Gene Symbol: Raf1
Description: Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, C-RAF, cRaf, murine leukemia viral (v-raf-1) oncogene homolog 1 (3611-MSV), proto-oncogene c-RAF, v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1, v-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1
Species: rat
Products:     Raf1

Top Publications

  1. Santos S, Verveer P, Bastiaens P. Growth factor-induced MAPK network topology shapes Erk response determining PC-12 cell fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:324-30 pubmed
    ..These results show that growth factor context determines the topology of the MAPK signalling network and that the resulting dynamics govern cell fate. ..
  2. Dhandapany P, Fabris F, Tonk R, Illaste A, Karakikes I, Sorourian M, et al. Cyclosporine attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by RAF1 mutants in Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;51:4-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent discovery that germ-line mutations in RAF1, which encodes a downstream RAS effector, cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes with a high prevalence of hypertrophic ..
  3. Gohlke H, Kuhn L, Case D. Change in protein flexibility upon complex formation: analysis of Ras-Raf using molecular dynamics and a molecular framework approach. Proteins. 2004;56:322-37 pubmed
    Changes in flexibility upon protein-protein complex formation of H-Ras and the Ras-binding domain of C-Raf1 have been investigated using the molecular framework approach FIRST (Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topology) and ..
  4. Mukherjee R, Bartlett J, Krishna N, Underwood M, Edwards J. Raf-1 expression may influence progression to androgen insensitive prostate cancer. Prostate. 2005;64:101-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the HER2/Raf-1/AP-1 axis may promote the development of AIPC, leading to early relapse. Members of the pathway may act as novel therapeutic targets for patients. ..
  5. Pandit B, Sarkozy A, Pennacchio L, Carta C, Oishi K, Martinelli S, et al. Gain-of-function RAF1 mutations cause Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1007-12 pubmed
    ..individuals) and two of six individuals with LEOPARD syndrome without PTPN11 mutations have missense mutations in RAF1, which encodes a serine-threonine kinase that activates MEK1 and MEK2...
  6. Barakat G, Moustafa M, Bikhazi A. Effects of selenium and exendin-4 on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, IRS-1, and Raf-1 in the liver of diabetic rats. Biochem Genet. 2012;50:922-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the antidiabetic actions of selenium and exendin-4 involve their effects on GLP-1R, IRS-1, and Raf-1 levels in the liver. ..
  7. Kobayashi T, Aoki Y, Niihori T, Cave H, Verloes A, Okamoto N, et al. Molecular and clinical analysis of RAF1 in Noonan syndrome and related disorders: dephosphorylation of serine 259 as the essential mechanism for mutant activation. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, mutations in RAF1 have been also identified in patients with NS and two patients with LEOPARD (multiple lentigines, ..
  8. Roskoski R. MEK1/2 dual-specificity protein kinases: structure and regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..MEK1 regulation is unusual in that S212 phosphorylation in its activation segment is inhibitory. Moreover, active ERK catalyzes a feedback inhibitory phosphorylation of MEK1 T292 that serves to downregulate the pathway. ..
  9. Wu W, Duan Y, Lu G, Shi S, Zhang J, Wang H, et al. [Expression and significance of JNK1, Raf-1 and Livin in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal tubular adenoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2010;32:671-5 pubmed
    ..JNK1, Raf-1 and Livin may be involved in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal tubular adenoma. ..

More Information


  1. Andreu Pérez P, Esteve Puig R, de Torre Minguela C, López Fauqued M, Bech Serra J, Tenbaum S, et al. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ERK1/2 signal transduction amplitude and cell fate through CRAF. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra58 pubmed publisher
    ..PRMT5-dependent methylation enhanced the degradation of activated CRAF and BRAF, thereby reducing their catalytic activity...
  2. Diaz Meco M, Dominguez I, Sanz L, Dent P, Lozano J, Municio M, et al. zeta PKC induces phosphorylation and inactivation of I kappa B-alpha in vitro. EMBO J. 1994;13:2842-8 pubmed
    ..However, neither MKK nor MAPK is responsible for the putative I kappa B phosphorylating activity. These data provide a decisive step towards understanding the functions of zeta PKC. ..
