Gene Symbol: Rb1
Description: RB transcriptional corepressor 1
Alias: retinoblastoma-associated protein, Retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma), pRb, pp105
Species: rat
Products:     Rb1

Top Publications

  1. Beijersbergen R, Carlee L, Kerkhoven R, Bernards R. Regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-related p107 by G1 cyclin complexes. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1340-53 pubmed
    ..These kinases phosphorylate a number of cellular substrates, among which is the product of the retinoblastoma gene, pRb. Phosphorylation of pRb in late G1 causes the release of the transcription factor E2F from pRb, resulting in the ..
  2. Jori F, Melone M, Napolitano M, Cipollaro M, Cascino A, Giordano A, et al. RB and RB2/p130 genes demonstrate both specific and overlapping functions during the early steps of in vitro neural differentiation of marrow stromal stem cells. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:65-77 pubmed
    ..Both RB and RB2/P130 decreased cell proliferation rate. In pRb-overexpressing cells, the arrest of cell growth was also observed in the presence of the HDAC-inhibitor TSA, ..
  3. Lemaire C, Godefroy N, Costina Parvu I, Rincheval V, Renaud F, Trotot P, et al. Caspase-9 can antagonize p53-induced apoptosis by generating a p76(Rb) truncated form of Rb. Oncogene. 2005;24:3297-308 pubmed
    ..These results establish that a truncated form of Rb can display an antiapoptotic activity, rather than just being a by-product of Rb degradation. ..
  4. Choy K, Pang C, Yu C, Wong H, Ng J, Fan D, et al. Loss of heterozygosity and mutations are the major mechanisms of RB1 gene inactivation in Chinese with sporadic retinoblastoma. Hum Mutat. 2002;20:408 pubmed
    We investigated sequence alternation, promoter methylation, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the RB1 gene as possible mechanisms of its inactivation in retinoblastoma...
  5. Marino S, Vooijs M, van der Gulden H, Jonkers J, Berns A. Induction of medulloblastomas in p53-null mutant mice by somatic inactivation of Rb in the external granular layer cells of the cerebellum. Genes Dev. 2000;14:994-1004 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that loss of function of RB is essential for medulloblastoma development in the mouse and strongly support the hypothesis that medulloblastomas arise from multipotent precursor cells located in the EGL. ..
  6. Guo J, Sheng G, Warner B. Epidermal growth factor-induced rapid retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser780 and Ser795 is mediated by ERK1/2 in small intestine epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35992-8 pubmed
    ..It appears that ERK1/2 could be an important link between a mitogenic signal directly to Rb, thereby providing a rapid response mechanism between mitogen stimulation and cell cycle machinery. ..
  7. Akay C, Lindl K, Wang Y, White M, Isaacman Beck J, Kolson D, et al. Site-specific hyperphosphorylation of pRb in HIV-induced neurotoxicity. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;47:154-65 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the earliest events in cell cycle activation is hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, pRb (ppRb)...
  8. Yu Y, Luo X, Ren Q, Yi C, Yu Z, Xie X, et al. The involvement of upregulation and translocation of phospho-Rb in early neuronal apoptosis following focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1113-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Wen S, Jackson P, Van Etten R. The cytostatic function of c-Abl is controlled by multiple nuclear localization signals and requires the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor gene products. EMBO J. 1996;15:1583-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Abl inhibits cell proliferation by interacting with central elements of the cell cycle control apparatus in the nucleus, and suggest a direct connection between p53 and Rb in this growth-inhibitory pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Schwensen K, Burgess J, Graf N, Alexander S, Harris D, Phillips J, et al. Early cyst growth is associated with the increased nuclear expression of cyclin D1/Rb protein in an autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease rat model. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2011;117:e93-103 pubmed publisher
  2. Cozar Castellano I, Takane K, Bottino R, Balamurugan A, Stewart A. Induction of beta-cell proliferation and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation in rat and human islets using adenovirus-mediated transfer of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and cyclin D1. Diabetes. 2004;53:149-59 pubmed
    The major regulator of the gap-1/synthesis phase (G(1)/S) cell cycle checkpoint is the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and this is regulated in part by the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-4 and the D cyclins...
