Gene Symbol: Rxra
Description: retinoid X receptor alpha
Alias: retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 1
Species: rat
Products:     Rxra

Top Publications

  1. Jing L, Li W, Zhou L, Yang B. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha expressions and intervention in alcoholic cardiomyopathy rats]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2009;37:324-9 pubmed
  2. Kabe Y, Yamada J, Uga H, Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Handa H. NF-Y is essential for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and inducible transcription of several CCAAT box-containing genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:512-22 pubmed
  3. Song C, Kokontis J, Hiipakka R, Liao S. Ubiquitous receptor: a receptor that modulates gene activation by retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10809-13 pubmed
    ..UR may play an important role in normal growth and differentiation by modulating gene activation in retinoic acid and thyroid hormone signaling pathways. ..
  4. Guan H, Ishizuka T, Chui P, Lehrke M, Lazar M. Corepressors selectively control the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in adipocytes. Genes Dev. 2005;19:453-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, selective modulation of adipocyte PPARgamma target genes by TZDs involves the dissociation of corepressors by direct and indirect mechanisms. ..
  5. Ko L, Cardona G, Henrion Caude A, Chin W. Identification and characterization of a tissue-specific coactivator, GT198, that interacts with the DNA-binding domains of nuclear receptors. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:357-69 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GT198 is a tissue-specific, kinase-regulated nuclear receptor coactivator that interacts with the DNA-binding domains of nuclear receptors. ..
  6. Fontaine C, Rigamonti E, Pourcet B, Duez H, Duhem C, Fruchart J, et al. The nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha is a liver X receptor (LXR) target gene driving a negative feedback loop on select LXR-induced pathways in human macrophages. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1797-811 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify Rev-erbalpha as a new LXR target gene, inhibiting LXR-induction of TLR-4 in a negative transcriptional feedback loop, but not cholesterol homeostasis gene expression. ..
  7. Chen C, Zhang J, Li J, Huang J, Yang C, Huang G, et al. Hydrodynamic-based in vivo transfection of retinoic X receptor-alpha gene can enhance vitamin A-induced attenuation of liver fibrosis in mice. Liver Int. 2004;24:679-86 pubmed
    ..One of the possible mechanisms of action for this gene treatment is inhibition of non-parenchymal cell proliferation mainly composed of hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic livers. ..
  8. Cha J, Repa J. The liver X receptor (LXR) and hepatic lipogenesis. The carbohydrate-response element-binding protein is a target gene of LXR. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:743-51 pubmed
    ..This establishes LXR as a master lipogenic transcription factor, as it directly regulates both SREBP-1c and ChREBP to enhance hepatic fatty acid synthesis. ..
  9. Ogura Y, Suruga K, Takase S, Goda T. Developmental changes of the expression of the genes regulated by retinoic acid in the small intestine of rats. Life Sci. 2005;77:2804-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the possible perinatal RA production by RALDHs might regulate various RA-target genes including CRBPII and RARalpha through RXRalpha or HNF-4 in the small intestine. ..

More Information


  1. Huang J, Powell W, Khodavirdi A, Wu J, Makita T, Cardiff R, et al. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in mice with conditional disruption of the retinoid X receptor alpha allele in the prostate epithelium. Cancer Res. 2002;62:4812-9 pubmed
  2. Bairras C, Menard L, Redonnet A, Ferrand C, Delage B, Noel Suberville C, et al. Effect of vitamin A content in cafeteria diet on the expression of nuclear receptors in rat subcutaneous adipose tissue. J Physiol Biochem. 2005;61:353-61 pubmed
  3. Khetchoumian K, Teletin M, Mark M, Lerouge T, Cerviño M, Oulad Abdelghani M, et al. TIF1delta, a novel HP1-interacting member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (TIF1) family expressed by elongating spermatids. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48329-41 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data are consistent with specific, nonredundant functions for the TIF1 family members in vivo and suggest a role for TIF1delta in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing during postmeiotic phases of spermatogenesis. ..