  3. Tumati S, Roeske W, Largent Milnes T, Wang R, Vanderah T, Varga E. Sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance are blocked by intrathecal treatment with Raf-1-selective siRNA. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:51-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest novel pharmacological approaches to improve the long-term utility of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain. ..
  4. Feng L, Xie X, Ding Q, Luo X, He J, Fan F, et al. Spatial regulation of Raf kinase signaling by RKTG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14348-53 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results reveal a paradigm of spatial regulation of Raf kinase by RKTG via sequestrating Raf-1 to the Golgi apparatus and thereby inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway. ..
  5. Illario M, Cavallo A, Bayer K, Di Matola T, Fenzi G, Rossi G, et al. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II binds to Raf-1 and modulates integrin-stimulated ERK activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45101-8 pubmed
    ..These findings also provide evidence supporting the possible existence of cross-talk between other intracellular pathways involving CaMKII and Raf-1. ..
  6. McCubrey J, Steelman L, Chappell W, Abrams S, Wong E, Chang F, et al. Roles of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in cell growth, malignant transformation and drug resistance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:1263-84 pubmed
  7. Kim S, Irwin P, Katz S, Pelech S. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during postnatal development of rat heart. J Cell Biochem. 1998;71:286-301 pubmed
    ..Most of the mitogenic protein kinases including Raf1, RafB, Mek1, Erk2, and Rsk1 were significantly down-regulated, whereas the stress signaling kinases, such as Mlk3, ..
  8. Alejandro E, Lim G, Mehran A, Hu X, Taghizadeh F, Pelipeychenko D, et al. Pancreatic ?-cell Raf-1 is required for glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin 2 transcription. FASEB J. 2011;25:3884-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides the first direct evidence that Raf-1 signaling is essential for the regulation of basal insulin transcription and the supply of releasable insulin in vivo. ..
  9. Razzaque M, Nishizawa T, Komoike Y, Yagi H, Furutani M, Amo R, et al. Germline gain-of-function mutations in RAF1 cause Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1013-7 pubmed
    ..However, the gene(s) responsible for the remainder are unknown. We have identified five different mutations in RAF1 in ten individuals with Noonan syndrome; those with any of four mutations causing changes in the CR2 domain of RAF1 ..
  10. Zhang J, Xu X, Zhou D, Li H, You W, Wang Z, et al. Possible Role of Raf-1 Kinase in the Development of Cerebral Vasospasm and Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;52:1527-1539 pubmed publisher
  11. Liu Q, Walker S, Gao D, Taylor J, Dai Y, Arkell R, et al. CAPRI and RASAL impose different modes of information processing on Ras due to contrasting temporal filtering of Ca2+. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:183-90 pubmed
  12. Xuan Y, Guo Y, Zhu Y, Wang O, Rokosh G, Messing R, et al. Role of the protein kinase C-epsilon-Raf-1-MEK-1/2-p44/42 MAPK signaling cascade in the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 3 and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 after ischemic preconditioning. Circulation. 2005;112:1971-8 pubmed
    ..with six 4-minute coronary occlusion/4-minute reperfusion cycles, we found that (1) ischemic PC activates the Raf1-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2-p44/42 MAPK ..
  13. Daryadel A, Bogdanova A, Gassmann M, Mueller X, Zund G, Seifert B, et al. Multikinase inhibitor sorafenib prevents pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy in rats by blocking the c-Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014;9:81 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of sorafenib may be of clinical importance in modulating the maladaptive hypertrophic response to pressure overload. ..
  14. Ge L, Ly Y, Hollenberg M, DeFea K. A beta-arrestin-dependent scaffold is associated with prolonged MAPK activation in pseudopodia during protease-activated receptor-2-induced chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34418-26 pubmed
  15. Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Kucerova L, Rubiolo C, Baccarini M. Raf-1 sets the threshold of Fas sensitivity by modulating Rok-alpha signaling. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:1013-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, Raf-1 has an essential function in regulating Fas expression and setting the threshold of Fas sensitivity during embryonic life. ..
