Gene Symbol: Rara
Description: retinoic acid receptor, alpha
Alias: retinoic acid receptor alpha
Species: rat
Products:     Rara

Top Publications

  1. Hörlein A, Näär A, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Gloss B, Kurokawa R, et al. Ligand-independent repression by the thyroid hormone receptor mediated by a nuclear receptor co-repressor. Nature. 1995;377:397-404 pubmed
  2. Aoto J, Nam C, Poon M, Ting P, Chen L. Synaptic signaling by all-trans retinoic acid in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2008;60:308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that RA functions in homeostatic plasticity as a signaling molecule that increases synaptic strength by a protein synthesis-dependent mechanism. ..
  3. Perissi V, Aggarwal A, Glass C, Rose D, Rosenfeld M. A corepressor/coactivator exchange complex required for transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors and other regulated transcription factors. Cell. 2004;116:511-26 pubmed
    ..The role of TBLR1 and TBL1 in cofactor exchange appears to also operate for c-Jun and NFkappaB and is therefore likely to be prototypic of similar mechanisms for other signal-dependent transcription factors. ..
  4. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:712-25 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the considerable amount of knowledge generated on these receptors. ..
  5. Lufkin T, Lohnes D, Mark M, Dierich A, Gorry P, Gaub M, et al. High postnatal lethality and testis degeneration in retinoic acid receptor alpha mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7225-9 pubmed
    ..These results, showing that RAR alpha is indeed involved in the transduction of the RA signal, also suggest an unexpected genetic redundancy. ..
  6. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed
  7. Poon M, Chen L. Retinoic acid-gated sequence-specific translational control by RARalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate a ligand-gated translational regulation mechanism mediated by a non-genomic function of RA/RARalpha signaling. ..
  8. Lohnes D, Mark M, Mendelsohn C, Dolle P, Dierich A, Gorry P, et al. Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (I). Craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in RAR double mutants. Development. 1994;120:2723-48 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found further abnormalities not previously reported in VAD fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  9. Gianni M, Parrella E, Raska I, Gaillard E, Nigro E, Gaudon C, et al. P38MAPK-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of SRC-3/AIB1 and RARalpha-mediated transcription. EMBO J. 2006;25:739-51 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which RARalpha transcriptional activity is regulated by SRC-3 through coordinated events that are fine-tuned by RA and p38MAPK. ..

More Information


  1. Khetchoumian K, Teletin M, Tisserand J, Mark M, Herquel B, Ignat M, et al. Loss of Trim24 (Tif1alpha) gene function confers oncogenic activity to retinoic acid receptor alpha. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1500-6 pubmed
    ..We further show that deletion of a single retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) allele in a Trim24-null background suppresses HCC development and restores wild-type expression ..
  2. Srinivas H, Xia D, Moore N, Uray I, Kim H, Ma L, et al. Akt phosphorylates and suppresses the transactivation of retinoic acid receptor alpha. Biochem J. 2006;395:653-62 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that RARalpha (retinoic acid receptor alpha) phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinase contributes to retinoid resistance in a subset of NSCLC ..
  3. Latasa M, Ituero M, Moran Gonzalez A, Aranda A, Cosgaya J. Retinoic acid regulates myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, through a RAR-dependent mechanism, RA downregulates myelin-associated glycoprotein, which also contributes to the dysmyelinating effect of the retinoid. ..
  4. Lee H, Park U, Kim E, Um S. MED25 is distinct from TRAP220/MED1 in cooperating with CBP for retinoid receptor activation. EMBO J. 2007;26:3545-57 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that MED25, in cooperation with CBP and Mediators through its distinct domains, imposes a selective advantage on RAR/RXR activation. ..
  5. Hou N, Ren L, Gong M, Bi Y, Gu Y, Dong Z, et al. Vitamin A deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory: the mechanism of abnormal CBP-dependent histone acetylation regulated by retinoic acid receptor alpha. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;51:633-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a solid theoretical foundation and experimental basis for the importance of ensuring sufficient nutritional VA during pregnancy and early life to prevent impairments of learning and memory in adulthood. ..
  6. Feng Y, Yu Y, Yin M, Hong L, Cai W. Ectopic expression of retinoic acid receptors and change of myocardial structure in the offspring heart with vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58:309-18 pubmed
  7. Boulogne B, Habert R, Levacher C. Regulation of the proliferation of cocultured gonocytes and Sertoli cells by retinoids, triiodothyronine, and intracellular signaling factors: differences between fetal and neonatal cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;65:194-203 pubmed
    ..Despite their low level of mitotic activity, fetal gonocytes were more sensitive to various factors than neonatal gonocytes. ..
