Rac1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rac1
Description: Rac family small GTPase 1
Alias: ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-Rac1, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family small GTP binding protein Rac1), rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1
Species: rat
Products:     Rac1

Top Publications

  1. Yamane M, Matsuda T, Ito T, Fujio Y, Takahashi K, Azuma J. Rac1 activity is required for cardiac myocyte alignment in response to mechanical stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:1023-7 pubmed
    ..The pull-down assays revealed that Rac1 was rapidly activated by stretch, but not RhoA...
  2. Torrino S, Visvikis O, Doye A, Boyer L, Stefani C, Munro P, et al. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase HACE1 catalyzes the ubiquitylation of active Rac1. Dev Cell. 2011;21:959-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 small GTPase controls essential aspects of cell biology and is a direct target of numerous bacterial virulence factors. The CNF1 toxin of pathogenic Escherichia coli addresses Rac1 to ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
  3. Oh D, Han S, Seo J, Lee J, Choi J, Groffen J, et al. Regulation of synaptic Rac1 activity, long-term potentiation maintenance, and learning and memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-activating proteins. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known ..
  4. Poppleton H, Edwin F, Jaggar L, Ray R, Johnson L, Patel T. Sprouty regulates cell migration by inhibiting the activation of Rac1 GTPase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:98-103 pubmed
    ..Using rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells, we investigated the involvement of the Rho family of GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and cdc42 in SPRY2-mediated inhibition of cell migration and proliferation...
  5. Hayashi Takagi A, Takaki M, Graziane N, Seshadri S, Murdoch H, Dunlop A, et al. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) regulates spines of the glutamate synapse via Rac1. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that DISC1 anchored Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), regulating access of Kal-7 to Rac1 and controlling the duration and intensity of Rac1 activation in response to NMDA receptor activation in both ..
  6. Nozaki S, Takeda T, Kitaura T, Takenaka N, Kataoka T, Satoh T. Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity in the insulin-dependent signaling pathway leading to GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle cells. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1361-71 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 plays a pivotal role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, which is mediated by GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane...
  7. Chen L, Liao G, Waclaw R, Burns K, Linquist D, Campbell K, et al. Rac1 controls the formation of midline commissures and the competency of tangential migration in ventral telencephalic neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3884-93 pubmed
    Previous studies using dominant-mutant constructs have implicated Rac1 GTPase in neuritogenesis and neuronal migration...
  8. Jayaram B, Syed I, Singh A, Subasinghe W, Kyathanahalli C, Kowluru A. Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase facilitates glucose-induced Rac1 activation, ROS generation and insulin secretion in INS 832/13 ?-cells. Islets. 2011;3:48-57 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that ICMT-mediated carboxymethylation of specific proteins (e.g., Rac1) plays a regulatory role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
  9. Chiu T, Sun Y, Koshkina A, Klip A. Rac-1 superactivation triggers insulin-independent glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation that bypasses signaling defects exerted by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and ceramide-induced insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17520-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that potent elevation of Rac-1 activation alone suffices to drive insulin-independent GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells, and such a strategy might be exploited to bypass signaling defects during insulin resistance. ..

More Information

Publications98

  1. Aoki K, Nakamura T, Fujikawa K, Matsuda M. Local phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation recruits Vav2 and Vav3 to activate Rac1/Cdc42 and initiate neurite outgrowth in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2207-17 pubmed
    Neurite outgrowth is an important process in the formation of neuronal networks. Rac1 and Cdc42, members of the Rho-family GTPases, positively regulate neurite extension through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton...
  2. Li J, Luo R, Kowluru A, Li G. Novel regulation by Rac1 of glucose- and forskolin-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 beta-cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E818-27 pubmed
    ..b>Rac1 is a member of Rho family GTPases regulating cytoskeletal organization, and recent evidence also implicates Rac1 in ..
  3. Nishimura T, Yamaguchi T, Kato K, Yoshizawa M, Nabeshima Y, Ohno S, et al. PAR-6-PAR-3 mediates Cdc42-induced Rac activation through the Rac GEFs STEF/Tiam1. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:270-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that the PAR-6-PAR-3 complex mediates Cdc42-induced Rac activation by means of STEF/Tiam1, and that this process seems to be required for the establishment of neuronal polarity. ..