  3. Serrano M, Lin A, McCurrach M, Beach D, Lowe S. Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a. Cell. 1997;88:593-602 pubmed
    ..Negation of ras-induced senescence may be relevant during multistep tumorigenesis. ..
  4. Chen P, Liu F, Cai S, Lin X, Li A, Chen Y, et al. Inactivation of CtIP leads to early embryonic lethality mediated by G1 restraint and to tumorigenesis by haploid insufficiency. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3535-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this finding uncovers a novel G(1)/S regulation in that CtIP counteracts Rb-mediated G(1) restraint. Deregulation of this function leads to a defect in early embryogenesis and contributes, in part, to tumor formation. ..
  5. Woitach J, Zhang M, Niu C, Thorgeirsson S. A retinoblastoma-binding protein that affects cell-cycle control and confers transforming ability. Nat Genet. 1998;19:371-4 pubmed
  6. Bromberg Z, Raj N, Goloubinoff P, Deutschman C, Weiss Y. Enhanced expression of 70-kilodalton heat shock protein limits cell division in a sepsis-induced model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:246-55 pubmed
    ..Heat shock protein 70-induced attenuation of cell proliferation may be a useful strategy for limiting lung injury when treating acute respiratory distress syndrome if consistent in later time points. ..
  7. Jung J, Kim T, Lyons G, Kim H, Lee Y. Jumonji regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation via interaction with retinoblastoma protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30916-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that JMJ down-regulates the cell growth via interaction with Rb, which would provide important insights into the cardiac defects observed in jmj mutant mice. ..
  8. Reed C, Hutcheson J, Mayhew C, Witkiewicz A, Knudsen E. RB tumor suppressive function in response to xenobiotic hepatocarcinogens. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1853-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the context specificity of RB and the key role RB plays in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma driven by xenobiotic stress. ..
  9. Kalitsis P, Fowler K, Griffiths B, Earle E, Chow C, Jamsen K, et al. Increased chromosome instability but not cancer predisposition in haploinsufficient Bub3 mice. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005;44:29-36 pubmed
    ..Crossing Bub3(+/-) mice onto a heterozygous tumor-suppressor background of Trp53 or Rb1 similarly revealed no substantial differences in either the number or the rate at which tumors appeared...
  10. Esumi M, Idutsu T, Kinugasa S, Ohno M, Nakabayashi H, Ikeda T, et al. Isolation and sequence polymorphism of a rat retinoblastoma (RB) cDNA. Gene. 1995;161:231-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the rat RB cDNA and its sequence information may be useful for clarifying the role of the RB protein and genetic linkage analysis in basic biomedical research using rats, especially in experimental carcinogenesis. ..
  11. KINNEY E, Tanida S, Rodrigue A, Johnson J, Tompkins V, Sakamuro D. Adenovirus E1A oncoprotein liberates c-Myc activity to promote cell proliferation through abating Bin1 expression via an Rb/E2F1-dependent mechanism. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel G1 arrest signaling mechanism by which Rb indirectly curbs oncogenic c-Myc activity via sustaining Bin1 expression. ..
  12. Bastide K, Guilly M, Bernaudin J, Joubert C, Lectard B, Levalois C, et al. Molecular analysis of the Ink4a/Rb1-Arf/Tp53 pathways in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Lung Cancer. 2009;63:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a tendency for an inverse correlation between p16(Ink4a) and pRb protein expression was observed...
  13. Ozaki T, Sakiyama S. Interaction of rat Cdc37-related protein with retinoblastoma gene product. DNA Cell Biol. 1996;15:975-9 pubmed
    ..Cdc37-related protein (RCdc37) could associate specifically with the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRB)...
  14. Wen H, Ao S. RBP95, a novel leucine zipper protein, binds to the retinoblastoma protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:141-8 pubmed
    We recently identified a novel cDNA encoding a retinoblastoma protein (pRb)-associated protein. It was named RBP95, which was composed of 838 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular size of 94,789 Da...
