Gene Symbol: Rock1
Description: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1
Alias: P160Rock, ROCK-I, rho-associated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 1, Rho-associated kinase beta, liver regeneration-related protein LRRG199, p150 RhoA-binding kinase ROK beta, p160 ROCK-1, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase I
Species: rat
Products:     Rock1

Top Publications

  1. Yanazume T, Hasegawa K, Wada H, Morimoto T, Abe M, Kawamura T, et al. Rho/ROCK pathway contributes to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/GATA-4 during myocardial cell hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8618-25 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that changes in actin dynamics provide a convergence point for Rho/ROCK to the downstream signals during this process. ..
  2. Yoneda A, Ushakov D, Multhaupt H, Couchman J. Fibronectin matrix assembly requires distinct contributions from Rho kinases I and -II. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:66-75 pubmed
    ..Here, down-regulation of either rho kinase isoform (ROCK I or -II) by small interfering RNA treatment blocked fibronectin matrix assembly, although the phenotypes were ..
  3. Leung T, Chen X, Manser E, Lim L. The p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROK alpha is a member of a kinase family and is involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5313-27 pubmed
  4. Rosel D, Brabek J, Tolde O, Mierke C, Zitterbart D, Raupach C, et al. Up-regulation of Rho/ROCK signaling in sarcoma cells drives invasion and increased generation of protrusive forces. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1410-20 pubmed publisher
  5. Wyckoff J, Pinner S, Gschmeissner S, Condeelis J, Sahai E. ROCK- and myosin-dependent matrix deformation enables protease-independent tumor-cell invasion in vivo. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1515-23 pubmed
    ..Imaging of live tumors shows that MLC is organized in a similar ROCK-dependent fashion in vivo and that inhibition of ROCK but not matrix-metalloproteases reduces cancer cell motility in vivo. ..
  6. Honing H, van den Berg T, van der Pol S, Dijkstra C, van der Kammen R, Collard J, et al. RhoA activation promotes transendothelial migration of monocytes via ROCK. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:523-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that RhoA activation in monocytes is sufficient to enhance adhesion and migration across monolayers of endothelial cells. ..
  7. Ward Y, Yap S, Ravichandran V, Matsumura F, Ito M, Spinelli B, et al. The GTP binding proteins Gem and Rad are negative regulators of the Rho-Rho kinase pathway. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:291-302 pubmed
    ..In addition, Gem reverted the anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness of Dbl-transformed fibroblasts. These results identify physiological roles for Gem and Rad in cytoskeletal regulation mediated by ROK. ..
  8. An S, Pennella C, Gonnabathula A, Chen J, Wang N, Gaestel M, et al. Hypoxia alters biophysical properties of endothelial cells via p38 MAPK- and Rho kinase-dependent pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C521-30 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that hypoxia differentially regulates endothelial cell contraction and cellular-ECM adhesion. ..
  9. Yamaguchi S, Tanabe K, Takai S, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Adachi S, Iida H, et al. Involvement of Rho-kinase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-6 release from C6 glioma cells. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Rho-kinase inhibitor may be considered to be a new clinical candidate for the treatment of CNS disorders in addition to cerebral vasospasms. ..

More Information


  1. Jin L, Liu T, Lagoda G, Champion H, Bivalacqua T, Burnett A. Elevated RhoA/Rho-kinase activity in the aged rat penis: mechanism for age-associated erectile dysfunction. FASEB J. 2006;20:536-8 pubmed
    ..05). Taken together, these data suggest that impaired erectile function during the aging process involves increased RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling, and this pathway may be exploited for the treatment of age-associated ED. ..
  2. Bian H, Zhou Y, Yu B, Shang D, Liu F, Li B, et al. Rho-kinase signaling pathway promotes the expression of PARP to accelerate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:2002-2008 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results of the present study suggested that the inhibition of ROCK leads to reduced myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the PARP/ERK signaling pathway. ..