  4. Jin E, Nosaka K, Sano M. NGF-dependent formation of ruffles in PC12D cells required a different pathway from that for neurite outgrowth. Neurochem Int. 2007;51:216-26 pubmed
    ..b>Rac1, Cdc42 and GSK-3beta are reported to be targets of PI-3k in the signal transduction for neurite outgrowth...
  5. Aoki K, Nakamura T, Matsuda M. Spatio-temporal regulation of Rac1 and Cdc42 activity during nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:713-9 pubmed
    Neurite outgrowth is an important process in the formation of neuronal networks. It is widely accepted that Rac1 and Cdc42, members of the Rho GTPase family, positively regulate neurite extension through reorganization of the actin ..
  6. Tolias K, Bikoff J, Burette A, Paradis S, Harrar D, Tavazoie S, et al. The Rac1-GEF Tiam1 couples the NMDA receptor to the activity-dependent development of dendritic arbors and spines. Neuron. 2005;45:525-38 pubmed
    ..We report that the Rac1-GEF Tiam1 is present in dendrites and spines and is required for their development...
  7. El Sibai M, Pertz O, Pang H, Yip S, Lorenz M, Symons M, et al. RhoA/ROCK-mediated switching between Cdc42- and Rac1-dependent protrusion in MTLn3 carcinoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:1540-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies using Rho GTPase mutants have shown that, in some cells, Rac1 and Cdc42 regulate the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, respectively at the leading edge, whereas RhoA ..
  8. Zhang Q, Wang R, Han D, Dong Y, Brann D. Role of Rac1 GTPase in JNK signaling and delayed neuronal cell death following global cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 2009;1265:138-47 pubmed publisher
    The overall goal of this study was to determine the role of Rac1 in POSH/MLK/JNK signaling and delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemia...
  9. Elfenbein A, Rhodes J, Meller J, Schwartz M, Matsuda M, Simons M. Suppression of RhoG activity is mediated by a syndecan 4-synectin-RhoGDI1 complex and is reversed by PKCalpha in a Rac1 activation pathway. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis requires polarized activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1, which involves localized dissociation from RhoGDI1 and association with the plasma membrane...
  10. Nagase M, Ayuzawa N, Kawarazaki W, Ishizawa K, Ueda K, Yoshida S, et al. Oxidative stress causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation in rat cardiomyocytes: role of small GTPase Rac1. Hypertension. 2012;59:500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified Rac1 GTPase as a modulator of mineralocorticoid receptor activity...
  11. Sidarala V, Kowluru A. Exposure to chronic hyperglycemic conditions results in Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-mediated activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells. Apoptosis. 2017;22:597-607 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is aimed at defining regulatory roles of Rac1, a small G-protein, in the activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells, under the duress of HG ..
  12. Xiang S, Li M, Xie X, Xie Z, Zhou Q, Tian Y, et al. Rapamycin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelium cells through regulation of Rho GTPases. FEBS J. 2016;283:2309-25 pubmed publisher
    ..HG increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Importantly, rapamycin inhibits the RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 activated by HG...
  13. Wigerius M, Melik W, Elväng A, Johansson M. Rac1 and Scribble are targets for the arrest of neurite outgrowth by TBE virus NS5. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:260-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Rho GTPase Rac1 and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor, betaPIX are outcompeted by NS5 for binding to Scribble, linking to ..
  14. Williamson R, Cowell C, Hammond C, Bergen D, Roper J, Feng Y, et al. Coronin-1C and RCC2 guide mesenchymal migration by trafficking Rac1 and controlling GEF exposure. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:4292-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Contact with fibronectin at the tip of a cell protrusion activates Rac1, and for linear migration it is necessary to dampen Rac1 activity in off-axial positions and redistribute Rac1 from ..
  15. Larson Y, Liu J, Stevens P, Li X, Li J, Evers B, et al. Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) regulates cell migration and polarity through activation of CDC42 and RAC1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Functionally, the activation of CDC42- and RAC1-GTPase was largely reduced in TSC2 knock-out fibroblast and TSC2 knockdown cancer cells...
