RXR beta


Gene Symbol: RXR beta
Description: retinoid X receptor beta
Alias: RXR-beta, retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta, nuclear receptor co-regulator 1, nuclear receptor coregulator 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 2, retinoic acid receptor, beta
Species: rat
Products:     RXR beta

Top Publications

  1. Islam M, Puri S, Rodova M, Magenheimer B, Maser R, Calvet J. Retinoic acid-dependent activation of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1) promoter. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that retinoids and their receptors may play a role in PKD1 gene regulation. ..
  2. Yu V, Delsert C, Andersen B, Holloway J, Devary O, Näär A, et al. RXR beta: a coregulator that enhances binding of retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors to their cognate response elements. Cell. 1991;67:1251-66 pubmed
    ..This protein, termed RXR beta, forms heterodimers with RAR, preferentially increasing its DNA binding and transcriptional activity on promoters ..
  3. Feng Y, Yu Y, Yin M, Hong L, Cai W. Ectopic expression of retinoic acid receptors and change of myocardial structure in the offspring heart with vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:309-18 pubmed
  4. Gong M, Bi Y, Jiang W, Zhang Y, Chen L, Hou N, et al. Retinoic acid receptor beta mediates all-trans retinoic acid facilitation of mesenchymal stem cells neuronal differentiation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:866-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These facilitation effects are achieved by activating the retinoic acid receptor beta signaling pathway. ..
  5. Latasa M, Ituero M, Moran Gonzalez A, Aranda A, Cosgaya J. Retinoic acid regulates myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, through a RAR-dependent mechanism, RA downregulates myelin-associated glycoprotein, which also contributes to the dysmyelinating effect of the retinoid. ..
  6. Xiao C, Mei J, Huang W, Wood C, L Abbé M, Gilani G, et al. Dietary soy protein isolate modifies hepatic retinoic acid receptor-beta proteins and inhibits their DNA binding activity in rats. J Nutr. 2007;137:1-6 pubmed
  7. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:760-72 pubmed
    ..Indeed, multiple questions about the actual biological role of RXRs and the existence of an endogenous ligand have still to be answered. ..
  8. Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinoid X receptors are essential for early mouse development and placentogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:547-51 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, as a RXR ligand appears dispensable, placentogenesis must be controlled by a yet unknown hormonal ligand(s) activating the heterodimerization partner(s) of RXRs. ..
  9. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed

More Information


  1. Zanaria E, Muscatelli F, Bardoni B, Strom T, Guioli S, Guo W, et al. An unusual member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily responsible for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. Nature. 1994;372:635-41 pubmed
    ..DAX-1 encodes a new member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily displaying a novel DNA-binding domain. The DAX-1 product acts as a dominant negative regulator of transcription mediated by the retinoic acid receptor. ..
  2. Mangelsdorf D, Borgmeyer U, Heyman R, Zhou J, Ong E, Oro A, et al. Characterization of three RXR genes that mediate the action of 9-cis retinoic acid. Genes Dev. 1992;6:329-44 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the RXR family plays critical roles in diverse aspects of development, from embryo implantation to organogenesis and central nervous system differentiation, as well as in adult physiology. ..
  3. Chen H, Privalsky M. Cooperative formation of high-order oligomers by retinoid X receptors: an unexpected mode of DNA recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:422-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, oligomer formation plays an important role in determining the specificity of DNA recognition by nuclear receptors and contributes to isoform-dependent differences in gene regulation. ..
  4. Goncalves M, Agudo M, Connor S, McMahon S, Minger S, Maden M, et al. Sequential RARbeta and alpha signalling in vivo can induce adult forebrain neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons through Shh and FGF signalling pathways. Dev Biol. 2009;326:305-13 pubmed publisher
  5. Arfaoui A, Lobo M, Boulbaroud S, Ouichou A, Mesfioui A, Arenas M. Expression of retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors in normal and vitamin A deficient adult rat brain. Ann Anat. 2013;195:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the brain management of retinoic acid differs between males and females, also leading to differences in their response to VAD diet in terms of receptor expression. ..
  6. Hamada K, Gleason S, Levi B, Hirschfeld S, Appella E, Ozato K. H-2RIIBP, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that binds to both the regulatory element of major histocompatibility class I genes and the estrogen response element. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:8289-93 pubmed
    ..Sequences homologous to the H-2RIIBP gene are widely conserved in the animal kingdom. H-2RIIBP mRNA is expressed in many mouse tissues, in agreement with the distribution of the natural region II factor. ..
  7. Cheng B, Al Shammari F, Ghader I, Sequeira F, Thakkar J, Mathew T. Fundamental studies of adrenal retinoid-X-receptor: Protein isoform, tissue expression, subcellular distribution, and ligand availability. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;171:110-120 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings not only shed light on the adrenal network of RXRs but also provide baseline information for further investigations of RXR heterodimers in the regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis. ..
  8. Cheung B, Yan J, Smith S, Nguyen T, Lee M, Kavallaris M, et al. Growth inhibitory retinoid effects after recruitment of retinoid X receptor beta to the retinoic acid receptor beta promoter. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:856-67 pubmed
    ..RXRalpha may also participate in the retinoid signal, but through mechanisms that do not involve RARbeta...
  9. McGrane M. Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:497-508 pubmed
  10. Ben Shushan E, Sharir H, Pikarsky E, Bergman Y. A dynamic balance between ARP-1/COUP-TFII, EAR-3/COUP-TFI, and retinoic acid receptor:retinoid X receptor heterodimers regulates Oct-3/4 expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1034-48 pubmed
    ..RA receptor:retinoid X receptor (RAR:RXR) heterodimers, RAR alpha:RXR alpha, RAR beta:RXR alpha, and RAR beta:RXR beta, specifically bind and activate Oct-3/4 promoter through the RAREoct site in a ligand-dependent manner...