  4. Wang A, Alimova I, Luo P, Jong A, Triche T, Wu L. Loss of CAK phosphorylation of RAR{alpha} mediates transcriptional control of retinoid-induced cancer cell differentiation. FASEB J. 2010;24:833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Wang, A., Alimova, I. N., Luo, P. Jong, A., Triche, T. J., Wu, L. Loss of CAK phosphorylation of RARalpha mediates transcriptional control of retinoid-induced cancer cell differentiation. ..
  5. Chen Y, Hong I, Kuo K, Hsu H, Hsu C. Role of retinoid-X receptor-alpha in the suppression of rat bile acid coenzyme A-amino acid N-acyltransferase in liver during sepsis. Shock. 2007;28:65-70 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that suppression of rBAT occurs at the transcriptional level, and the decrease in RXR-alpha by septic insult may play a critical role in rBAT suppression at the early stage of polymicrobial sepsis. ..
  6. Sapin V, Dolle P, Hindelang C, Kastner P, Chambon P. Defects of the chorioallantoic placenta in mouse RXRalpha null fetuses. Dev Biol. 1997;191:29-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, placental defects could represent an extraembryonic cause of lethality for RXRalpha null mutant fetuses, in addition to the previously described embryonic cardiac defects. ..
  7. Latasa M, Ituero M, Moran Gonzalez A, Aranda A, Cosgaya J. Retinoic acid regulates myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, through a RAR-dependent mechanism, RA downregulates myelin-associated glycoprotein, which also contributes to the dysmyelinating effect of the retinoid. ..
  8. Giaginis C, Katsamangou E, Tsourouflis G, Zizi Serbetzoglou D, Kouraklis G, Theocharis S. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and retinoid X receptor-alpha expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity, and patients' survival. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:BR148-56 pubmed
    ..However, further molecular and clinical studies are required to delineate the potential clinical application of PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha in the prognosis and management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. ..
  9. Helledie T, Grøntved L, Jensen S, Kiilerich P, Rietveld L, Albrektsen T, et al. The gene encoding the Acyl-CoA-binding protein is activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through an intronic response element functionally conserved between humans and rodents. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26821-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PPRE in intron 1 of the ACBP gene is a bona fide PPARgamma-response element. ..
  10. Qi C, Chang J, Zhu Y, Yeldandi A, Rao S, Zhu Y. Identification of protein arginine methyltransferase 2 as a coactivator for estrogen receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28624-30 pubmed
    ..In this respect PRMT2 differs from coactivators PRMT1 and CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase). These results suggest that PRMT2 is a novel ERalpha coactivator. ..
  11. German O, Monaco S, Agnolazza D, Rotstein N, Politi L. Retinoid X receptor activation is essential for docosahexaenoic acid protection of retina photoreceptors. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:2236-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first evidence that activation of RXRs prevents photoreceptor apoptosis and suggest that DHA is first released from phospholipids and then activates RXRs to promote the survival of photoreceptors. ..
  12. Wang L, Tankersley L, Tang M, Potter J, Mezey E. Regulation of alpha 2(I) collagen expression in stellate cells by retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors through interactions with their cofactors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;428:92-8 pubmed
  13. Lim H, Gupta R, Ma W, Paria B, Moller D, Morrow J, et al. Cyclo-oxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin mediates embryo implantation in the mouse via PPARdelta. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1561-74 pubmed
    ..Several lines of evidence suggest that the effects of PGI2 are mediated by its activation of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARdelta, demonstrating the first reported biologic function of this receptor signaling pathway. ..
  14. Leers J, Treuter E, Gustafsson J. Mechanistic principles in NR box-dependent interaction between nuclear hormone receptors and the coactivator TIF2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6001-13 pubmed
  15. Grubbs C, Lubet R, Atigadda V, Christov K, Deshpande A, Tirmal V, et al. Efficacy of new retinoids in the prevention of mammary cancers and correlations with short-term biomarkers. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1232-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, a short-term in vivo method has been identified for screening newly synthesized retinoids both for chemopreventive efficacy and for their adverse effect on serum triglycerides. ..