  16. Kanazawa S, Fujiwara T, Matsuzaki S, Shingaki K, Taniguchi M, Miyata S, et al. bFGF regulates PI3-kinase-Rac1-JNK pathway and promotes fibroblast migration in wound healing. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12228 pubmed publisher
    ..We noticed involvement of the small GTPases of the Rho family, PI3-kinase, and JNK. bFGF activated RhoA, Rac1, PI3-kinase, and JNK in cultured fibroblasts...
  17. Yoshizaki H, Ohba Y, Parrini M, Dulyaninova N, Bresnick A, Mochizuki N, et al. Cell type-specific regulation of RhoA activity during cytokinesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44756-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the activity of RhoA, the activity of Rac1 was suppressed during cytokinesis and started increasing at the plasma membrane of polar sides before the ..
  18. Zhang Y, Zhang H, Yuan X, Gu X. Differential effects of phenylalanine on Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA expression and activity in cultured cortical neurons. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:8-13 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrated that phenylalanine down-regulated Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA mRNA and protein expression...
  19. Wang H, Wang X, Qu J, Yue Q, Hu Y, Zhang H. VEGF Enhances the Migration of MSCs in Neural Differentiation by Regulating Focal Adhesion Turnover. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230:2728-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the regulatory roles for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac1 in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated migration of MSCs in neural differentiation...
  20. Masuda Robens J, Kutney S, Qi H, Chou M. The TRE17 oncogene encodes a component of a novel effector pathway for Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 and stimulates actin remodeling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2151-61 pubmed
    The Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 play fundamental roles in transformation and actin remodeling. Here, we demonstrate that the TRE17 oncogene encodes a component of a novel effector pathway for these GTPases...
  21. Spindler V, Peter D, Harms G, Asan E, Waschke J. Ultrastructural analysis reveals cAMP-dependent enhancement of microvascular endothelial barrier functions via Rac1-mediated reorganization of intercellular junctions. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2424-36 pubmed publisher
    Evidence exists that cAMP stabilizes the endothelial barrier, in part via activation of the small GTPase Rac1. However, despite the high medical relevance of this signaling pathway, the mechanistic effects on intercellular contacts on the ..
  22. Laforest S, Milanini J, Parat F, Thimonier J, Lehmann M. Evidences that beta1 integrin and Rac1 are involved in the overriding effect of laminin on myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibitory activity on neuronal cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;30:418-28 pubmed
    ..Laminin overrode MAG activity on actin and prevented MAG inhibition NGF-induced Rac1 activation...
  23. Shibata K, Sakai H, Huang Q, Kamata H, Chiba Y, Misawa M, et al. Rac1 regulates myosin II phosphorylation through regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230:1352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Contractile agonists activated Rac1, and Rac1 inhibition diminished agonist-induced MLC phosphorylation, thus inhibiting smooth muscle contraction...
  24. Miyamoto Y, Yamauchi J, Tanoue A, Wu C, Mobley W. TrkB binds and tyrosine-phosphorylates Tiam1, leading to activation of Rac1 and induction of changes in cellular morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10444-10449 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show the crucial role of the ubiquitous Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Tiam1 (T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1), in transducing a ..
  25. Matsuda T, Fujio Y, Nariai T, Ito T, Yamane M, Takatani T, et al. N-cadherin signals through Rac1 determine the localization of connexin 43 in cardiac myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;40:495-502 pubmed
    ..In the process of Cx43 localization, Rho family proteins, RhoA and Rac1, were activated, but not Cdc42...
  26. Goto A, Hoshino M, Matsuda M, Nakamura T. Phosphorylation of STEF/Tiam2 by protein kinase A is critical for Rac1 activation and neurite outgrowth in dibutyryl cAMP-treated PC12D cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1780-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined spatiotemporal changes in Rac1 and Cdc42 activity and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration in dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP)-..
  27. Katsumi A, Milanini J, Kiosses W, Del Pozo M, Kaunas R, Chien S, et al. Effects of cell tension on the small GTPase Rac. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:153-64 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that regulation of Rac activity by tension may be important for motility, polarization, and directionality of cell movement. ..