  15. Batsche E, Moschopoulos P, Desroches J, Bilodeau S, Drouin J. Retinoblastoma and the related pocket protein p107 act as coactivators of NeuroD1 to enhance gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16088-95 pubmed
    ..The action of Rb and its related proteins on POMC transcription may contribute to the establishment and/or maintenance of the differentiation phenotype. ..
  16. Yao G, Lee T, Mori S, Nevins J, You L. A bistable Rb-E2F switch underlies the restriction point. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that, at critical concentrations and duration of serum stimulation, bistable E2F activation correlates directly with the ability of a cell to traverse the R-point. ..
  17. Yuan S, Yeh Y, Lee E. Pax-2 interacts with RB and reverses its repression on the promoter of Rig-1, a Robo member. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:1019-25 pubmed
    ..In summary, the ubiquitous tumor suppressor RB and the neuron-enriched transcription factor Pax-2 may play a role in the regulation of Rig-1 expression during embryogenesis. ..
  18. Rubin S, Gall A, Zheng N, Pavletich N. Structure of the Rb C-terminal domain bound to E2F1-DP1: a mechanism for phosphorylation-induced E2F release. Cell. 2005;123:1093-106 pubmed
    ..Our findings explain the requirement of RbC for high-affinity E2F binding and growth suppression and establish a mechanism for the regulation of Rb-E2F association by phosphorylation. ..
  19. Robertson K, Ait Si Ali S, Yokochi T, Wade P, Jones P, Wolffe A. DNMT1 forms a complex with Rb, E2F1 and HDAC1 and represses transcription from E2F-responsive promoters. Nat Genet. 2000;25:338-42 pubmed
    ..These results establish a link between DNA methylation, histone deacetylase and sequence-specific DNA binding activity, as well as a growth-regulatory pathway that is disrupted in nearly all cancer cells. ..
  20. Yang Q, Liu D, Long Y, Liu H, Chai W, Wang X. Acute renal failure during sepsis: potential role of cell cycle regulation. J Infect. 2009;58:459-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the expression of p21, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4 and P-pRb was also measured by western blot...
  21. Kuijper A, de Vos R, Lagendijk J, van der Wall E, van Diest P. Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005;123:690-8 pubmed
    ..tumor pathogenesis by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma protein (pRb), p53, p16INK4A, bcl-2, and p21waf1 in the epithelium and stroma of 40 primary (benign, 21; borderline, 8; ..
  22. Hille S, Dierck F, Kühl C, Sosna J, Adam Klages S, Adam D, et al. Dyrk1a regulates the cardiomyocyte cell cycle via D-cyclin-dependent Rb/E2f-signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;110:381-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, cardiomyocytes overexpressing Dyrk1a display hypo-phosphorylated Rb1, suppression of Rb/E2f-signalling, and reduced expression of E2f-target genes, which ultimately results in impaired ..
  23. Francis S, Chakrabarti S, Dick F. A context-specific role for retinoblastoma protein-dependent negative growth control in suppressing mammary tumorigenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16434 pubmed publisher
    ..The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) acts as the final barrier to prevent cells from entering into the cell cycle...
  24. Kommoss S, Du Bois A, Ridder R, Trunk M, Schmidt D, Pfisterer J, et al. Independent prognostic significance of cell cycle regulator proteins p16(INK4a) and pRb in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma including optimally debulked patients: a translational research subprotocol of a randomised study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft G. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:306-13 pubmed
    The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins p16(INK4a) and pRb is significantly associated with prognosis in ovarian carcinomas...
  25. Lavender P, Vandel L, Bannister A, Kouzarides T. The HMG-box transcription factor HBP1 is targeted by the pocket proteins and E1A. Oncogene. 1997;14:2721-8 pubmed
    ..We show by stable expression in NIH3T3 cells that HBP1 has the capacity to induce morphological transformation of cells in culture. ..