  3. Hunter J, Zeidan A, Javadov S, Kilic A, Rajapurohitam V, Karmazyn M. Nitric oxide inhibits endothelin-1-induced neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via a RhoA-ROCK-dependent pathway. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be important in understanding the mechanisms of anti-ET-1 and anti-hypertrophic effects of NO as well as in the development of novel RhoA-targeted therapeutic interventions for treating cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  4. Bear M, Liu T, Abualkhair S, Ghamloush M, Hill N, Preston I, et al. Alpha-Catulin Co-Localizes With Vimentin Intermediate Filaments and Functions in Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cell Migration via ROCK. J Cell Physiol. 2016;231:934-43 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 934-943, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  5. Cui Y, Sun Y, Lin H, Su W, Fang Y, Zhao Y, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and rat vascular smooth muscle cell migration via ROCK and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;393:255-63 pubmed publisher
  6. El Sibai M, Pertz O, Pang H, Yip S, Lorenz M, Symons M, et al. RhoA/ROCK-mediated switching between Cdc42- and Rac1-dependent protrusion in MTLn3 carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1540-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data describe a novel role for Rho in coordinating signaling by Rac and Cdc42. ..
  7. Uehata M, Ishizaki T, Satoh H, Ono T, Kawahara T, Morishita T, et al. Calcium sensitization of smooth muscle mediated by a Rho-associated protein kinase in hypertension. Nature. 1997;389:990-4 pubmed
    ..We identified the Y-27632 target as a Rho-associated protein kinase, p160ROCK. Y-27632 consistently suppresses Rho-induced, p160ROCK-mediated formation of stress fibres in cultured cells and ..
  8. Ohashi K, Nagata K, Maekawa M, Ishizaki T, Narumiya S, Mizuno K. Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3577-82 pubmed
  9. Yang L, Zheng B, Cheng D, Su Q, Fan L, Yang Y, et al. [The effect of breviscapine on the pulmonary arterial pressure and the expression of Rho-kinase in pulmonary arterioles of hypoxic rats]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2008;31:826-30 pubmed
    ..37 +/- 0.13 and 1.59 +/- 0.31, respectively, t = 3.94, 5.83, P < 0.05). Breviscapine was shown to prevent hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and decrease Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase mRNA. ..
  10. Kobayashi K, Takahashi M, Matsushita N, Miyazaki J, Koike M, Yaginuma H, et al. Survival of developing motor neurons mediated by Rho GTPase signaling pathway through Rho-kinase. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3480-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the Rho signaling pathway, primarily through Rho-kinase, plays a crucial role in survival of spinal MNs during embryogenesis, particularly at the early developmental stages. ..
  11. Yu Y, Qin J, Liu M, Ruan Q, Li Y, Zhang Z. Role of Rho kinase in lysophosphatidic acid-induced altering of blood-brain barrier permeability. Int J Mol Med. 2014;33:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, results of the present study suggest that LPA increases BBB permeability, which may be due to the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway and the subsequent production of proteolytic enzymes MMP-9 and uPA. ..
  12. Jeon S, Kim S, Park J, Suh P, Kim Y, Bae C, et al. RhoA and Rho kinase-dependent phosphorylation of moesin at Thr-558 in hippocampal neuronal cells by glutamate. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16576-84 pubmed
  13. Radeff J, Nagy Z, Stern P. Rho and Rho kinase are involved in parathyroid hormone-stimulated protein kinase C alpha translocation and IL-6 promoter activity in osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1882-91 pubmed
    ..difficile toxin B or Y27632. These results indicate that Rho proteins are an important component of PTH signaling in osteoblastic cells and provide further demonstration of convergence between PKC and small G-protein signaling pathways. ..
  14. Gonzalez Forero D, Montero F, García Morales V, Domínguez G, Gómez Pérez L, Garcia Verdugo J, et al. Endogenous Rho-kinase signaling maintains synaptic strength by stabilizing the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci. 2012;32:68-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might be present in adults since unilateral microinjection of ROCK or MLCK inhibitors into the hypoglossal nucleus reduced or increased, respectively, whole XIIth nerve activity. ..
  15. Sun Q, Yue P, Ying Z, Cardounel A, Brook R, Devlin R, et al. Air pollution exposure potentiates hypertension through reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of Rho/ROCK. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..mediated mechanism for PM(2.5) and UFP effects. Short-term air pollution exaggerates hypertension through O(2)(.-)-mediated upregulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway. ..