  28. Sayeed S, Asano E, Ito S, Ohno K, Hamaguchi M, Senga T. S100A10 is required for the organization of actin stress fibers and promotion of cell spreading. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;374:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of S100A10 induced disruption of stress fiber formation and delay in cell spreading. Rac1 activation during spreading was suppressed by S100A10 knockdown, and exogenous expression of active Rac1 restored ..
  29. Wang Z, Jin H, Xu R, Mei Q, Fan D. Triptolide downregulates Rac1 and the JAK/STAT3 pathway and inhibits colitis-related colon cancer progression. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide prohibited Rac1 activity and blocked cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, leading to G1 arrest...
  30. Gao G, Shen N, Jiang X, Sun H, Xu N, Zhou D, et al. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:723-30 pubmed publisher
    ..05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each)...
  31. Xiao L, Hu C, Yang W, Guo D, Li C, Shen W, et al. NMDA receptor couples Rac1-GEF Tiam1 to direct oligodendrocyte precursor cell migration. Glia. 2013;61:2078-99 pubmed publisher
    ..by either pharmacological inhibition or shRNA knock down of the T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1), a Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rac1-GEF) which is coexpressed and interacts with NMDAR in OPCs...
  32. Lise M, Srivastava D, Arstikaitis P, Lett R, Sheta R, Viswanathan V, et al. Myosin-Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, controls cell shape and neuronal morphogenesis via Rac signaling. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we demonstrate that RILPL2 and the Rho GTPase Rac1 form a complex, and that RILPL2 is able to induce activation of Rac1 and its target, p21-activated kinase (Pak)...
  33. Woo C, You H, Cho S, Eom Y, Chun J, Yoo Y, et al. Leukotriene B(4) stimulates Rac-ERK cascade to generate reactive oxygen species that mediates chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8572-8 pubmed
    ..species (ROS) generation via a Rac-dependent pathway, and that stable expression of Rac(N17), a dominant negative Rac1 mutant, completely blocks leukotriene B(4)-induced ROS generation...
  34. Wiens K, Lin H, Liao D. Rac1 induces the clustering of AMPA receptors during spinogenesis. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10627-36 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that the lack of sufficient Rac1, a small RhoGTPase, contributes to the absence of spinogenesis in immature neurons...
  35. Bond M, Wu Y, Sala Newby G, Newby A. Rho GTPase, Rac1, regulates Skp2 levels, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and intima formation in vitro and in vivo. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of Rac(1) in the regulation of Skp2 in rat VSMC...
  36. Kim I, Park S, Hong S, Jo Y, Kim E, Park E, et al. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase a functions as a scaffold for synaptic Rac signaling. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14039-49 pubmed publisher
    ..On neural activation, IP(3)K-A bound directly to activated Rac1 and recruited it to the actin cytoskeleton in the postsynaptic area...
  37. Tep C, Kim M, Opincariu L, Limpert A, Chan J, Appel B, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces polarized signaling of small GTPase (Rac1) protein at the onset of Schwann cell myelination through partitioning-defective 3 (Par3) protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1600-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that Par3 regulates Rac1 activation by BDNF but not by NRG1-Type III in Schwann cells, although both ligands activate Rac1 in vivo...
  38. Dovas A, Choi Y, Yoneda A, Multhaupt H, Kwon S, Kang D, et al. Serine 34 phosphorylation of rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDIalpha) links signaling from conventional protein kinase C to RhoGTPase in cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..PKC phosphorylates RhoGDIalpha on serine 34, resulting in a specific decrease in affinity for RhoA but not Rac1 or Cdc42...
  39. Woo C, Jeong D, Yoon S, Kim K, Chung I, Saeki T, et al. Eotaxin induces migration of RBL-2H3 mast cells via a Rac-ERK-dependent pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:392-7 pubmed
    ..Eotaxin-induced cell migration was completely blocked in RBL-RacN17 cells expressing a dominant negative Rac1 mutant, suggesting a crucial role for Rac1 in eotaxin signaling to chemotactic migration...
  40. Ray R, Vaidya R, Johnson L. MEK/ERK regulates adherens junctions and migration through Rac1. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2007;64:143-56 pubmed
    Polyamine depletion with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor alpha-difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO), prevents Rac1 activation causing the formation of a thick actin cortex at the cell periphery and inhibits migration of intestinal ..