  16. Klesse L, Parada L. p21 ras and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase are required for survival of wild-type and NF1 mutant sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 1998;18:10420-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that in sensory neurons, NGF acts via a signaling pathway, which includes both ras and PI 3 kinase. ..
  17. Newbern J, Zhong J, Wickramasinghe R, Li X, Wu Y, Samuels I, et al. Mouse and human phenotypes indicate a critical conserved role for ERK2 signaling in neural crest development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..2 micro-deletion are explained by deficiencies in neural crest autonomous ERK2 signaling. ..
  18. Kamemura N, Murakami S, Komatsu H, Sawanoi M, Miyamoto K, Ishidoh K, et al. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase negatively regulates fibroblast growth factor signaling by phosphorylating Raf-1 at serine 43 in rat chondrosarcoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:82-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that a phospho-mimic mutant, Raf-1 S43D, suppressed FGF2-induced MAPK pathway. These results suggest that PKGII counters FGF-induced MEK/ERK activation through the phosphorylation of Raf-1 at Ser-43 in chondrocytes. ..
  19. Ding Q, Gros R, Gray I, Taussig R, Ferguson S, Feldman R. Raf kinase activation of adenylyl cyclases: isoform-selective regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:921-8 pubmed
    ..These functional interactions (as well as the physical association) between adenylyl cyclases and Raf kinases suggest an important but previously unrecognized interaction between these two key regulatory enzymes. ..
  20. Pal A, Ahmad A, Khan S, Sakabe I, Zhang C, Kasid U, et al. Systemic delivery of RafsiRNA using cationic cardiolipin liposomes silences Raf-1 expression and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft model of human prostate cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;26:1087-91 pubmed
    ..The knockdown of Raf-1 expression by siRNA is also associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression in vivo. ..
  21. Williams A, Barclay A, Letarte Muirhead M, Morris R. Rat thy-1 antigens from thymus and brain: their tissue distribution, purification, and chemical composition. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1977;41 Pt 1:51-61 pubmed
  22. Sathishkumar K, Yallampalli U, Elkins R, Yallampalli C. Raf-1 kinase regulates smooth muscle contraction in the rat mesenteric arteries. J Vasc Res. 2010;47:384-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that Raf-1 kinase plays an important role in the regulation of vascular contractility through regulation of calcium sensitization. ..
  23. Willard F, Willard M, Kimple A, Soundararajan M, Oestreich E, Li X, et al. Regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a selective H-Ras effector. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4884 pubmed publisher
    ..This cellular function for RGS14 is similar but distinct from that recently described for its closely-related paralogue, RGS12, which shares the tandem Ras-binding domain architecture with RGS14. ..
  24. Cortese M, Di Vito M, De Giorgi C. The expression of the homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans lin-45 raf is regulated in the motile stages of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne artiellia. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;149:38-47 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the Mt-lin-45 message is not detectable in freshly emerged juveniles or in male specimens, suggesting that it may be quickly degraded in these life stages. ..
  25. McFarlin D, Lindstrom M, Gould M. Affinity with Raf is sufficient for Ras to efficiently induce rat mammary carcinomas. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:99-105 pubmed
  26. Lin A, Barradas M, Stone J, Van Aelst L, Serrano M, Lowe S. Premature senescence involving p53 and p16 is activated in response to constitutive MEK/MAPK mitogenic signaling. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3008-19 pubmed
    ..Consequently, constitutive MAPK signaling activates p53 and p16 as tumor suppressors. ..
  27. Wu H, Li H, Wu X, Zhao J, Guo J. Reactive oxygen species mediate ERK activation through different Raf-1-dependent signaling pathways following cerebral ischemia. Neurosci Lett. 2008;432:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mediation of these signaling pathways involves changes in Raf-1 phosphorylation at different sites. ..