  16. Toba M, Nagaoka T, Morio Y, Sato K, Uchida K, Homma N, et al. Involvement of Rho kinase in the pathogenesis of acute pulmonary embolism-induced polystyrene microspheres in rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..1 +/- 8.5 Torr, PE, PE+HA1077, PE+Y27632) in the PE rats. These results suggest that pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and activation of Rho kinase may contribute to the potentiation of vasoconstriction and hypoxemia in the PE rats. ..
  17. Zhang C, Wu Y, Xuan Z, Zhang S, Wang X, Hao Y, et al. p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways are involved in influenza-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and hyperpermeability in PMVEC via phosphorylating ERM. Virus Res. 2014;192:6-15 pubmed publisher evidenced by the evaluation of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated MKK (p-MKK) in p38MAPK pathway, ROCK1 in Rho/ROCK pathway and phosphorylated PKC (p-PKC) in PKC pathway...
  18. Wang Y, Zheng X, Riddick N, Bryden M, Baur W, Zhang X, et al. ROCK isoform regulation of myosin phosphatase and contractility in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2009;104:531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are expressed in many tissues, yet the isoform-specific roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in vascular smooth ..
  19. Gao H, Hou F, Dong R, Wang Z, Zhao C, Tang W, et al. Rho-Kinase inhibitor fasudil suppresses high glucose-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis through activation of autophagy. Cardiovasc Ther. 2016;34:352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA levels were determined using quantitative real-time PCR...
  20. Kroll J, Epting D, Kern K, Dietz C, Feng Y, Hammes H, et al. Inhibition of Rho-dependent kinases ROCK I/II activates VEGF-driven retinal neovascularization and sprouting angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and angiogenesis has been studied in detail, the function of its target proteins, the Rho-dependent kinases ROCK I and II, are controversially discussed...
  21. Waddingham M, Edgley A, Astolfo A, Inagaki T, Fujii Y, Du C, et al. Chronic Rho-kinase inhibition improves left ventricular contractile dysfunction in early type-1 diabetes by increasing myosin cross-bridge extension. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:92 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In all rats there was an inverse correlation between ROCK1 expression and the extension of myosin CB in diastole, with the lowest ROCK expression in control and fasudil-..
  22. Xie Z, Gong M, Su W, Xie D, Turk J, Guo Z. Role of calcium-independent phospholipase A2beta in high glucose-induced activation of RhoA, Rho kinase, and CPI-17 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility in diabetic animals. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8628-38 pubmed publisher
  23. Chen L, Wang G, Liu J, Wang H, Liu X, Wang Q, et al. miR-135a modulates tendon stem/progenitor cell senescence via suppressing ROCK1. Bone. 2015;71:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, it has been reported that Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) might be a key player in TSPC aging process. miRNAs are also involved in cellular senescence...
  24. Panupinthu N, Zhao L, Possmayer F, Ke H, Sims S, Dixon S. P2X7 nucleotide receptors mediate blebbing in osteoblasts through a pathway involving lysophosphatidic acid. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3403-12 pubmed
    ..This pathway may contribute to P2X7-stimulated osteogenesis during skeletal development and mechanotransduction. ..
  25. Ongusaha P, Qi H, Raj L, Kim Y, Aaronson S, Davis R, et al. Identification of ROCK1 as an upstream activator of the JIP-3 to JNK signaling axis in response to UVB damage. Sci Signal. 2008;1:ra14 pubmed publisher
    ..of the JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP-3) scaffolding protein as an interacting partner of Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1), as determined by tandem affinity protein purification...
  26. Ning N, Lin G, Lue T, Lin C. Effects of estrogen, raloxifene, and levormeloxifene on the expression of Rho-kinase signaling molecules in urethral smooth muscle cells. Urology. 2010;76:1517.e6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Estrogen, raloxifene, and levormeloxifene may affect urinary continence by inhibiting the expression of Rho-kinase signaling molecules. ..