  41. Alonso Espinaco V, Cuatrecasas M, Alonso V, Escudero P, Marmol M, Hörndler C, et al. RAC1b overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in KRAS/BRAF WT metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFOX/XELOX chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:1973-81 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapy is the principal treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. RAC1b, a RAC1 spliced variant, is over-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), and impairs apoptosis by activation of nuclear-factor-KB...
  42. Cho S, You H, Woo C, Yoo Y, Kim J. Rac and protein kinase C-delta regulate ERKs and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in FcepsilonRI signaling to cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis in mast cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:624-31 pubmed
    ..is completely abolished in RBL-2H3(Rac-N17) cells, a stable cell line expressing Rac(N17), a dominant negative Rac1 mutant; conversely, synthesis was enhanced in cells expressing Rac(V12), a constitutively active Rac1 mutant, ..
  43. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Mechanism of Rac1-induced amplification in gastric mucosal phospholipase Cγ2 activation in response to Helicobacter pylori: modulatory effect of ghrelin. Inflammopharmacology. 2015;23:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS leads to the membrane translocation of Rac1 as well as PLCγ2, while the effect of ghrelin is manifested by elevation in the membrane PLCγ2 activation and ..
  44. Konopka A, Zeug A, Skupien A, Kaza B, Mueller F, Chwedorowicz A, et al. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155053 pubmed publisher
    ..of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes...
  45. Yokomori H, Oda M, Yoshimura K, Nagai T, Fujimaki K, Watanabe S, et al. Caveolin-1 and Rac regulate endothelial capillary-like tubular formation and fenestral contraction in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoA, Rac1 and phosphorylated myosin light-chain kinase, Rho-binding domain of Rhotekin and the p21-binding domain of p21-..
  46. Rosso S, Sussman D, Wynshaw Boris A, Salinas P. Wnt signaling through Dishevelled, Rac and JNK regulates dendritic development. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:34-42 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a new function for the non-canonical Wnt pathway in dendrite development and identify Dvl as a regulator of Rho GTPases and JNK during dendritic morphogenesis. ..
  47. Kabirifar R, Ghoreshi Z, Safari F, Karimollah A, Moradi A, Eskandari Nasab E. Quercetin protects liver injury induced by bile duct ligation via attenuation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase1 expression in rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2017;16:88-95 pubmed
    ..the rats were sacrificed, the blood was collected for liver enzyme measurements and liver for the measurement of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 mRNA and protein levels by quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
  48. Alsina F, Irala D, Fontanet P, Hita F, Ledda F, Paratcha G. Sprouty4 is an endogenous negative modulator of TrkA signaling and neuronal differentiation induced by NGF. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32087 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we demonstrate that overexpression of wild-type Spry4 causes a significant reduction in MAPK and Rac1 activation and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF...
  49. Wang J, Wang Y, Hou Y, Xi T, Liu Y, Liu J. The small GTPase RhoA, but not Rac1, is essential for conditioned aversive memory formation through regulation of actin rearrangements in rat dorsal hippocampus. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:811-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The RhoA-ROCK pathway inhibitor Y27632 (8.56 ?g/1 ?L per side) or the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (25 ?g/1 ?L per side) was microinjected into the dorsal hippocampus of rats...
  50. Zhang J, Wang H, Zhang T, Wang B, Li X, Wei J, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Rac1 activation. J Med Microbiol. 2014;63:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A primary role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) is to generate a protrusive force at the leading edge that contributes to cell migration...
  51. Shin E, Lee C, Cho T, Kim Y, Song S, Juhnn Y, et al. betaPak-interacting exchange factor-mediated Rac1 activation requires smgGDS guanine nucleotide exchange factor in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35954-64 pubmed
    ..factor (betaPIX) guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) mediates basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-stimulated Rac1 activation through phosphorylation of Ser-525 and Thr-526 at the GIT-binding domain (GBD)...