  8. Petkovich M, Brand N, Krust A, Chambon P. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature. 1987;330:444-50 pubmed
  9. Chung S, Wang X, Wolgemuth D. Male sterility in mice lacking retinoic acid receptor alpha involves specific abnormalities in spermiogenesis. Differentiation. 2005;73:188-98 pubmed
    ..degeneration of the germinal epithelium and subsequent male sterility observed in mice null for the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) gene suggested its critical role in spermatogenesis, although the etiology and progression ..
  10. Islam M, Puri S, Rodova M, Magenheimer B, Maser R, Calvet J. Retinoic acid-dependent activation of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1) promoter. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1845-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that retinoids and their receptors may play a role in PKD1 gene regulation. ..
  11. Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Messaddeq N, Dierich A, Lampron C, Decimo D, et al. Contribution of retinoic acid receptor beta isoforms to the formation of the conotruncal septum of the embryonic heart. Dev Biol. 1998;198:303-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, excessive cell death in the conotruncus is a potential cause of ventricular septal defects in humans. ..
  12. Mey J, Schrage K, Wessels I, Vollpracht Crijns I. Effects of inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha on the intracellular localization of retinoid receptors in Schwann cells. Glia. 2007;55:152-64 pubmed
    ..Effects on the subcellular localization of retinoid receptors may provide a link in a feedback loop between RA/RAR and cytokines. ..
  13. Jiang L, Chen X, Long Y, Lei F, Zhou Z, Qin Y, et al. The potential signaling pathway between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoic acid receptor alpha in renal interstitial fibrosis disease. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2015;35:258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is one of the nuclear receptors involved in a variety of kidney diseases...
  14. Ben Shushan E, Sharir H, Pikarsky E, Bergman Y. A dynamic balance between ARP-1/COUP-TFII, EAR-3/COUP-TFI, and retinoic acid receptor:retinoid X receptor heterodimers regulates Oct-3/4 expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1034-48 pubmed
  15. Khetchoumian K, Teletin M, Mark M, Lerouge T, Cerviño M, Oulad Abdelghani M, et al. TIF1delta, a novel HP1-interacting member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (TIF1) family expressed by elongating spermatids. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48329-41 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data are consistent with specific, nonredundant functions for the TIF1 family members in vivo and suggest a role for TIF1delta in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing during postmeiotic phases of spermatogenesis. ..
  16. Subbarayan V, Kastner P, Mark M, Dierich A, Gorry P, Chambon P. Limited specificity and large overlap of the functions of the mouse RAR gamma 1 and RAR gamma 2 isoforms. Mech Dev. 1997;66:131-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the occurrence of morphological defects in heterozygote mutants for a single RAR isoform provides a basis for explaining the strong conservation of these isoforms during vertebrate evolution. ..
  17. Goncalves M, Agudo M, Connor S, McMahon S, Minger S, Maden M, et al. Sequential RARbeta and alpha signalling in vivo can induce adult forebrain neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons through Shh and FGF signalling pathways. Dev Biol. 2009;326:305-13 pubmed publisher
  18. Reboul P, George P, Louisot P, Broquet P. Study of retinoic acid effect upon retinoic acid receptors beta (RAR-beta) in C6 cultured glioma cells. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1995;36:1097-105 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that retinoic acid treatment of C6 cells led to a partial differentiation, the enhancement of the heavy form of RAR-beta being a marker of this phenomenon. ..
  19. Li H, Kim K. Retinoic acid inhibits rat XY gonad development by blocking mesonephric cell migration and decreasing the number of gonocytes. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:687-93 pubmed
    ..Abnormal spermatogenesis is observed in rodents on vitamin A-deficient diets and in retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) knockout mice...
  20. Hou J, Wei W, Saund R, Xiang P, Cunningham T, Yi Y, et al. A regulatory network controls nephrocan expression and midgut patterning. Development. 2014;141:3772-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A balance of Nodal/Activin signaling regulates the anterior boundary of the midgut expression domain. ..
  21. He L, Peng X, Chen Y, Liu G, Liu Z, Zhu J, et al. Regulation of IgA Class Switch Recombination in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy: Retinoic Acid Signaling and BATF. Am J Nephrol. 2016;43:179-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point toward the role of RA signaling together with BATF in IgA CSR of IgAN, and the data also support the notion that mucosal immunization with neoantigen results in impaired mucosal and systemic IgA responses. ..