  27. Yang Z, Wang J, Liu X, Cheng Y, Deng L, Zhong Y. Y-39983 downregulates RhoA/Rho-associated kinase expression during its promotion of axonal regeneration. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot ..
  28. Wu J, Yuan X, Wang Q, Wei W, Xu M. Rho/ROCK acts downstream of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 in modulating P2X3 receptor-mediated bone cancer pain in rats. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed publisher
    ..Lysophosphatidic acid and its receptor LPAR1, acting through the Rho-ROCK pathway, regulate P2X3 receptor in the development of both mechanical and spontaneous pain in bone cancer. ..
  29. Newell Litwa K, Badoual M, Asmussen H, Patel H, Whitmore L, Horwitz A. ROCK1 and 2 differentially regulate actomyosin organization to drive cell and synaptic polarity. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:225-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, differentially regulate distinct molecular pathways downstream of RhoA, and their coordinated ..
  30. Schram K, Ganguly R, No E, Fang X, Thong F, Sweeney G. Regulation of MT1-MMP and MMP-2 by leptin in cardiac fibroblasts involves Rho/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeletal reorganization and leads to enhanced cell migration. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2037-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent pro-MMP-2 activation then contributes to stimulation of cell migration. ..
  31. Al Shboul O. The role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in gender-dependent differences in gastric smooth muscle contraction. J Physiol Sci. 2016;66:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 protein and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced activation of RhoA and ROCK were measured using a specifically ..
  32. Chu S, Mao X, Guo H, Wang L, Li Z, Zhang Y, et al. Indoxyl sulfate potentiates endothelial dysfunction via reciprocal role for reactive oxygen species and RhoA/ROCK signaling in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Free Radic Res. 2017;51:237-252 pubmed publisher
  33. Ishiuchi T, Takeichi M. Willin and Par3 cooperatively regulate epithelial apical constriction through aPKC-mediated ROCK phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have uncovered a Willin/Par3-aPKC-ROCK pathway that controls epithelial apical morphology...
  34. Da Silva J, Hasegawa T, Miyagi T, Dotti C, Abad Rodriguez J. Asymmetric membrane ganglioside sialidase activity specifies axonal fate. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:606-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, spatial restriction of an actin-regulating molecular machinery, in this case a membrane enzymatic activity, before polarization is enough to determine axonal fate. ..
  35. Miñambres R, Guasch R, Perez Arago A, Guerri C. The RhoA/ROCK-I/MLC pathway is involved in the ethanol-induced apoptosis by anoikis in astrocytes. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:271-82 pubmed
    ..All of these findings strongly support that ethanol-exposed astrocytes undergo apoptosis by anoikis and also that the RhoA/ROCK-I/MLC pathway participates in this process. ..
  36. Hammar E, Tomas A, Bosco D, Halban P. Role of the Rho-ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) signaling pathway in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2072-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that inhibition of this pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which the extracellular matrix exerts its beneficial effects on pancreatic beta-cell function. ..
  37. Kamai T, Arai K, Sumi S, Tsujii T, Honda M, Yamanishi T, et al. The rho/rho-kinase pathway is involved in the progression of testicular germ cell tumour. BJU Int. 2002;89:449-53 pubmed
    ..001). These findings suggest that the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway is involved in the progression of testicular GCT. This pathway might be a molecular target for new treatment strategies for this disease. ..
  38. Barreiro O, Yanez Mo M, Serrador J, Montoya M, Vicente Manzanares M, Tejedor R, et al. Dynamic interaction of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 with moesin and ezrin in a novel endothelial docking structure for adherent leukocytes. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:1233-45 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first characterization of an endothelial docking structure that plays a key role in the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium during inflammation. ..
  39. Sumi T, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T. Specific activation of LIM kinase 2 via phosphorylation of threonine 505 by ROCK, a Rho-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:670-6 pubmed
    ..Together with the finding that LIMK1 is regulated by Pak1, LIMK1 and LIMK2 are regulated by different protein kinases downstream of distinct Rho family GTPases. ..