  26. Liu W, Liu X, Yang H, Zhu X, Yi H, Zhu X, et al. Phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb) is involved in neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury in adult rats. J Mol Histol. 2013;44:147-58 pubmed publisher
  27. Gjidoda A, Henry R. RNA polymerase III repression by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. ..
  28. Mantela J, Jiang Z, Ylikoski J, Fritzsch B, Zacksenhaus E, Pirvola U. The retinoblastoma gene pathway regulates the postmitotic state of hair cells of the mouse inner ear. Development. 2005;132:2377-88 pubmed
    ..We show here that the retinoblastoma gene Rb and the encoded protein pRb are expressed in differentiating and mature hair cells...
  29. Wu R, Jiang M, Beaudet A, Wu M. ARID4A and ARID4B regulate male fertility, a functional link to the AR and RB pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4616-21 pubmed publisher
  30. Moreno Navarrete J, Petrov P, Serrano M, Ortega F, García Ruiz E, Oliver P, et al. Decreased RB1 mRNA, protein, and activity reflect obesity-induced altered adipogenic capacity in human adipose tissue. Diabetes. 2013;62:1923-31 pubmed publisher
    Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes...
  31. Pahel G, Aulabaugh A, Short S, Barnes J, Painter G, Ray P, et al. Structural and functional characterization of the HPV16 E7 protein expressed in bacteria. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26018-25 pubmed
  32. Iavarone A, King E, Dai X, Leone G, Stanley E, Lasorella A. Retinoblastoma promotes definitive erythropoiesis by repressing Id2 in fetal liver macrophages. Nature. 2004;432:1040-5 pubmed
    ..1, a master regulator of macrophage differentiation. Thus, Rb has a cell autonomous function in fetal liver macrophages, and restrains Id2 in these cells in order to implement definitive erythropoiesis. ..
  33. Song H, Ramus S, Shadforth D, Quaye L, Kjaer S, Dicioccio R, et al. Common variants in RB1 gene and risk of invasive ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:10220-6 pubmed
    Somatic alteration of the RB1 gene is common in several types of cancer, and germ-line variants are implicated in others...
  34. Haitel A, Wiener H, Neudert B, Marberger M, Susani M. Expression of the cell cycle proteins p21, p27, and pRb in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and their prognostic significance. Urology. 2001;58:477-81 pubmed
    To determine whether p21, p27, and pRb can predict disease progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
  35. Angelis E, Garcia A, Chan S, Schenke Layland K, Ren S, Goodfellow S, et al. A cyclin D2-Rb pathway regulates cardiac myocyte size and RNA polymerase III after biomechanical stress in adult myocardium. Circ Res. 2008;102:1222-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Joshi B, Ordonez Ercan D, Dasgupta P, Chellappan S. Induction of human metallothionein 1G promoter by VEGF and heavy metals: differential involvement of E2F and metal transcription factors. Oncogene. 2005;24:2204-17 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we conclude that induction of the hMT1G promoter by VEGF and heavy metals occurs through the utilization of different transcription factors. ..
  37. Tan K, Turner K, Saunders P, Verhoeven G, De Gendt K, Atanassova N, et al. Androgen regulation of stage-dependent cyclin D2 expression in Sertoli cells suggests a role in modulating androgen action on spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:1151-60 pubmed
    ..Downstream from cyclin D2 action is retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), a tumor suppressor protein, immunoexpression of which paralleled stage-dependent AR expression in Sertoli cells; ..
  38. Fan G, Ma X, Kren B, Steer C. The retinoblastoma gene product inhibits TGF-beta1 induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes and human HuH-7 hepatoma cells. Oncogene. 1996;12:1909-19 pubmed
    ..effects appear to be linked to decreased phosphorylation of the protein product of the retinoblastoma gene, pRb. To characterize the role of pRb in apoptosis, we examined endogenous retinoblastoma gene (Rb) expression following ..