  22. Zheng B, Han M, Bernier M, Zhang X, Meng F, Miao S, et al. Krüppel-like factor 4 inhibits proliferation by platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta-mediated, not by retinoic acid receptor alpha-mediated, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ERK signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a novel mechanism for signal suppression and growth inhibitory effects of Klf4 in VSMCs. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that Klf4 is one of the key mediators of retinoid actions in VSMCs. ..
  23. Li C, Ai N, Dinh G, Welsh W, Chen J. Human ADA3 regulates RARalpha transcriptional activity through direct contact between LxxLL motifs and the receptor coactivator pocket. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that hADA3 is a bona fide transcriptional coactivator for RAR?, acting through a conserved mechanism involving direct contacts between NR boxes and the receptor's co-activator pocket. ..
  24. Chen X, Qin Y, Zhou T, Jiang L, Lei F, Qin H, et al. The potential role of retinoic acid receptor α on glomerulosclerosis in rats and podocytes injury is associated with the induction of MMP2 and MMP9. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:669-679 pubmed publisher
    ..RARα improved the renal function and attenuated the progression of GS that was associated with the over-expression of MMP2 and MMP9. ..
  25. Sylvester I, Scholer H. Regulation of the Oct-4 gene by nuclear receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:901-11 pubmed
    ..Specifically, important roles for ARP-1 and RAR in Oct-4 expression are indicated. ..
  26. Xu Q, Konta T, Furusu A, Nakayama K, Lucio Cazana J, Fine L, et al. Transcriptional induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 by retinoids. Selective roles of nuclear receptors and contribution to the antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41693-700 pubmed
  27. Weston A, Rosen V, Chandraratna R, Underhill T. Regulation of skeletal progenitor differentiation by the BMP and retinoid signaling pathways. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:679-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, retinoid signaling appears to play a novel and unexpected role in skeletogenesis by regulating the emergence of chondroblasts from skeletal progenitors. ..
  28. Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Isohama Y, Sawa T, Akaike T, Shudo K, et al. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons utilize nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling to recruit ERK that links retinoic acid receptor stimulation to up-regulation of BDNF. J Neurochem. 2011;116:323-33 pubmed publisher
  29. Maitra U, Parks J, Li L. An innate immunity signaling process suppresses macrophage ABCA1 expression through IRAK-1-mediated downregulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha and NFATc2. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study reveals a novel connection between innate immunity signaling processes and the regulation of ABCA1 expression in macrophages and defines a potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis...
  30. McGrane M. Vitamin A regulation of gene expression: molecular mechanism of a prototype gene. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:497-508 pubmed
  31. Komori R, Kobayashi T, Matsuo H, Kino K, Miyazawa H. Csn3 gene is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid during neural differentiation in mouse P19 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61938 pubmed publisher
    ..This will certainly serve as a first step forward unraveling the mysteries of induction of Csn3 in the process of neural differentiation. ..
  32. Shindo T, Manabe I, Fukushima Y, Tobe K, Aizawa K, Miyamoto S, et al. Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor KLF5/BTEB2 is a target for angiotensin II signaling and an essential regulator of cardiovascular remodeling. Nat Med. 2002;8:856-63 pubmed
    ..KLF5 thus seems to be a key element linking external stress and cardiovascular remodeling. ..
  33. Shi J, Zheng B, Chen S, Ma G, Wen J. Retinoic acid receptor ? mediates all-trans-retinoic acid-induced Klf4 gene expression by regulating Klf4 promoter activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10799-811 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhu L, Santos N, Kim K. Disulfide isomerase glucose-regulated protein 58 is required for the nuclear localization and degradation of retinoic acid receptor alpha. Reproduction. 2010;139:717-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) is critical for spermatogenesis, as shown by a sterility phenotype observed in Rara knockout mice. RARA is important in both Sertoli and germ cells of the testis...
  35. Balasubramaniyan N, Shahid M, Suchy F, Ananthanarayanan M. Multiple mechanisms of ontogenic regulation of nuclear receptors during rat liver development. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G251-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that expression of NRs during rat liver development is primarily regulated by transcriptional mechanisms, which in turn, control the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolic pathways. ..
  36. Su E, Cheng Y, Chatterton R, Lin Z, Yin P, Reierstad S, et al. Regulation of 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human placental endothelial cells. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:517-25 pubmed
    ..Maximal stimulation occurred at Hour 48 at an RA concentration of 10(-6) M. Both retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA) were readily detected by immunoblotting in isolated ..
