Gene Symbol: Rarb
Description: retinoic acid receptor, beta
Alias: retinoic acid receptor beta
Species: rat
Products:     Rarb

Top Publications

  1. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed
  2. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:712-25 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the considerable amount of knowledge generated on these receptors. ..
  3. Lohnes D, Mark M, Mendelsohn C, Dolle P, Dierich A, Gorry P, et al. Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (I). Craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in RAR double mutants. Development. 1994;120:2723-48 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found further abnormalities not previously reported in VAD fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  4. Nagpal S, Zelent A, Chambon P. RAR-beta 4, a retinoic acid receptor isoform is generated from RAR-beta 2 by alternative splicing and usage of a CUG initiator codon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:2718-22 pubmed
    An isoform of retinoic acid receptor beta, RAR-beta 4, has been identified. RAR-beta 4 is expressed under the control of the same retinoic acid-responsive promoter as RAR-beta 2...
  5. Rochette Egly C, Lutz Y, Saunders M, Scheuer I, Gaub M, Chambon P. Retinoic acid receptor gamma: specific immunodetection and phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:535-45 pubmed
    ..They were also used to demonstrate that the mRAR-gamma 1 protein can be phosphorylated and that the phosphorylation occurs mainly in the NH2-terminal A/B region. ..
  6. Ben Shushan E, Sharir H, Pikarsky E, Bergman Y. A dynamic balance between ARP-1/COUP-TFII, EAR-3/COUP-TFI, and retinoic acid receptor:retinoid X receptor heterodimers regulates Oct-3/4 expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1034-48 pubmed
  7. Goncalves M, Malmqvist T, Clarke E, Hubens C, Grist J, Hobbs C, et al. Neuronal RARβ Signaling Modulates PTEN Activity Directly in Neurons and via Exosome Transfer in Astrocytes to Prevent Glial Scar Formation and Induce Spinal Cord Regeneration. J Neurosci. 2015;35:15731-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of RARβ in the neuron inactivates phosphatase and tensin homolog and induces its transfer into the astrocytes in small vesicles, where it prevents scar formation. This may open new therapeutic avenues for SCIs. ..
  8. Prins G, Chang W, Wang Y, van Breemen R. Retinoic acid receptors and retinoids are up-regulated in the developing and adult rat prostate by neonatal estrogen exposure. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3628-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, we hypothesize that alterations in morphogenesis as well as dysplasia in the adult prostate may be mediated in part through augmentation of transcriptional signals in the retinoid pathway. ..
  9. Wang L, Tankersley L, Tang M, Potter J, Mezey E. Regulation of alpha 2(I) collagen expression in stellate cells by retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors through interactions with their cofactors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;428:92-8 pubmed
    ..acid (RA) suppresses alpha 2(I) collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells through the binding of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) to RA response elements (RAREs) in the alpha 2(I) ..