  52. Yan C, Martinez Quiles N, Eden S, Shibata T, Takeshima F, Shinkura R, et al. WAVE2 deficiency reveals distinct roles in embryogenesis and Rac-mediated actin-based motility. EMBO J. 2003;22:3602-12 pubmed
    ..These results imply a non-redundant role for WAVE2 in murine embryogenesis and a critical role for WAVE2 in actin-based processes downstream of Rac that are essential for cell movement. ..
  53. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Regulatory role of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Dock180 phosphorylation on Tyr/Ser in mediation of gastric mucosal Rac1 activation in response to Helicobacter pylori and ghrelin. Inflammopharmacology. 2015;23:111-8 pubmed publisher
    A small GTPase, Rac1, is recognized as an important modulator of the inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by affecting the processes of phospholipase C activation...
  54. Blanco Suárez E, Fiuza M, Liu X, Chakkarapani E, Hanley J. Differential Tiam1/Rac1 activation in hippocampal and cortical neurons mediates differential spine shrinkage in response to oxygen/glucose deprivation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:1898-906 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cortical neurons exhibit significantly greater spine shrinkage compared to hippocampal neurons. Rac1 is a Rho-family GTPase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton and is involved in spine dynamics...
  55. Lee C, Huang C, Hsu K. Insulin promotes dendritic spine and synapse formation by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Rac1 signaling pathways. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and the small GTPase Rac1 specifically prevented the insulin-induced increase in dendritic spine density...
  56. Lavall D, Schuster P, Jacobs N, Kazakov A, Böhm M, Laufs U. Rac1 GTPase regulates 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and fibrotic remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:7542-7553 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to characterize the role of Rac1 GTPase for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-mediated pro-fibrotic remodeling...
  57. Ren K, Liu F, Huang Y, Liang W, Cui W, Wang Q, et al. Periodic mechanical stress activates integrin?1-dependent Src-dependent PLC?1-independent Rac1 mitogenic signal in rat chondrocytes through ERK1/2. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:827-42 pubmed publisher
    ..that periodic mechanical stress statistically and significantly enhanced the phosphorylation and activation of Rac1 (p<0.05 for each)...
  58. Li Z, Sun C, Zhang T, Mo J, Shi Q, Zhang X, et al. Geranylgeranyltransferase I mediates BDNF-induced synaptogenesis. J Neurochem. 2013;125:698-712 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF-induced synaptogenesis was eliminated by GGT inhibition or down-regulation, as well as by non-prenylated Rac1 over-expression...
  59. Natale D, Watson A. Rac-1 and IQGAP are potential regulators of E-cadherin-catenin interactions during murine preimplantation development. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S21-6 pubmed
    ..proteins mediate E-cadherin-based cell-to-cell adhesion through interactions with beta-catenin and the Rho GTPases, rac1 and cdc42...
  60. Ito M, Adachi T, Pimentel D, Ido Y, Colucci W. Statins inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes via a Rac1-dependent mechanism. Circulation. 2004;110:412-8 pubmed
    ..and ameliorate the progression of cardiac remodeling in vivo, possibly because of inhibition of the small GTPase Rac1. The role of Rac1 in mediating myocyte apoptosis is not known...
  61. Radhakrishna H, al Awar O, Khachikian Z, Donaldson J. ARF6 requirement for Rac ruffling suggests a role for membrane trafficking in cortical actin rearrangements. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 6):855-66 pubmed
    ..Here we examined the relationship between ARF6 and Rac1, a Rho family GTPase, implicated in cortical actin rearrangements...
  62. Chaturvedi L, Marsh H, Shang X, Zheng Y, Basson M. Repetitive deformation activates focal adhesion kinase and ERK mitogenic signals in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells through Src and Rac1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14-28 pubmed
    ..However, the upstream mediators of these effects are unknown. We investigated whether Src and Rac1 mediate deformation-induced FAK and ERK phosphorylation and proliferation in human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6 intestinal ..
  63. Adam O, Theobald K, Lavall D, Grube M, Kroemer H, Ameling S, et al. Increased lysyl oxidase expression and collagen cross-linking during atrial fibrillation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;50:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This was associated with increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin and Rac1 activity compared to SR...