  37. Singh A, Guleria R, Nizamutdinova I, Baker K, Pan J. High glucose-induced repression of RAR/RXR in cardiomyocytes is mediated through oxidative stress/JNK signaling. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The impaired RAR/RXR signaling and oxidative stress/JNK pathway forms a vicious circle, which significantly contributes to hyperglycemia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. ..
  38. Kumar A, Singh C, DiPette D, Singh U. Ethanol impairs activation of retinoic acid receptors in cerebellar granule cells in a rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings could provide insight into the treatment options for brain defects caused by excessive ethanol exposure, such as in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. ..
  39. Wang A, Alimova I, Luo P, Jong A, Triche T, Wu L. Loss of CAK phosphorylation of RAR{alpha} mediates transcriptional control of retinoid-induced cancer cell differentiation. FASEB J. 2010;24:833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) is a transcription factor activated by RA, and its serine 77 (RARalphaS77) is the main ..
  40. Williams J, Kondo N, Okabe T, Takeshita N, Pilchak D, Koyama E, et al. Retinoic acid receptors are required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function in postnatal mouse. Dev Biol. 2009;328:315-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since aggrecan is critical for growth plate function, its deficiency in RAR-mutant mice is likely to have contributed directly to their growth retardation. ..
  41. Huang N, vom Baur E, Garnier J, Lerouge T, Vonesch J, Lutz Y, et al. Two distinct nuclear receptor interaction domains in NSD1, a novel SET protein that exhibits characteristics of both corepressors and coactivators. EMBO J. 1998;17:3398-412 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, NSD1 contains separate repression and activation domains. Thus, NSD1 may define a novel class of bifunctional transcriptional intermediary factors playing distinct roles in both the presence and absence of ligand. ..
  42. Chen X, Meng Q, Bao A, Swaab D, Wang G, Zhou J. The involvement of retinoic acid receptor-alpha in corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression and affective disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:832-9 pubmed publisher
  43. Ross Innes C, Stark R, Holmes K, Schmidt D, Spyrou C, Russell R, et al. Cooperative interaction between retinoic acid receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor in breast cancer. Genes Dev. 2010;24:171-82 pubmed publisher
  44. Redonnet A, Ferrand C, Bairras C, Higueret P, Noël Suberville C, Cassand P, et al. Synergic effect of vitamin A and high-fat diet in adipose tissue development and nuclear receptor expression in young rats. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This was concomitant with a lower expression of RARa and RARg mRNA (234.6 and 238...
  45. Doyle T, Braun K, McLean D, Wright R, Griswold M, Kim K. Potential functions of retinoic acid receptor A in Sertoli cells and germ cells during spermatogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1120:114-30 pubmed
    ..Retinoic acid receptor A protein (RARA) is an essential mediator of retinoid signaling in the testis, as shown by a sterility phenotype observed for ..
  46. Zhu L, Santos N, Kim K. Small ubiquitin-like modifier-2 modification of retinoic acid receptor-alpha regulates its subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5586-95 pubmed publisher
    The retinoic acid receptor-alpha (Rara) gene is critical for germ cell development in the testis, as demonstrated by infertile Rara knockout male mice...
  47. Potter G, Beaudoin G, DeRenzo C, Zarach J, Chen S, Thompson C. The hairless gene mutated in congenital hair loss disorders encodes a novel nuclear receptor corepressor. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2687-701 pubmed
    ..The discovery that Hr is a corepressor provides a molecular basis for specific hair loss syndromes in both humans and mice. ..
  48. Flajollet S, Lefebvre B, Cudejko C, Staels B, Lefebvre P. The core component of the mammalian SWI/SNF complex SMARCD3/BAF60c is a coactivator for the nuclear retinoic acid receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;270:23-32 pubmed
    ..This coactivating property is dependent on SRC1 expression, showing that HATs and SWI/SNF cooperate in this retinoid-controlled transcriptional process. ..
  49. Akmal K, Dufour J, Kim K. Region-specific localization of retinoic acid receptor-alpha expression in the rat epididymis. Biol Reprod. 1996;54:1111-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest roles for RAR alpha in the regions of epididymal epithelium that are postulated to participate in spermatozoal maturation and storage. ..
  50. Santos N, Kim K. Activity of retinoic acid receptor-alpha is directly regulated at its protein kinase A sites in response to follicle-stimulating hormone signaling. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2361-72 pubmed publisher
    Retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARA) is crucial for germ cell development in the testis, as shown by the degenerated testis in Rara gene knockout mice, which are sterile...