  39. Wang S, Zhang B, Faller D. Prohibitin requires Brg-1 and Brm for the repression of E2F and cell growth. EMBO J. 2002;21:3019-28 pubmed
  40. Park T, Kim H, Byun K, Jang J, Lee Y, Lim I. Sequential changes in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine plus thioacetamide in Fischer 344 rats: induction of gankyrin expression in liver fibrosis, pRB degradation in cirrhosis, and methylation of p16(INK4A) exon 1 in hepatocellular . Mol Carcinog. 2001;30:138-50 pubmed
    To clarify the sequential changes in pRB and p16 during different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis such as fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), male Fischer 344 rats were singly injected ..
  41. Hsu S, Yang C, Sim K, Hentschel D, O LEARY E, Bonventre J. TRIP-Br: a novel family of PHD zinc finger- and bromodomain-interacting proteins that regulate the transcriptional activity of E2F-1/DP-1. EMBO J. 2001;20:2273-85 pubmed
  42. Fu M, Landreville S, Agapova O, Wiley L, Shoykhet M, Harbour J, et al. Retinoblastoma protein prevents enteric nervous system defects and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:5152-64 pubmed publisher
    The retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and development...
  43. Spandidos D, Karaiossifidi H, Malliri A, Linardopoulos S, Vassilaros S, Tsikkinis A, et al. Expression of ras Rb1 and p53 proteins in human breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 1992;12:81-9 pubmed
    ..Both the retinoblastoma protein (Rb1) and the p53 gene product appear to function as negative regulators of cell division...
  44. Bajenaru M, Donahoe J, Corral T, Reilly K, Brophy S, Pellicer A, et al. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) heterozygosity results in a cell-autonomous growth advantage for astrocytes. Glia. 2001;33:314-23 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results provide evidence for a cell-autonomous growth advantage in Nf1+/- astrocytes and suggest that some of the brain pathology in individuals with NF1 might result from reduced, but not absent, NF1 gene function. ..
  45. Bieche I, Lidereau R. Loss of heterozygosity at 13q14 correlates with RB1 gene underexpression in human breast cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2000;29:151-8 pubmed
    ..LOH at 13q14 has been implicated in alterations of retinoblastoma gene (RB1) expression...
  46. Semczuk A, Miturski R, Skomra D, Jakowicki J. Expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins (pRb, cyclin D1, p16INK4A and cdk4) in human endometrial cancer: correlation with clinicopathological features. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;269:104-10 pubmed
    ..Currently, we assessed the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins (pRb, cyclin D1, p16(INK4A) and cdk4) in 48 sporadic endometrial cancers, and investigated these tumors for a possible ..
  47. Fujita N, Furukawa Y, Itabashi N, Okada K, Saito T, Ishibashi S. Differences in E2F subunit expression in quiescent and proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H204-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, both FBS and vasoconstrictive hormones drove transcription of the cdc6 gene by downregulating p130 and recruiting free E2F-3 in the latter, which underlies the progression of VSMC into S phase. ..
  48. Gill R, Hamel P. Subcellular compartmentalization of E2F family members is required for maintenance of the postmitotic state in terminally differentiated muscle. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1187-201 pubmed
    ..In these same cells, pRB family members, pRB, p107, and p130 were also nuclear...
  49. Ago K, Saegusa Y, Nishimura J, Dewa Y, Kemmochi S, Kawai M, et al. Involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling and aberrant nucleocytoplasmic localization of retinoblastoma protein in tumor promotion in a rat two-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010;62:269-80 pubmed publisher
  50. Hinrichsen R, Hansen A, Haunsø S, Busk P. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin D kinase is necessary for development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cell Prolif. 2008;41:813-29 pubmed publisher
    ..with a phosphorylation-specific antibody, we found that cyclin D-cdk4/6-phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) during hypertrophy and expression of an unphosphorylatable pRb mutant impaired hypertrophic growth in ..
  51. Liem D, Zhao P, Angelis E, Chan S, Zhang J, Wang G, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 signaling regulates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:610-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Cdk2 signaling pathways are critical regulators of cardiac I/R injury in vivo and support a cardioprotective role for Rb. ..
