Gomez A, D ARMIENTO J, Burkhoff D, et al. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of the cardiac calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) in normal and failing hearts. Role of phosphatases and response to isoproterenol. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:444-53 pubmed
    The cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) comprises a macromolecular complex that includes a kinase and two phosphatases that are bound to the channel via targeting proteins...
  64. Kraner S, Wang Q, Novak K, Cheng D, Cool D, Peng J, et al. Upregulation of the CaV 1.1-ryanodine receptor complex in a rat model of critical illness myopathy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R1384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of ryanodine receptor (RYR) isoforms-1 and -2 as well as the dihydropyridine receptor/voltage-gated calcium channel type 1.1 (DHPR/Ca(V) 1.1)...
  65. Becerra R, Román B, Di Carlo M, Mariangelo J, Salas M, Sanchez G, et al. Reversible redox modifications of ryanodine receptor ameliorate ventricular arrhythmias in the ischemic-reperfused heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H713-24 pubmed publisher
    Previous results from our laboratory showed that phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) by Ca(2+) calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) was a critical but not the unique event responsible for the production of reperfusion-..
  66. Ye Y, Jian K, Jaggar J, Bukiya A, Dopico A. Type 2 ryanodine receptors are highly sensitive to alcohol. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:1659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..diameter is regulated by myocyte Ca(2+) sparks, a vasodilatory signal contributed to by type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2)...
  67. Yang Y, Guo T, Oda T, Chakraborty A, Chen L, Uchinoumi H, et al. Cardiac myocyte Z-line calmodulin is mainly RyR2-bound, and reduction is arrhythmogenic and occurs in heart failure. Circ Res. 2014;114:295-306 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) associates with cardiac ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2) as an important regulator. Defective CaM-RyR2 interaction may occur in heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia...
  68. Zheng X, Hu S. Effects of simvastatin on cardiac performance and expression of sarcoplasmic reticular calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:696-704 pubmed
    ..calcium regulatory proteins, including sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban (PLB), and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) in rat hearts...
  69. Dahan D, Ducret T, Quignard J, Marthan R, Savineau J, Esteve E. Implication of the ryanodine receptor in TRPV4-induced calcium response in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L824-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting experiments revealed the expression of TRPV4 and RyR2 with an increase in both receptors in pulmonary arteries from CH rats vs. Nx rats...
  70. Zhou R, Ding X, Liu L. Ryanodine receptor 2 contributes to hemorrhagic shock-induced bi-phasic vascular reactivity in rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:1375-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) is a critical component of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  71. Rokita A, Anderson M. New therapeutic targets in cardiology: arrhythmias and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Circulation. 2012;126:2125-39 pubmed publisher
  72. Liu D, Hewawasam R, Karunasekara Y, Casarotto M, Dulhunty A, Board P. The inhibitory glutathione transferase M2-2 binding site is located in divergent region 3 of the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:1523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels: it inhibits the activity of cardiac RyR (RyR2) channels with high affinity and activates skeletal RyR (RyR1) channels with low affinity...
  73. Liao B, Zhang Y, Sun H, Ma B, Qian J. Ryanodine Receptor 2 Plays a Critical Role in Spinal Cord Injury via Induction of Oxidative Stress. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:1129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was designed to investigate the possible role of RyR2 upregulation in SCI and to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms...
  74. Sallinen P, Mänttäri S, Leskinen H, Ilves M, Ruskoaho H, Saarela S. Time course of changes in the expression of DHPR, RyR(2), and SERCA2 after myocardial infarction in the rat left ventricle. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;303:97-103 pubmed
    ..Since dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), ryanodine receptor (RyR(2)), and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase2 (SERCA2a) play a major role in the contractility of the ..
  75. Rosker C, Meur G, Taylor E, Taylor C. Functional ryanodine receptors in the plasma membrane of RINm5F pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that type 3 IP(3) receptors (IP(3)R3) were expressed predominantly in endoplasmic reticulum, whereas RyR2 were present also in plasma membrane fractions...
  76. Vassilakopoulou V, Calver B, Thanassoulas A, Beck K, Hu H, Buntwal L, et al. Distinctive malfunctions of calmodulin mutations associated with heart RyR2-mediated arrhythmic disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850:2168-76 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytoplasmic calcium sensor that interacts with the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a large Ca(2+) channel complex that mediates Ca(2+) efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to activate cardiac muscle ..
  77. Bhuiyan Z, van den Berg M, van Tintelen J, Bink Boelkens M, Wiesfeld A, Alders M, et al. Expanding spectrum of human RYR2-related disease: new electrocardiographic, structural, and genetic features. Circulation. 2007;116:1569-76 pubmed
    ..Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based screening did not reveal a mutation in either the Ryanodine receptor 2 gene (RYR2) or ACTN2, the most plausible candidate genes in the region of interest...
  78. Takasawa S, Kuroki M, Nata K, Noguchi N, Ikeda T, Yamauchi A, et al. A novel ryanodine receptor expressed in pancreatic islets by alternative splicing from type 2 ryanodine receptor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..screening a rat islet cDNA library, we isolated a novel RyR cDNA (the islet-type RyR), which is generated from the RyR2 gene by alternative splicing of exons 4 and 75...