  16. Zhelyaznik N, Mey J. Regulation of retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta and retinoid X receptor alpha after sciatic nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2006;141:1761-74 pubmed
  17. Ben Shushan E, Sharir H, Pikarsky E, Bergman Y. A dynamic balance between ARP-1/COUP-TFII, EAR-3/COUP-TFI, and retinoic acid receptor:retinoid X receptor heterodimers regulates Oct-3/4 expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1034-48 pubmed
  18. Brocard J, Kastner P, Chambon P. Two novel RXR alpha isoforms from mouse testis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229:211-8 pubmed
    ..These observations increase the molecular complexity of RXRs, and indicate that RXR alpha may play a specific function during spermatogenesis. ..
  19. Margareto J, Marti A, Martinez J. Modification of RXRalpha expression according to the duration of a cafeteria diet. J Physiol Biochem. 2001;57:347-8 pubmed
  20. Seol W, Choi H, Moore D. Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel orphan receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:72-85 pubmed
  21. Siveke J, Einwächter H, Sipos B, Lubeseder Martellato C, Kloppel G, Schmid R. Concomitant pancreatic activation of Kras(G12D) and Tgfa results in cystic papillary neoplasms reminiscent of human IPMN. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:266-79 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Egfr signaling in synergy with oncogenic Kras may be a prerequisite for IPMN development and progression to pancreatic cancer. ..
  22. Metzger D, Imai T, Jiang M, Takukawa R, Desvergne B, Wahli W, et al. Functional role of RXRs and PPARgamma in mature adipocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:51-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in adipocytes, RXRalpha is essential for lipogenesis, but RXRgamma can functionally replace RXRalpha for the adipocyte vital functions exerted by PPARgamma/RXR heterodimers. ..
  23. Chen J, Kubalak S, Chien K. Ventricular muscle-restricted targeting of the RXRalpha gene reveals a non-cell-autonomous requirement in cardiac chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1998;125:1943-9 pubmed
    ..a completely normal phenotype, without evidence of the wide spectrum of congenital heart disease phenotype seen in RXRa-/- embryos, and normal adult viability...
  24. Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinoid X receptors are essential for early mouse development and placentogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:547-51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, as a RXR ligand appears dispensable, placentogenesis must be controlled by a yet unknown hormonal ligand(s) activating the heterodimerization partner(s) of RXRs. ..
  25. Schlicht M, Matysiak B, Brodzeller T, Wen X, Liu H, Zhou G, et al. Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium. BMC Genomics. 2004;5:58 pubmed
  26. Chen H, Privalsky M. Cooperative formation of high-order oligomers by retinoid X receptors: an unexpected mode of DNA recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:422-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, oligomer formation plays an important role in determining the specificity of DNA recognition by nuclear receptors and contributes to isoform-dependent differences in gene regulation. ..
  27. Lopez D, McLean M. Activation of the rat scavenger receptor class B type I gene by PPARalpha. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;251:67-77 pubmed
    ..In addition, mutational analysis studies confirmed that this PPRE motif is responsible for the PPARalpha/RXRalpha-dependent activation of the rat SR-BI promoter in the cell lines examined. ..
  28. Cheng B, Al Shammari F, Ghader I, Sequeira F, Thakkar J, Mathew T. Fundamental studies of adrenal retinoid-X-receptor: Protein isoform, tissue expression, subcellular distribution, and ligand availability. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;171:110-120 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings not only shed light on the adrenal network of RXRs but also provide baseline information for further investigations of RXR heterodimers in the regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis. ..
  29. Arfaoui A, Lobo M, Boulbaroud S, Ouichou A, Mesfioui A, Arenas M. Expression of retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors in normal and vitamin A deficient adult rat brain. Ann Anat. 2013;195:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the brain management of retinoic acid differs between males and females, also leading to differences in their response to VAD diet in terms of receptor expression. ..