  40. Ramseyer V, Hong N, Garvin J. Tumor necrosis factor ? decreases nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression primarily via Rho/Rho kinase in the thick ascending limb. Hypertension. 2012;59:1145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that some of the beneficial effects of ROCK inhibitors in hypertension could be attributed to the mitigation of TNF-?-induced reduction in NOS3 expression. ..
  41. Fukui S, Fukumoto Y, Suzuki J, Saji K, Nawata J, Tawara S, et al. Long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase ameliorates diastolic heart failure in hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Rho-kinase pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DHF and thus could be an important therapeutic target for the disorder. ..
  42. Zhao Y, Lv M, Lin H, Cui Y, Wei X, Qin Y, et al. Rho-associated protein kinase isoforms stimulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells through ERK and induction of cyclin D1 and PCNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;432:488-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reported that ROCK1, rather than ROCK2, induces platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated migration of VSMCs...
  43. Chen X, Dun J, Miao Q, Zhang Y. Fasudil hydrochloride hydrate, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, suppresses 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via JNK and ERK1/2 pathway. Pharmacology. 2009;83:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasudil effectively suppressed 5-HT-induced PASMC proliferation and cell-cycle progression, which was associated with inhibition of JNK activation, ERK translocation to nucleus and subsequent c-fos and c-jun expression. ..
  44. Huang L, He Z, Guo L, Wang H. Improvement of cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia via relative long-term inhibition of rho-kinase. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:757-68 pubmed
    ..4) Taken together, our data further support the notion that the inhibition of Rho-kinase provides neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia. ..
  45. Ogata T, Ueyama T, Isodono K, Tagawa M, Takehara N, Kawashima T, et al. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein that modulates the Rho/ROCK pathway, induces cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3424-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that MURC modulates RhoA signaling and that MURC plays an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance with increased vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias. ..
  46. Williams J, Johnson A, Stelloh C, Dreisbach A, Franceschini N, Regner K, et al. Genetic variants in Arhgef11 are associated with kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. Hypertension. 2012;60:1157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings demonstrate that allelic variants in Arhgef11, acting through the Rho-ROCK pathway, could influence kidney injury in the S as well as provide insight into human kidney disease. ..
  47. Ito D, Ito O, Mori N, Muroya Y, Cao P, Takashima K, et al. Atorvastatin upregulates nitric oxide synthases with Rho-kinase inhibition and Akt activation in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2010;28:2278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The renal nitric oxide system, Rho-kinase and Akt may contribute to the antihypertensive and renoprotective effects of statins. ..
  48. Clark P, Kim R, Pober J, Kluger M. Tumor necrosis factor disrupts claudin-5 endothelial tight junction barriers in two distinct NF-κB-dependent phases. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120075 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TNF disrupts TJs in HDMECs in two distinct NF-κB-dependent steps, the first involving Rho-associated kinase and the second likely to involve an as yet unidentified but structurally related protein kinase(s). ..
  49. Lock F, Hotchin N. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8190 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian serine/threonine kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are well-characterised downstream effectors of the small GTPase RhoA...
  50. Nagaoka T, Gebb S, Karoor V, Homma N, Morris K, McMurtry I, et al. Involvement of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in pulmonary hypertension of the fawn-hooded rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:996-1002 pubmed
  51. Villalba N, CONTRERAS C, Hernández M, García Sacristán A, Prieto D. Impaired Ca2+ handling in penile arteries from prediabetic Zucker rats: involvement of Rho kinase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H2044-53 pubmed publisher
  52. Martinsen A, Baeyens N, Yerna X, Morel N. Rho kinase regulation of vasopressin-induced calcium entry in vascular smooth muscle cell: comparison between rat isolated aorta and cultured aortic cells. Cell Calcium. 2012;52:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underline the important differences in Ca(2+) regulation between whole tissue and cultured cells. ..
  53. Jing J, Chen L, Fu H, Fan K, Yao Q, Ge Y, et al. Annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation involves Ect2 via RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9437 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus conclude that Ect2 is involved in annexin V-induced rat Leydig cell proliferation through the RhoA/ROCK pathway. ..