  64. Cho Y, Huh K, Park Y, Do J, Joo D, Kim M, et al. Cellular function of RhoGDI-? mediates the cycling of Rac1 and the regulation of pancreatic beta cell death. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1083-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated Rac1 directly associated with RhoGDI-? during MPA-induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells (an insulin-secreting cell line)...
  65. Fujitani M, Honda A, Hata K, Yamagishi S, Tohyama M, Yamashita T. Biological activity of neurotrophins is dependent on recruitment of Rac1 to lipid rafts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:150-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that neurotrophin dependent cytoskeletal changes, characteristic of the phenotype of Rac1, in the hippocampal neurons or PC12 cells are inhibited by the disruption of lipid raft integrity...
  66. Flinder L, Timofeeva O, Rosseland C, Wierød L, Huitfeldt H, Skarpen E. EGF-induced ERK-activation downstream of FAK requires rac1-NADPH oxidase. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..ROS can be produced in response to integrin ligation and growth factor stimulation through Rac1 and its effector protein NADPH oxidase...
  67. Johanna G, Fredy C, David V, Natalia M, Angel C, Patricia C. Rac1 activity changes are associated with neuronal pathology and spatial memory long-term recovery after global cerebral ischemia. Neurochem Int. 2010;57:762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Rac-GTPase is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and survival. However, the role of Rac1 after cerebral ischemia has not been completely understood yet...
  68. Silbert O, Wang Y, Maciejewski B, Lee H, Shaw S, Sanchez Esteban J. Roles of RhoA and Rac1 on actin remodeling and cell alignment and differentiation in fetal type II epithelial cells exposed to cyclic mechanical stretch. Exp Lung Res. 2008;34:663-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that mechanical strain stimulated RhoA within 5 minutes of initiation of force. Rac1 was also activated, but not Cdc42...
  69. Zhao L, Li A, Zhou T, Zhang M, Qin X. Exendin-4 alleviates angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting Rac1 activation via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;307:C1130-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Exendin-4 blocked ANG II-induced Rac1 activation through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade...
  70. Karpushev A, Levchenko V, Ilatovskaya D, Pavlov T, Staruschenko A. Novel role of Rac1/WAVE signaling mechanism in regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel. Hypertension. 2011;57:996-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, ENaC is a major effector impacting systemic blood volume and pressure. We have shown recently that Rac1 increases ENaC activity, whereas Cdc42 fails to change channel activity...
  71. Lechner S, Müller Ladner U, Renke B, Scholmerich J, Ruschoff J, Kullmann F. Gene expression pattern of laser microdissected colonic crypts of adenomas with low grade dysplasia. Gut. 2003;52:1148-53 pubmed
    ..revealed, in general, dysregulation of up to 11% of all analysed genes (total number n=588): specifically, p21-rac1 was upregulated in four of six patients, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38alpha in three of six patients, ..
  72. Woo C, Kim J. Rac GTPase activity is essential for lipopolysaccharide signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAP kinase activation in rat-2 fibroblasts. Mol Cells. 2002;13:470-5 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of Rac1, a member of the Rho family GTPases, in the LPS-induced MAPKs activation in Rat-2 fibroblasts...
  73. Jiang L, Mao R, Zhou Q, Yang Y, Cao J, Ding Y, et al. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear...
  74. Dong N, Xu B, Shi H, Lu Y. miR-124 Regulates Amadori-Glycated Albumin-Induced Retinal Microglial Activation and Inflammation by Targeting Rac1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:2522-32 pubmed publisher
    To characterize whether the activation of Rac1 is involved in the inflammatory effects produced by Amadori-glycated albumin (AGA) in retinal microglia and to further explore the pathologic pathways of AGA-induced retinal microglial ..
  75. Xiao Y, Peng Y, Wan J, Tang G, Chen Y, Tang J, et al. The atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dock4 regulates neurite differentiation through modulation of Rac1 GTPase and actin dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20034-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Dedicator of cytokinesis 4 (Dock4), an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, is found to be associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, including autism and schizophrenia...
  76. Wang W, Ju Y, Zhou Q, Tang J, Li M, Zhang L, et al. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7096-7110 pubmed publisher
    ..of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA ..