  30. Su E, Cheng Y, Chatterton R, Lin Z, Yin P, Reierstad S, et al. Regulation of 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human placental endothelial cells. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:517-25 pubmed
    ..Both retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA) were readily detected by immunoblotting in isolated placental endothelial cells...
  31. Steineger H, Arntsen B, Spydevold O, Sørensen H. Gene transcription of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) is regulated by fatty acids and hormones in rat hepatic cells. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:744-54 pubmed
    ..Our results uniformly show that the RXRalpha gene expression is under distinct regulation by fatty acids and hormones which suggests a coupling with the lipid metabolizing system and the hormonal signaling pathway. ..
  32. Clabby M, Robison T, Quigley H, Wilson D, Kelly D. Retinoid X receptor alpha represses GATA-4-mediated transcription via a retinoid-dependent interaction with the cardiac-enriched repressor FOG-2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5760-7 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a novel mechanism by which retinoids regulate cardiogenic gene expression through direct interaction with GATA-4 and its co-repressor, FOG-2. ..
  33. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:760-72 pubmed
    ..Indeed, multiple questions about the actual biological role of RXRs and the existence of an endogenous ligand have still to be answered. ..
  34. Nakamura K, Kennedy M, Baldán A, Bojanic D, Lyons K, Edwards P. Expression and regulation of multiple murine ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 mRNAs/isoforms that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux to high density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45980-9 pubmed
    ..The relatively high levels of expression in neuronal tissues and the eye suggest that ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux may be critical for normal neuronal function in addition to its role in macrophages...
  35. Tissandie E, Gueguen Y, Lobaccaro J, Grandcolas L, Aigueperse J, Gourmelon P, et al. Enriched uranium affects the expression of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor in rat kidney. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;110:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study showed that a chronic exposure to EU affects both mRNA and protein expressions of renal nuclear receptors involved in vitamin D metabolism, without any modification of the circulating vitamin D. ..
  36. Subbarayan V, Kastner P, Mark M, Dierich A, Gorry P, Chambon P. Limited specificity and large overlap of the functions of the mouse RAR gamma 1 and RAR gamma 2 isoforms. Mech Dev. 1997;66:131-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the occurrence of morphological defects in heterozygote mutants for a single RAR isoform provides a basis for explaining the strong conservation of these isoforms during vertebrate evolution. ..
  37. Hewitt D, Mark P, Waddell B. Placental expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rat pregnancy and the effect of increased glucocorticoid exposure. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:23-8 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the expression of the PPAR isoforms and their heterodimeric partner, RXRA, in the two functionally and morphologically distinct zones of the rat placenta during normal gestation and after ..
  38. Ando N, Shimizu M, Okuno M, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Tsurumi H, Tanaka T, et al. Expression of retinoid X receptor alpha is decreased in 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:879-84 pubmed
  39. Weedon Fekjaer M, Dalen K, Solaas K, Staff A, Duttaroy A, Nebb H. Activation of LXR increases acyl-CoA synthetase activity through direct regulation of ACSL3 in human placental trophoblast cells. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1886-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that LXR plays a regulatory role in fatty acid metabolism by direct regulation of ACSL3 in human placental trophoblast cells. ..
  40. Wiebel F, Gustafsson J. Heterodimeric interaction between retinoid X receptor alpha and orphan nuclear receptor OR1 reveals dimerization-induced activation as a novel mechanism of nuclear receptor activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3977-86 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we present evidence that activation of OR1 occurs by a conformational change induced upon heterodimerization with RXR. ..
  41. Goldstein J, Dobrzyn A, Clagett Dame M, Pike J, DeLuca H. Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acids as natural ligands for the retinoid-X receptor. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;420:185-93 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal tissue dependent profiles of RXR agonists and support the idea of unsaturated fatty acids as physiological ligands of RXR. ..
  42. Zanaria E, Muscatelli F, Bardoni B, Strom T, Guioli S, Guo W, et al. An unusual member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily responsible for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. Nature. 1994;372:635-41 pubmed
    ..DAX-1 encodes a new member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily displaying a novel DNA-binding domain. The DAX-1 product acts as a dominant negative regulator of transcription mediated by the retinoic acid receptor. ..