More Information


  1. Reboul P, George P, Louisot P, Broquet P. Study of retinoic acid effect upon retinoic acid receptors beta (RAR-beta) in C6 cultured glioma cells. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1995;36:1097-105 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that retinoic acid treatment of C6 cells led to a partial differentiation, the enhancement of the heavy form of RAR-beta being a marker of this phenomenon. ..
  2. Kettunen E, Hernandez Vargas H, Cros M, Durand G, Le Calvez Kelm F, Stuopelytė K, et al. Asbestos-associated genome-wide DNA methylation changes in lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:2014-2029 pubmed publisher
    ..DMRs in genes such as RARB (FDR 1.1 × 10-19 , mean change in beta [Δ] -0.09), GPR135 (FDR 1...
  3. Latasa M, Ituero M, Moran Gonzalez A, Aranda A, Cosgaya J. Retinoic acid regulates myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, through a RAR-dependent mechanism, RA downregulates myelin-associated glycoprotein, which also contributes to the dysmyelinating effect of the retinoid. ..
  4. Zhang X, Chen K, Chen J, Liu Y, Qu P, Li T. Effect of marginal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on retinoic acid receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the offspring of rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:1112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may affect the postnatal expression of RAR? and NR1, affecting learning and memory function in the hippocampus and synaptic plasticity of the calcium signaling pathway. ..
  5. Tateya T, Tateya I, Surles R, Tanumihardjo S, Bless D. Roles of vitamin A and macula flava in maintaining vocal folds. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:65-73 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that vitamin A is not essential to maintaining the extracellular matrix of normal adult vocal folds, although vocal fold stellate cells participate in vitamin A storage. ..
  6. Goncalves M, Agudo M, Connor S, McMahon S, Minger S, Maden M, et al. Sequential RARbeta and alpha signalling in vivo can induce adult forebrain neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons through Shh and FGF signalling pathways. Dev Biol. 2009;326:305-13 pubmed publisher
  7. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed
    ..We additionally show that RALDH1 and RALDH3 are the only enzymes that are required for RA synthesis in the eye region from E10.5 to E13.5, and that patterning of the dorsoventral axis of the retina does not require RA. ..
  8. Weston A, Rosen V, Chandraratna R, Underhill T. Regulation of skeletal progenitor differentiation by the BMP and retinoid signaling pathways. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:679-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, retinoid signaling appears to play a novel and unexpected role in skeletogenesis by regulating the emergence of chondroblasts from skeletal progenitors. ..
  9. Shirai T, Shichi Y, Sato M, Tanioka Y, Furusho T, Ota T, et al. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism. Nutr Res. 2016;36:262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, our data indicate that renal retinoic acid production might represent an important target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  10. Grondona J, Kastner P, Gansmuller A, Decimo D, Chambon P, Mark M. Retinal dysplasia and degeneration in RARbeta2/RARgamma2 compound mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:2173-88 pubmed
    ..A majority of the RARbeta2 single null mutants also exhibit this latter defect, thus demonstrating that the RARbeta2 isoform plays a unique role in the formation of the definitive vitreous body...
  11. Koriyama Y, Sugitani K, Ogai K, Kato S. Neuritogenic activity of trichostatin A in adult rat retinal ganglion cells through acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and RAR? induction. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;124:112-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated that a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, induced axonal regeneration of adult rat RGCs through RAR? induction. ..
  12. Zhao Y, Zhou H, Ma K, Sun J, Feng X, Geng J, et al. Abnormal methylation of seven genes and their associations with clinical characteristics in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Lett. 2013;5:1211-1218 pubmed
    ..NSCLC), we analyzed the methylation status of 13 genes (ALX1, BCL2, FOXL2, HPP1, MYF6, OC2, PDGFRA, PHOX2A, PITX2, RARB, SIX6, SMPD3 and SOX1) in cancer tissues from 101 cases of stage I NSCLC patients and lung tissues from 30 cases of ..
  13. Maheshwari A, Kurundkar A, Shaik S, Kelly D, Hartman Y, Zhang W, et al. Epithelial cells in fetal intestine produce chemerin to recruit macrophages. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1-G10 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the regulation of the gut macrophage pool is an important step in development of novel strategies to boost mucosal immunity in premature infants and other patient populations at risk of microbial translocation. ..
  14. Mattei M, Riviere M, Krust A, Ingvarsson S, Vennstrom B, Islam M, et al. Chromosomal assignment of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes in the human, mouse, and rat genomes. Genomics. 1991;10:1061-9 pubmed
    ..1:RARA) and 3 (band p24:RARB)...
  15. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Thomazy V, Nagy L, Davies P, Chambon P, et al. Essential roles of retinoic acid signaling in interdigital apoptosis and control of BMP-7 expression in mouse autopods. Dev Biol. 1999;208:30-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, RA may exert some of its effects on anteroposterior autopod patterning through controlling BMP-7 expression. ..
  16. Sylvester I, Scholer H. Regulation of the Oct-4 gene by nuclear receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:901-11 pubmed
    ..Specifically, important roles for ARP-1 and RAR in Oct-4 expression are indicated. ..
  17. Williams J, Kondo N, Okabe T, Takeshita N, Pilchak D, Koyama E, et al. Retinoic acid receptors are required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function in postnatal mouse. Dev Biol. 2009;328:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since aggrecan is critical for growth plate function, its deficiency in RAR-mutant mice is likely to have contributed directly to their growth retardation. ..
  18. Pascual I, Larrayoz I, Rodriguez I. Retinoic acid regulates the human methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) gene via two distinct promoters. Genomics. 2009;93:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoter 2 contains a 65 bp putative enhancer region that is very active in the retinal pigment epithelium-derived D407 cell line. Both promoters are partially regulated by all-trans retinoic acid via RARA and other RARs. ..
  19. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  20. McGrane M. Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:497-508 pubmed
  21. Batourina E, Choi C, Paragas N, Bello N, Hensle T, Costantini F, et al. Distal ureter morphogenesis depends on epithelial cell remodeling mediated by vitamin A and Ret. Nat Genet. 2002;32:109-15 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that formation of the trigonal wedge may be essential for correct insertion of the distal ureters into the bladder, and that these events are mediated by the vitamin A and Ret signaling pathways. ..
  22. Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Messaddeq N, Dierich A, Lampron C, Decimo D, et al. Contribution of retinoic acid receptor beta isoforms to the formation of the conotruncal septum of the embryonic heart. Dev Biol. 1998;198:303-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, excessive cell death in the conotruncus is a potential cause of ventricular septal defects in humans. ..
  23. Rochette Egly C, Germain P. Dynamic and combinatorial control of gene expression by nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we will review these mechanisms, focusing on how kinase signaling and the proteasome pathway cooperate to influence the dynamics of RAR transcriptional activity. ..
  24. Feng Q, Hawes S, Stern J, Wiens L, Lu H, Dong Z, et al. DNA methylation in tumor and matched normal tissues from non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:645-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven genes (RARB, BVES, CDKN2A, KCNH5, RASSF1, CDH13, and RUNX) were found to be methylated significantly more frequently in tumor ..
  25. Wu H, Meng S, Xu Q, Wang X, Wang J, Gong R, et al. Gene expression profiling of lung adenocarcinoma in Xuanwei, China. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2016;25:508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The tendency of changes in the expression of 12 selected DEGs (five downregulated genes, PIK3R1, RARB, HGF, MAPK11, and SESN1, and seven upregulated genes, PAK1, E2F1, CCNE1, EGF, CDC25A, PTTG1, and UHRF1) in RTq-PCR ..