  28. Chan E, Stang S, Bottorff D, Stone J. Mutations in conserved regions 1, 2, and 3 of Raf-1 that activate transforming activity. Mol Carcinog. 2002;33:189-97 pubmed
    ..This mutant analysis provides additional information about the distinct functions of individual Raf-1 regions and documents a novel genetic mechanism for activating an oncogenic kinase. ..
  29. Kontani K, Tada M, Ogawa T, Okai T, Saito K, Araki Y, et al. Di-Ras, a distinct subgroup of ras family GTPases with unique biochemical properties. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41070-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, introduction of Di-Ras into HEK293T cells induces large cellular vacuolation. These findings raise the possibility that Di-Ras might regulate cell morphogenesis in a manner distinct from other members of Ras family. ..
  30. Ishikawa F, Takaku F, Nagao M, Sugimura T. Rat c-raf oncogene activation by a rearrangement that produces a fused protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:1226-32 pubmed
    ..Only the activated form had transforming activity. We conclude that the rearrangement is responsible for the activation of c-raf. ..
  31. Terada T, Ito Y, Shirouzu M, Tateno M, Hashimoto K, Kigawa T, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies on the interactions of the Ras-binding domain of Raf-1 with wild-type and mutant Ras proteins. J Mol Biol. 1999;286:219-32 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this, the D33A mutation in Ras greatly reduced its Raf-I RBD binding activity. We conclude that the major salt bridge partner of Lys84 in Raf-1 may be Asp33 in Ras. ..
  32. Kalmes A, Hagemann C, Weber C, Wixler L, Schuster T, Rapp U. Interaction between the protein kinase B-Raf and the alpha-subunit of the 11S proteasome regulator. Cancer Res. 1998;58:2986-90 pubmed
    ..No association could be found between PA28alpha and A-Raf or c-Raf-1. B-Raf binds to a region in PA28alpha that is important for its proteasome-activating function. ..
  33. Corbit K, Trakul N, Eves E, Diaz B, Marshall M, Rosner M. Activation of Raf-1 signaling by protein kinase C through a mechanism involving Raf kinase inhibitory protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13061-8 pubmed
  34. York R, Yao H, Dillon T, Ellig C, Eckert S, McCleskey E, et al. Rap1 mediates sustained MAP kinase activation induced by nerve growth factor. Nature. 1998;392:622-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that the activation of Rap1 by C3G represents a common mechanism to induce sustained activation of the MAP kinase cascade in cells that express B-Raf. ..
  35. Deng Y, Atri D, Eichmann A, Simons M. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:1202-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1(S259A)) that is associated with Noonan syndrome...
  36. Seko Y, Tobe K, Ueki K, Kadowaki T, Yazaki Y. Hypoxia and hypoxia/reoxygenation activate Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and S6 kinase in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 1996;78:82-90 pubmed
    ..Then, Raf1 activates downstream serine/threonine kinases including MAPKK, MAP kinases and p90rsk...
  37. Gruppuso P, Boylan J. Hepatic epidermal growth factor-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase activity in the rat: lack of identity with known forms of raf and MEKK. FEBS Lett. 2000;466:200-4 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that hepatic, EGF-sensitive MEK kinase activity may reside with a previously unidentified and physiologically relevant form of Raf and/or MEKK. ..
  38. Townsend P, Cutress R, Carroll C, Lawrence K, Scarabelli T, Packham G, et al. BAG-1 proteins protect cardiac myocytes from simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis via an alternate mechanism of cell survival independent of the proteasome. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20723-8 pubmed
    ..Our studies demonstrate that BAG-1 can influence cellular response to stress by multiple mechanisms, potentially influenced by the cell type and nature of the stress signal. ..
  39. Lin J, Makris A, McMahon C, Bear S, Patriotis C, Prasad V, et al. The ankyrin repeat-containing adaptor protein Tvl-1 is a novel substrate and regulator of Raf-1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14706-15 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Tvl-1 is both a target as well as a regulator of Raf-1. The human homologue of Tvl-1 maps to chromosome 19p12, upstream of MEF2B with the two genes in a head to head arrangement. ..