  54. Ávila Rodríguez D, Solano Agama C, Gonzalez Pozos S, Vicente Méndez Méndez J, Ortiz Plata A, Arreola Mendoza L, et al. The shift in GH3 cell shape and cell motility is dependent on MLCK and ROCK. Exp Cell Res. 2017;354:1-17 pubmed publisher
  55. Castañeda P, Muñoz M, García Rojo G, Ulloa J, Bravo J, Márquez R, et al. Association of N-cadherin levels and downstream effectors of Rho GTPases with dendritic spine loss induced by chronic stress in rat hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2015;93:1476-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a dysregulation of RhoA-ROCK activity by chronic stress could potentially underlie spine loss in hippocampal neurons. ..
  56. Hamid S, Bower H, Baxter G. Rho kinase activation plays a major role as a mediator of irreversible injury in reperfused myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2598-606 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of ROCK at reperfusion onset limits infarct size through an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ROCK activation at reperfusion may be deleterious through suppression of the RISK pathway. ..
  57. Rodriguez Pallares J, Rodriguez Perez A, Munoz A, Parga J, Toledo Aral J, Labandeira Garcia J. Effects of Rho Kinase Inhibitors on Grafts of Dopaminergic Cell Precursors in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;5:804-15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, treatment of the host (patients with PD) with ROCK inhibitors, currently used against vascular diseases, may be a useful adjuvant to cell therapy in PD. ..
  58. Hildebrand J. Shroom regulates epithelial cell shape via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5191-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, Shroom likely facilitates neural tube closure by regulating cell shape changes via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network in the neurepithelium. ..
  59. Zhao Y, Lv M, Lin H, Hong Y, Yang F, Sun Y, et al. ROCK1 induces ERK nuclear translocation in PDGF-BB-stimulated migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study thus aimed to investigate the roles of ROCK1/2 and their relationship to the MAPK signaling pathway in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced rat aorta ..
  60. Hu Y, Zou Y, Huang Y, Zhang Y, Lourenco G, Chen S, et al. ROCK1 Is Associated with Alzheimer's Disease-Specific Plaques, as well as Enhances Autophagosome Formation But not Autophagic A? Clearance. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10:253 pubmed
    ..amyloid plaque formation and increased tau deposition, which is modulated by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1). In this study, we further analyze whether ROCK1 regulates the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP)...
  61. Ahmed Z, Berry M, Logan A. ROCK inhibition promotes adult retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth only in the presence of growth promoting factors. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Y27632-induced ROCK inhibition promotes robust disinhibited axon regeneration of adult neurons only when growth promoting factors are added and/or cAMP levels are raised. ..
  62. Dash P, Orsi S, Moody M, Moore A. A role for hippocampal Rho-ROCK pathway in long-term spatial memory. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:893-8 pubmed
    ..Post-training intrahippocampal infusion of an inhibitor of the downstream effector kinase p160ROCK impaired long-term memory...
  63. Herskowitz J, Feng Y, Mattheyses A, Hales C, Higginbotham L, Duong D, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of ROCK2 suppresses amyloid-? production in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19086-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that ROCK1 knockdown increased endogenous human A? production, whereas ROCK2 knockdown decreased A? levels...
  64. Takeuchi S, Katoh H, Negishi M. Eph/ephrin reverse signalling induces axonal retraction through RhoA/ROCK pathway. J Biochem. 2015;158:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Eph/ephrin reverse signalling negatively regulates axonal outgrowth and branching through RhoA/ROCK pathway in hippocampal neurons. ..
  65. Kosla J, Panková D, Plachy J, Tolde O, Bicanova K, Dvorak M, et al. Metastasis of aggressive amoeboid sarcoma cells is dependent on Rho/ROCK/MLC signaling. Cell Commun Signal. 2013;11:51 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that protease-independent invasion controlled by elements of the Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway can be frequently exploited by metastatic sarcoma cells. ..
  66. Stroeken P, Alvarez B, van Rheenen J, Wijnands Y, Geerts D, Jalink K, et al. Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) interacts with the ROCK-I kinase at the plasma membrane. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:620-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ICAP-1-mediated binding of ROCK to beta1 integrin serves to localize the ROCK-I kinase to both the leading edge and the trailing edge where ROCK affects cell migration. ..
