Gene Symbol: Rarg
Description: retinoic acid receptor, gamma
Alias: retinoic acid receptor gamma
Species: rat
Products:     Rarg

Top Publications

  1. Lohnes D, Mark M, Mendelsohn C, Dolle P, Dierich A, Gorry P, et al. Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (I). Craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in RAR double mutants. Development. 1994;120:2723-48 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found further abnormalities not previously reported in VAD fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  2. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:712-25 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the considerable amount of knowledge generated on these receptors. ..
  3. Bour G, Plassat J, Bauer A, Lalevée S, Rochette Egly C. Vinexin beta interacts with the non-phosphorylated AF-1 domain of retinoid receptor gamma (RARgamma) and represses RARgamma-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17027-37 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which phosphorylation of the AF-1 domain controls RARgamma-mediated transcription through triggering the dissociation of vinexin beta. ..
  4. Lohnes D, Kastner P, Dierich A, Mark M, LeMeur M, Chambon P. Function of retinoic acid receptor gamma in the mouse. Cell. 1993;73:643-58 pubmed
    Null mutant mice for retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 (RAR gamma 2) or all RAR gamma isoforms were generated...
  5. Zhao X, Patton J, Davis S, Florence B, Ames S, Spanjaard R. Regulation of nuclear receptor activity by a pseudouridine synthase through posttranscriptional modification of steroid receptor RNA activator. Mol Cell. 2004;15:549-58 pubmed
    ..mPus1p-dependent pseudouridylation of SRA represents an additional type of posttranscriptional modification of a NR-coactivator complex that is important for NR signaling. ..
  6. Allan D, Houle M, Bouchard N, Meyer B, Gruss P, Lohnes D. RARgamma and Cdx1 interactions in vertebral patterning. Dev Biol. 2001;240:46-60 pubmed
    ..This finding, together with the increased phenotypic severity of RARgamma-Cdx1 double null mutants relative to single nulls, suggests that these pathways also function in parallel, likely by converging on common targets. ..
  7. Giguere V, Shago M, Zirngibl R, Tate P, Rossant J, Varmuza S. Identification of a novel isoform of the retinoic acid receptor gamma expressed in the mouse embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:2335-40 pubmed
    ..Multiple RAR isoforms, each of which may play a unique or combinatorial role as a regulator of mammalian development, are thus expressed in the mouse embryo. ..
  8. Rochette Egly C, Germain P. Dynamic and combinatorial control of gene expression by nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we will review these mechanisms, focusing on how kinase signaling and the proteasome pathway cooperate to influence the dynamics of RAR transcriptional activity. ..
  9. Sylvester I, Scholer H. Regulation of the Oct-4 gene by nuclear receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:901-11 pubmed
    ..Specifically, important roles for ARP-1 and RAR in Oct-4 expression are indicated. ..