  52. Bartkova J, Lukas C, Sørensen C, Rajpert De Meyts E, Skakkebaek N, Lukas J, et al. Deregulation of the RB pathway in human testicular germ cell tumours. J Pathol. 2003;200:149-56 pubmed
    ..Components upstream of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB), namely the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, the D-type cyclins, their partner kinases ..
  53. Bollag B, Hofstetter C, Reviriego Mendoza M, Frisque R. JC virus small T antigen binds phosphatase PP2A and Rb family proteins and is required for efficient viral DNA replication activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10606 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains unclear how these proteins coordinate their unique and overlapping functions. ..
  54. Taylor M, Dehainault C, Desjardins L, Doz F, Levy C, Sastre X, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlations in hereditary familial retinoblastoma. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:284-93 pubmed
    We studied 50 unrelated pedigrees with a family history of retinoblastoma (Rb) (165 carriers of a RB1 mutation) to delineate the spectrum of RB1 germline mutations in familial Rb and to identify genotype-phenotype correlations as well as ..
  55. Stros M, Polanská E, Struncová S, Pospisilova S. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIalpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2070-86 pubmed publisher
    ..up-regulates the activity of the topo IIalpha promoter in human cells that lack functional retinoblastoma protein pRb. Transient over-expression of pRb in pRb-negative Saos-2 cells inhibits the ability of HMGB1 to activate the topo ..
  56. Hensey C, Hong F, Durfee T, Qian Y, Lee E, Lee W. Identification of discrete structural domains in the retinoblastoma protein. Amino-terminal domain is required for its oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1380-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the retinoblastoma protein contains multiple structural domains with the amino-terminal domains being required for oligomerization of the full-length protein. ..
  57. Khan M, Brandimarti R, Shimizu S, Nicolai J, Crowe E, Meucci O. The chemokine CXCL12 promotes survival of postmitotic neurons by regulating Rb protein. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is important to maintain CNS integrity in physiological conditions and prevent neuronal injury and loss typical of many neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. ..
  58. Collins M, Napoli I, Ribeiro S, Roberts S, Lloyd A. Loss of Rb cooperates with Ras to drive oncogenic growth in mammalian cells. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a new role for the Rb family in cell biogenesis and show that, as for other processes associated with tumor development, oncogenic cell growth is dependent on cooperating oncogenes. ..
  59. Ishido M, Kami K, Masuhara M. In vivo expression patterns of MyoD, p21, and Rb proteins in myonuclei and satellite cells of denervated rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C484-93 pubmed
    ..The present study provides a molecular basis to further understand the function of MyoD expressed in the myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei of denervated skeletal muscle. ..
  60. Panickar K, Nonner D, White M, Barrett J. Overexpression of Cdk5 or non-phosphorylatable retinoblastoma protein protects septal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:1852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus phosphorylation of the cell cycle regulator, Rb, contributes to death in OGD in septal neurons but Cdk5 can have a protective role. ..
  61. Angus S, Wheeler L, Ranmal S, Zhang X, Markey M, Mathews C, et al. Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor targets dNTP metabolism to regulate DNA replication. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44376-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, RB employs both canonical cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclin regulation and metabolic regulation as a means to limit proliferation, underscoring its potency in tumor suppression. ..
  62. Chun T, Wendell D, Gregg D, Gorski J. Estrogen-induced rat pituitary tumor is associated with loss of retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;146:87-92 pubmed
    ..Functional loss of retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRb), a major regulatory protein for the G1 to S transition of the cell cycle, has been shown in several tumors...
  63. Roy N, Ballesteros A, Garte S. Cloning and sequence of the rat retinoblastoma (Rb) gene cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:170 pubmed
  64. Niu Y, Li Y, Niu R, Lü A, Fu X. [Correlation of E2F-1 and Rb expression with papillomatosis and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2004;26:290-3 pubmed
    ..However, that of E2F-1 was negatively correlated with Rb. E2F-1 and Rb might provide a valuable basis for screening high risk papillomatosis and new target of gene therapy for pre-cancerous lesions of the breast. ..