  51. Pascual I, Larrayoz I, Rodriguez I. Retinoic acid regulates the human methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) gene via two distinct promoters. Genomics. 2009;93:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoter 2 contains a 65 bp putative enhancer region that is very active in the retinal pigment epithelium-derived D407 cell line. Both promoters are partially regulated by all-trans retinoic acid via RARA and other RARs.
  52. Huang H, Wei H, Zhang X, Chen K, Li Y, Qu P, et al. Changes in the expression and subcellular localization of RARalpha in the rat hippocampus during postnatal development. Brain Res. 2008;1227:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon suggests that RARalpha may have different actions during each stage of hippocampal development. ..
  53. Guleria R, Choudhary R, Tanaka T, Baker K, Pan J. Retinoic acid receptor-mediated signaling protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia induced apoptosis: role of the renin-angiotensin system. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1292-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of RAR/RXR signaling protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia, by reducing oxidative stress and inhibition of the RAS. ..
  54. Jokic N, Ling Y, Ward R, Michael Titus A, Priestley J, Malaspina A. Retinoid receptors in chronic degeneration of the spinal cord: observations in a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1821-33 pubmed
  55. Chen C, Lohnes D. Dominant-negative retinoic acid receptors elicit epidermal defects through a non-canonical pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3012-21 pubmed
    Previous work has shown that a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor alpha (dnRARalpha), expressed under the K14 promoter, causes severe epidermal defects...
  56. Braun K, Vo M, Kim K. Positive regulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase in sertoli cells. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:29-37 pubmed
    b>Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) is required for normal testis function...
  57. Schrage K, Koopmans G, Joosten E, Mey J. Macrophages and neurons are targets of retinoic acid signaling after spinal cord contusion injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:285-95 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that RA participates as a signal for the physiological responses of microglia and neurons after CNS injury. ..
  58. Khurana S, Chakraborty S, Lam M, Liu Y, Su Y, Zhao X, et al. Familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)-linked ?-actinin 4 (ACTN4) protein mutants lose ability to activate transcription by nuclear hormone receptors. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide the first link between FSGS-linked ACTN4 mutants and transcriptional activation by nuclear receptor such as RAR? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. ..
  59. Kastner P, Lawrence H, Waltzinger C, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, Chan S. Positive and negative regulation of granulopoiesis by endogenous RARalpha. Blood. 2001;97:1314-20 pubmed
    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is always associated with chromosomal translocations that disrupt the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) gene...
  60. Mezaki Y, Yamaguchi N, Yoshikawa K, Miura M, Imai K, Itoh H, et al. Insoluble, speckled cytosolic distribution of retinoic acid receptor alpha protein as a marker of hepatic stellate cell activation in vitro. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that expression of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) is upregulated in activated rat HSCs at a posttranscriptional level and that these RARalpha ..
  61. Zhang X, Zheng B, Han M, Miao S, Wen J. Synthetic retinoid Am80 inhibits interaction of KLF5 with RAR alpha through inducing KLF5 dephosphorylation mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1231-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Am80 induces KLF5 dephosphorylation by activating PI3K/Akt signaling, and inhibits KLF5 phosphorylation by blocking p38 signaling, subsequently leading to the suppression of interaction of KLF5 with RAR alpha. ..
  62. Grisendi S, Pandolfi P. NPM mutations in acute myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:291-2 pubmed
  63. Boku S, Toda H, Nakagawa S, Kato A, Inoue T, Koyama T, et al. Neonatal maternal separation alters the capacity of adult neural precursor cells to differentiate into neurons via methylation of retinoic acid receptor gene promoter. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77:335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..NMS attenuates the capacity of adult hippocampal neural precursor cells to differentiate into neurons by decreasing expression of RAR? through DNMT1-mediated methylation of its promoter. ..
  64. Akmal K, Dufour J, Vo M, Higginson S, Kim K. Ligand-dependent regulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha in rat testis: in vivo response to depletion and repletion of vitamin A. Endocrinology. 1998;139:1239-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that RAR alpha is either down-regulated or inactivated in RA-deficient testis and coincident with that, testes degenerate by apoptosis or selective loss of germ cells. ..
  65. Dickmann L, Tay S, Senn T, Zhang H, Visone A, Unadkat J, et al. Changes in maternal liver Cyp2c and Cyp2d expression and activity during rat pregnancy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:1677-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are likely to have toxicological and therapeutic implications. ..
  66. Tateya T, Tateya I, Surles R, Tanumihardjo S, Bless D. Roles of vitamin A and macula flava in maintaining vocal folds. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:65-73 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that vitamin A is not essential to maintaining the extracellular matrix of normal adult vocal folds, although vocal fold stellate cells participate in vitamin A storage. ..