  43. Chandra V, Huang P, Hamuro Y, Raghuram S, Wang Y, Burris T, et al. Structure of the intact PPAR-gamma-RXR- nuclear receptor complex on DNA. Nature. 2008;456:350-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The PPAR-gamma LBD cooperates with both DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to enhance response-element binding. The A/B segments are highly dynamic, lacking folded substructures despite their gene-activation properties. ..
  44. Compe E, Malerba M, Soler L, Marescaux J, Borrelli E, Egly J. Neurological defects in trichothiodystrophy reveal a coactivator function of TFIIH. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1414-22 pubmed
    ..The discovery of an unexpected stabilizing function for TFIIH deepens our understanding of the pathogenesis and neurological manifestations observed in TTD individuals. ..
  45. Singh A, Guleria R, Nizamutdinova I, Baker K, Pan J. High glucose-induced repression of RAR/RXR in cardiomyocytes is mediated through oxidative stress/JNK signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The impaired RAR/RXR signaling and oxidative stress/JNK pathway forms a vicious circle, which significantly contributes to hyperglycemia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. ..
  46. Xu L, Song C, Ni M, Meng F, Xie H, Li G. Cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP-1) regulates osteogenenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through inhibiting RXR?-induced ?-catenin degradation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a potential role of CRBP1 in the regulation of ?-catenin turnover which can greatly affect the process of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. ..
  47. Ogura Y, Suruga K, Mochizuki H, Yamamoto T, Takase S, Goda T. Postnatal changes in gene expression of retinal dehydrogenase and retinoid receptors in liver of rats. Life Sci. 2004;74:1519-28 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that postnatal expressions of hepatocyte-specific genes might be up-regulated by retinoid receptors, which may be related with the alterations of RALDH expression during postnatal development in the liver. ..
  48. Turunen M, Dunlop T, Carlberg C, Väisänen S. Selective use of multiple vitamin D response elements underlies the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated negative regulation of the human CYP27B1 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2734-47 pubmed
    ..This data explains, in part, why the human CYP27B1 gene is repressed in HEK-293 but not in MCF-7 cells. ..
  49. Chao C, Youssef J, Rezaiekhaleigh M, Birnbaum L, Badr M. Senescence-associated decline in hepatic peroxisomal enzyme activities corresponds with diminished levels of retinoid X receptor alpha, but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123:1469-76 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, PPAR alpha-independent mechanisms appear to play a role in controlling apoptosis in the senescent liver. ..
  50. Feng Y, Yu Y, Yin M, Hong L, Cai W. Ectopic expression of retinoic acid receptors and change of myocardial structure in the offspring heart with vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:309-18 pubmed
  51. Dwivedi P, Hii C, Ferrante A, Tan J, Der C, Omdahl J, et al. Role of MAP kinases in the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced transactivation of the rat cytochrome P450C24 (CYP24) promoter. Specific functions for ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29643-53 pubmed
    ..The ERK1/ERK2 and ERK5 modules provide a novel mechanism for linking the rapid signal transduction and slower transcription actions of 1,25D to induce CYP24 gene expression. ..
  52. Pellizas C, del Mar Montesinos M, Masini Repiso A, Torres A, Coleoni A. Differential modulation of liver and pituitary triiodothyronine and 9-cis retinoid acid receptors by insulin-like growth factor I in rats. Thyroid. 2002;12:1071-8 pubmed
    ..A reduced transcriptional rate of TR gene is implicated in the IGF-I effect on the liver. The increase in RXR protein levels may be also involved in the expression of T(3) specific actions in liver and pituitary. ..
  53. Groubet R, Pallet V, Delage B, Redonnet A, Higueret P, Cassand P. Hyperlipidic diets induce early alterations of the vitamin A signalling pathway in rat colonic mucosa. Endocr Regul. 2003;37:137-44 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of hyperlipidic diets on the expression of PPARg, RXRa and RARb mRNA in rat colon...