  40. Terada Y, Kobayashi T, Kuwana H, Tanaka H, Inoshita S, Kuwahara M, et al. Aldosterone stimulates proliferation of mesangial cells by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2, cyclin D1, and cyclin A. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2296-305 pubmed
    ..MR antagonists may serve as a potential therapeutic approach to mesangial proliferative disease. ..
  41. Alavi A, Hood J, Frausto R, Stupack D, Cheresh D. Role of Raf in vascular protection from distinct apoptotic stimuli. Science. 2003;301:94-6 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate Raf-1 as a pivotal regulator of endothelial cell survival during angiogenesis. ..
  42. Kanwar M, Kowluru R. Diabetes regulates small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, in the microvasculature of the retina: implication in the development of retinopathy. Microvasc Res. 2008;76:189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of Ras function could provide important target in the complex approach to inhibit the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. ..
  43. Wu X, Simpson J, Hong J, Kim K, Thavarajah N, Backx P, et al. MEK-ERK pathway modulation ameliorates disease phenotypes in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome associated with the Raf1(L613V) mutation. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1009-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline mutations in RAF1 (which encodes the serine-threonine kinase RAF1) account for approximately 3%-5% of cases of NS...
  44. Wojnowski L, Stancato L, Larner A, Rapp U, Zimmer A. Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2000;91:97-104 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the phenotype of mouse mutants with different combinations of mutant Craf-1 and Braf alleles...
  45. Yue X, Tumati S, Navratilova E, Strop D, St John P, Vanderah T, et al. Sustained morphine treatment augments basal CGRP release from cultured primary sensory neurons in a Raf-1 dependent manner. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:272-7 pubmed publisher
  46. Polzien L, Baljuls A, Rennefahrt U, Fischer A, Schmitz W, Zahedi R, et al. Identification of novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of the human proapoptotic protein BAD: pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28004-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This pore-forming capacity was dependent on phosphorylation status and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of BAD function by phosphorylation. ..
  47. Lorenz K, Lohse M, Quitterer U. Protein kinase C switches the Raf kinase inhibitor from Raf-1 to GRK-2. Nature. 2003;426:574-9 pubmed
    ..A physiological role for this mechanism is shown in cardiomyocytes in which the downregulation of RKIP restrains beta-adrenergic signalling and contractile activity. ..
  48. Fadó R, Moubarak R, Miñano Molina A, Barneda Zahonero B, Valero J, Saura C, et al. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein negatively regulates neuronal differentiation through interaction with cRAF and Trk. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2397 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that XIAP binds to cRaf and Trk receptors...
  49. Xu J, Keeton A, Franklin J, Li X, Venable D, Frank S, et al. Insulin enhances growth hormone induction of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:982-92 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that insulin may be necessary for sensitization of cells to GH-induced ERK1/2 activation and provides a potential cellular mechanism by which insulin promotes growth. ..
  50. Trakul N, Menard R, Schade G, Qian Z, Rosner M. Raf kinase inhibitory protein regulates Raf-1 but not B-Raf kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24931-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that selective modulation of c-Raf-1 but not B-Raf activation by RKIP can limit the dynamic range of the MAPK signaling response to growth factors and may play a critical role in growth and development. ..
  51. Ostrerova N, Petrucelli L, Farrer M, Mehta N, Choi P, Hardy J, et al. alpha-Synuclein shares physical and functional homology with 14-3-3 proteins. J Neurosci. 1999;19:5782-91 pubmed
    ..The activity and binding profile of alpha-synuclein suggests that it might act as a protein chaperone and that accumulation of alpha-synuclein could contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  52. Mukherjee B, Das T, Ghosh S, Datta S. Changes in the antioxidant defense and hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme and isoenzyme levels, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation and expressions of c-raf.1 and insulin-like growth factor II genes during the stages of development of hepatocellular carc. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007;16:363-71 pubmed
    ..It has been established that c-raf.1-induced signaling pathways activated by insulin-like growth factor II is implicated in the late stage of development of cancer. ..