More Information


  1. Weston A, Rosen V, Chandraratna R, Underhill T. Regulation of skeletal progenitor differentiation by the BMP and retinoid signaling pathways. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:679-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, retinoid signaling appears to play a novel and unexpected role in skeletogenesis by regulating the emergence of chondroblasts from skeletal progenitors. ..
  2. Latasa M, Ituero M, Moran Gonzalez A, Aranda A, Cosgaya J. Retinoic acid regulates myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, through a RAR-dependent mechanism, RA downregulates myelin-associated glycoprotein, which also contributes to the dysmyelinating effect of the retinoid. ..
  3. Lopes da Silva S, Van Horssen A, Chang C, Burbach J. Expression of nuclear hormone receptors in the rat supraoptic nucleus. Endocrinology. 1995;136:2276-83 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the peptide-producing magnocellular neurons of the SON express a specific set of transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor family. ..
  4. Chung J, Cho S, Kwon Y, Kim D, Kim K. Activation of retinoic acid receptor gamma induces proliferation of immortalized hippocampal progenitor cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;83:52-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data clearly indicate that activation of RARgamma increases proliferation of immortalized hippocampal progenitor cells. ..
  5. Chee L, Hendy J, Purton L, McArthur G. The granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) interacts with retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the regulation of myeloid differentiation. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, with the loss of G-CSFR, this expansion in granulopoiesis was attenuated, supporting the hypothesis that G-CSFR signaling interacts with RARs in the regulation of myeloid differentiation. ..
  6. Rochette Egly C, Lutz Y, Saunders M, Scheuer I, Gaub M, Chambon P. Retinoic acid receptor gamma: specific immunodetection and phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:535-45 pubmed
    Synthetic peptides corresponding to cDNA-deduced amino acid sequences unique to the human and mouse retinoic acid receptor gamma 1 (hRAR-gamma 1 and mRAR-gamma 1, respectively) were used to generate anti-RAR-gamma 1 antibodies...
  7. Feng Y, Yu Y, Yin M, Hong L, Cai W. Ectopic expression of retinoic acid receptors and change of myocardial structure in the offspring heart with vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:309-18 pubmed
  8. Pascual I, Larrayoz I, Rodriguez I. Retinoic acid regulates the human methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) gene via two distinct promoters. Genomics. 2009;93:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoter 2 contains a 65 bp putative enhancer region that is very active in the retinal pigment epithelium-derived D407 cell line. Both promoters are partially regulated by all-trans retinoic acid via RARA and other RARs. ..
  9. Su D, Gudas L. Retinoic acid receptor gamma activates receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 gene transcription through transcription factor GATA4 in F9 stem cells. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:624-41 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of RAR specificity in RA signaling should result in insights into hematopoietic stem cell signaling and potentially in improved therapies for several human diseases. ..
  10. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed
    ..We additionally show that RALDH1 and RALDH3 are the only enzymes that are required for RA synthesis in the eye region from E10.5 to E13.5, and that patterning of the dorsoventral axis of the retina does not require RA. ..
  11. Bellemère G, Von Stetten O, Oddos T. Retinoic acid increases aquaporin 3 expression in normal human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:542-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the present results show that ATRA increased AQP3 expression and enhanced biological activity in human skin. ..
  12. Williams J, Kondo N, Okabe T, Takeshita N, Pilchak D, Koyama E, et al. Retinoic acid receptors are required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function in postnatal mouse. Dev Biol. 2009;328:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since aggrecan is critical for growth plate function, its deficiency in RAR-mutant mice is likely to have contributed directly to their growth retardation. ..
  13. Xu Q, Konta T, Furusu A, Nakayama K, Lucio Cazana J, Fine L, et al. Transcriptional induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 by retinoids. Selective roles of nuclear receptors and contribution to the antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41693-700 pubmed
  14. Subbarayan V, Kastner P, Mark M, Dierich A, Gorry P, Chambon P. Limited specificity and large overlap of the functions of the mouse RAR gamma 1 and RAR gamma 2 isoforms. Mech Dev. 1997;66:131-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the occurrence of morphological defects in heterozygote mutants for a single RAR isoform provides a basis for explaining the strong conservation of these isoforms during vertebrate evolution. ..
  15. McGrane M. Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:497-508 pubmed
  16. Kumar A, Singh C, DiPette D, Singh U. Ethanol impairs activation of retinoic acid receptors in cerebellar granule cells in a rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings could provide insight into the treatment options for brain defects caused by excessive ethanol exposure, such as in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. ..
  17. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Thomazy V, Nagy L, Davies P, Chambon P, et al. Essential roles of retinoic acid signaling in interdigital apoptosis and control of BMP-7 expression in mouse autopods. Dev Biol. 1999;208:30-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, RA may exert some of its effects on anteroposterior autopod patterning through controlling BMP-7 expression. ..
  18. Grondona J, Kastner P, Gansmuller A, Decimo D, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinal dysplasia and degeneration in RARbeta2/RARgamma2 compound mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:2173-88 pubmed
    ..A majority of the RARbeta2 single null mutants also exhibit this latter defect, thus demonstrating that the RARbeta2 isoform plays a unique role in the formation of the definitive vitreous body...
  19. Prins G, Chang W, Wang Y, van Breemen R. Retinoic acid receptors and retinoids are up-regulated in the developing and adult rat prostate by neonatal estrogen exposure. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3628-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, we hypothesize that alterations in morphogenesis as well as dysplasia in the adult prostate may be mediated in part through augmentation of transcriptional signals in the retinoid pathway. ..