  65. Lieman J, Worley L, Harbour J. Loss of Rb-E2F repression results in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis through inactivation of focal adhesion kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10484-90 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a new mechanistic link between Rb-E2F and the extrinsic (caspase 8-mediated) apoptotic pathway. ..
  66. Pizarro J, Folch J, de la Torre A, Junyent F, Verdaguer E, Jordan J, et al. ATM is involved in cell-cycle control through the regulation of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..affect the cell cycle, both treatments specifically decreased the levels of cyclin A and retinoblastoma protein (pRb), phosphorylated at Ser780...
  67. Alcalay M, Tomassoni L, Colombo E, Stoldt S, Grignani F, Fagioli M, et al. The promyelocytic leukemia gene product (PML) forms stable complexes with the retinoblastoma protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1084-93 pubmed
    ..We report that PML colocalizes with the nonphosphorylated fraction of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) within nuclear bodies and that pRB is delocalized by PML-RAR alpha expression...
  68. Cui L, Shi Y, Qian J, Dai G, Wang Y, Xia Y, et al. Deregulation of the p16-cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4-retinoblastoma pathway involved in the rat bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi. Urol Res. 2006;34:321-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that deregulation of p16-cyclin D1/Cdk4-Rb pathway, but not oncogenic activation of ras, plays a crucial role in bladder tumorigenesis induced by bladder calculi. ..
  69. Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem Sci. 2005;30:630-41 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications both for our current understanding of the role of Cdks in regulating the mammalian cell cycle and for their potential use as therapeutic targets in cancer. ..
  70. Simpson M, MacLaurin J, Xu D, Ferguson K, Vanderluit J, Davoli M, et al. Caspase 3 deficiency rescues peripheral nervous system defect in retinoblastoma nullizygous mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7089-98 pubmed
    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb, is a key regulator of cell cycle and has been implicated in the terminal differentiation of neuronal cells. Mice nullizygous for pRb die by embryonic day 14...
  71. Sahin F, Sladek T. E2F-1 has dual roles depending on the cell cycle. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:116-28 pubmed
    ..E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation...
  72. Sage J, Miller A, Perez Mancera P, Wysocki J, Jacks T. Acute mutation of retinoblastoma gene function is sufficient for cell cycle re-entry. Nature. 2003;424:223-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the use of conditional knockout strategies might refine our understanding of gene function and help to model human cancer more accurately. ..
  73. Kruse A, Skaland I, Munk A, Janssen E, Gudlaugsson E, Baak J. Low p53 and retinoblastoma protein expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 lesions is associated with coexistent adenocarcinoma in situ. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..G1 pathway epithelial cell cycle regulators (pRb, p53, cyclin D, p16) and Ki-67 were analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry in CIN3s with and without AIS...
  74. Konishi M, Asaki T, Koike N, Miwa H, Miyake A, Itoh N. Role of Fgf10 in cell proliferation in white adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;249:71-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, expression but not phosphorylation of pRb was impaired in the Fgf10(-/-) WAT...
  75. Iakova P, Awad S, Timchenko N. Aging reduces proliferative capacities of liver by switching pathways of C/EBPalpha growth arrest. Cell. 2003;113:495-506 pubmed
  76. Simone C, Bagella L, Bellan C, Giordano A. Physical interaction between pRb and cdk9/cyclinT2 complex. Oncogene. 2002;21:4158-65 pubmed
    ..In addition, previous reports have demonstrated that the cdk9 complex is able to phosphorylate p56/pRb in vitro...
  77. Lee E, Hu N, Yuan S, Cox L, Bradley A, Lee W, et al. Dual roles of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle regulation and neuron differentiation. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2008-21 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the p110RB protein not only regulates progression through the cell cycle but is also important for cell survival and differentiation. ..
  78. Jin J, Lehmann J, Taxy J, Huo D, Stockle M, Vogelzang N, et al. Phase II trial of adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2006;5:150-4 pubmed
    ..Tumor samples were immunohistochemically stained for pRB, p53, and p16. Thirty-five patients (90%) completed 4 cycles of chemotherapy...