  67. Zhang J, Yang G, Zhu Y, Peng X, Li T, Liu L. Role of connexin 43 in vascular hyperpermeability and relationship to Rock1-MLC20 pathway in septic rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L1323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..VECs) from pulmonary veins, the role of Cx43 in increased vascular permeability and its relationship to the RhoA/Rock1 pathway were studied...
  68. Bermel C, Tönges L, Planchamp V, Gillardon F, Weishaupt J, Dietz G, et al. Combined inhibition of Cdk5 and ROCK additively increase cell survival, but not the regenerative response in regenerating retinal ganglion cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:427-37 pubmed publisher
  69. Wen W, Liu W, Yan J, Zhang M. Structure basis and unconventional lipid membrane binding properties of the PH-C1 tandem of rho kinases. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the analysis of all split PH domains with known structures indicates that split PH domains represent a unique class of tandem protein modules, each possessing distinct structural and functional features. ..
  70. Pawlak G, Helfman D. MEK mediates v-Src-induced disruption of the actin cytoskeleton via inactivation of the Rho-ROCK-LIM kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26927-33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results establish MEK as an effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeleton disruption, participating in v-Src-induced antagonism of the cellular function of Rho. ..
  71. Meyer T, Schwesinger C, Sampogna R, Vaughn D, Stuart R, Steer D, et al. Rho kinase acts at separate steps in ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme morphogenesis during kidney development. Differentiation. 2006;74:638-47 pubmed
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    ..Moreover, the DIL domain of afadin appears to be responsible for actin stress fiber formation. Thus, afadin mediates RhoA/ROCK signaling and contributes to the formation of actin stress fibers in podocyte cells. ..
  73. Orlando K, Pittman R. Rho kinase regulates phagocytosis, surface expression of GlcNAc, and Golgi fragmentation of apoptotic PC12 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3298-311 pubmed
    ..These data highlight the role of ROCK in multiple processes in the execution phase of apoptosis, and suggest that ROCK plays an important role in controlling the outcome of apoptosis, that is, preparation of corpses for phagocytosis. ..
  74. Hannemann S, Madrid R, Stastna J, Kitzing T, Gasteier J, Schönichen A, et al. The Diaphanous-related Formin FHOD1 associates with ROCK1 and promotes Src-dependent plasma membrane blebbing. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that FHOD1 physically associates via the N-terminal part of its FH2 domain with the central domain of ROCK1. Although FHOD1 does not affect the kinase activity of ROCK1, the DRF is an efficient substrate for ..
  75. Xie L, Zeng D, Zhang H, Sun D, Pang X, Guan Q. Involvement of Rho-kinase in collar-induced vasoconstriction and vascular hypersensitivity to serotonin in rat carotid. Int J Cardiol. 2011;148:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase signal pathway, stimulated by AT(1) receptor, plays an important role in the collar-induced the change of vascular contractility and reactivity. ..
  76. Ma Z, Chu L, Liu H, Li J, Zhang Y, Liu W, et al. Paeoniflorin alleviates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats: Involvement with the ROCK/NF-?B pathway. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;38:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..PF has liver protective and anti-inflammatory effects in HCF diet-induced NASH rats. The possible mechanisms may be associated with inhibition of the ROCK/NF-?B signaling pathway in the NASH liver. ..
  77. Sakai H, Chiba Y, Misawa M. Role of Rho kinase in endothelin-1-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 in rat bronchial smooth muscle. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20:734-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, RhoA/ROCK/CPI-17 pathway is considered to play an important role in the ET-1-induced Ca(2+) sensitisation of bronchial smooth muscle contraction. ..
  78. Akhtar S, Yousif M, Dhaunsi G, Sarkhouh F, Chandrasekhar B, Attur S, et al. Activation of ErbB2 and Downstream Signalling via Rho Kinases and ERK1/2 Contributes to Diabetes-Induced Vascular Dysfunction. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67813 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, potential strategies aimed at modifying actions of signal transduction pathways involving ErbB2 pathway may prove to be beneficial in treatment of diabetes-induced vascular complications. ..