  53. Roring M, Herr R, Fiala G, Heilmann K, Braun S, Eisenhardt A, et al. Distinct requirement for an intact dimer interface in wild-type, V600E and kinase-dead B-Raf signalling. EMBO J. 2012;31:2629-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data further implicate the Raf DIF as a potential target against Ras-driven Raf-mediated (paradoxical) ERK activation. ..
  54. Chang K, Huang Y, Wong Z, Su P, Huang B, Ju T, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras-Raf-ERK-Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells. ..
  55. Cao Q, Qian M, Wang X, Wang B, Wu H, Zhu X, et al. Negative feedback regulation of Raf/MEK/ERK cascade after sublethal cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual-phase activation of ERK may exert its neuroprotection against lethal ischemia through blocking cell proliferation and differentiation. ..
  56. Aoki H, Hayashi J, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y, Hino O. Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with 14-3-3 protein and activates the kinase Raf-1. J Virol. 2000;74:1736-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HCV core protein may represent a novel type of Raf-1 kinase-activating protein through its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and may contribute to hepatocyte growth regulation...
  57. An H, Maeng O, Kang K, Lee J, Kim Y, Paik S, et al. Activation of Ras up-regulates pro-apoptotic BNIP3 in nitric oxide-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:33939-48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NO-induced death of macrophages is mediated, at least in part, by BNIP3 induction. ..
  58. Packer L, Rana S, Hayward R, O Hare T, Eide C, Rebocho A, et al. Nilotinib and MEK inhibitors induce synthetic lethality through paradoxical activation of RAF in drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..and dasatinib possess weak off-target activity against RAF and, therefore, drive paradoxical activation of BRAF and CRAF in a RAS-dependent manner...
  59. Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, Brandhuber B, Anderson D, Alvarado R, et al. RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature. 2010;464:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this work provides new insights into the therapeutic use of ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors...
  60. Borlak J, Jenke H. Cross-talk between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in liver cancer through c-raf transcriptional regulation. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken collectively, we show AhR to be a master regulator of c-raf and propose cross-talk between AhR and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  61. Wu X, Yin J, Simpson J, Kim K, Gu S, Hong J, et al. Increased BRAF heterodimerization is the common pathogenic mechanism for noonan syndrome-associated RAF1 mutants. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3872-90 pubmed publisher
    ..mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, including both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired alleles of RAF1 (?3 to 5%), which encodes a serine-threonine kinase for MEK1/2...
  62. Shu F, Ramineni S, Hepler J. RGS14 is a multifunctional scaffold that integrates G protein and Ras/Raf MAPkinase signalling pathways. Cell Signal. 2010;22:366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that RGS14 is a newly appreciated integrator of G protein and Ras/Raf signalling pathways. ..
  63. Mohamed J, Lopez M, Cox G, Boriek A. Anisotropic regulation of Ankrd2 gene expression in skeletal muscle by mechanical stretch. FASEB J. 2010;24:3330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show the anisotropic regulation of Ankrd2 gene expression in the diaphragm muscles of WT and mdm mice via two distinct mechanosensitive signaling pathways. ..
  64. Brown K, Day J, Huston E, Zimmermann B, Hampel K, Christian F, et al. Phosphodiesterase-8A binds to and regulates Raf-1 kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, PDE8 deletion in Drosophila melanogaster reduced basal ERK activation and sensitized flies to stress-induced death. We propose that PDE8A is a physiological regulator of Raf-1 signaling in some cells. ..
  65. Pfleiderer P, Sumandea M, Rybin V, Wang C, Steinberg S. Raf-1: a novel cardiac troponin T kinase. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2009;30:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify Raf-dependent cTnT-Thr(206) phosphorylation as a novel mechanism that would link growth factor-dependent signaling pathways to dynamic changes in cardiac contractile function. ..
  66. Rushworth L, Hindley A, O Neill E, Kolch W. Regulation and role of Raf-1/B-Raf heterodimerization. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2262-72 pubmed