  77. Evcim A, Micili S, Karaman M, Erbil G, Guneli E, Gidener S, et al. The Role of Rac1 on Carbachol-induced Contractile Activity in Detrusor Smooth Muscle from Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015;116:476-84 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to determine the role of the small GTPase Rac1 on carbachol-induced contractile activity in detrusor smooth muscle using small inhibitor NSC 23766 in diabetic rats...
  78. Desai L, Chapman K, Waters C. Mechanical stretch decreases migration of alveolar epithelial cells through mechanisms involving Rac1 and Tiam1. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..CS), constant distention strain (CD), and simulated positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on activation of Rac1 and wound closure of rat primary alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells...
  79. Baumeister M, Martinu L, Rossman K, Sondek J, Lemmon M, Chou M. Loss of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal Tiam-1 pleckstrin homology domain prevents in vivo Rac1 activation without affecting membrane targeting. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11457-64 pubmed
    ..We then introduced the PH domain mutations into full-length Tiam-1 and found that its ability to activate Rac1 or serum response factor in vivo was abolished...
  80. Dang J, Tian F, Li F, Huang W, Song M, Ding D, et al. Roles of Rho guanine nucleotide triphosphatases in hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the pentylenetetrazole kindling model. Clin Lab. 2014;60:175-84 pubmed
    ..Rho guanine nucleotide triphosphatases (RhoGTP ases) Rac1 and RhoA are important regulators of axon growth and synaptic plasticity and can be blocked by treatment with ..
  81. Yukinaga H, Shionyu C, Hirata E, Ui Tei K, Nagashima T, Kondo S, et al. Fluctuation of Rac1 activity is associated with the phenotypic and transcriptional heterogeneity of glioma cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:1805-15 pubmed publisher
    ..energy transfer (FRET) biosensors, we show here a correlation between a temporal fluctuation in the activity of Rac1 and the invasive properties of C6 glioma cells...
  82. Vallés A, Beuvin M, Boyer B. Activation of Rac1 by paxillin-Crk-DOCK180 signaling complex is antagonized by Rap1 in migrating NBT-II cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44490-6 pubmed
    ..DOCK180, which acts predominantly on the Rho family GTPase Rac1, restored cell locomotion in cells expressing Phe-31/118 paxillin mutants deficient in Rac1 GTP-loading, suggesting ..
  83. Wu P, Ding Z, Meng S, Shen H, Sun S, Luo Y, et al. Differential role of Rac in the basolateral amygdala and cornu ammonis 1 in the reconsolidation of auditory and contextual Pavlovian fear memory in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231:2909-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments demonstrate that Rac in the BLA is crucial for the reconsolidation of auditory Pavlovian fear memory, whereas Rac in the CA1 is critical for the reconsolidation of contextual Pavlovian fear memory. ..
  84. Ubba V, Soni U, Chadchan S, Maurya V, Kumar V, Maurya R, et al. RHOG-DOCK1-RAC1 Signaling Axis Is Perturbed in DHEA-Induced Polycystic Ovary in Rat Model. Reprod Sci. 2017;24:738-752 pubmed publisher
    The function of RHOG, a RAC1 activator, was explored in the ovary during ovarian follicular development and pathological conditions...
  85. Chen Q, Zhu Y, Yu J, Miao S, Zheng J, Xu L, et al. CDKL5, a protein associated with rett syndrome, regulates neuronal morphogenesis via Rac1 signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In fibroblasts and in neurons, CDKL5 colocalized and formed a protein complex with Rac1, a critical regulator of actin remodeling and neuronal morphogenesis...
  86. Zhang Y, Sawada T, Jing X, Yokote H, Yan X, Sakaguchi K. Regulation of ephexin1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Rho family GTPases, by fibroblast growth factor receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31103-12 pubmed
    ..of ephexin1 enhances the guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward RhoA without affecting the activity to Rac1 or Cdc42...
  87. Meng D, Lv D, Fang J. Insulin-like growth factor-I induces reactive oxygen species production and cell migration through Nox4 and Rac1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..and confocal microscopic image analysis were employed to determine protein expression, small Rho-GTPase Rac1 activation, and ROS production...
  88. Pratt S, Epple H, Ward M, Feng Y, Braga V, Longmore G. The LIM protein Ajuba influences p130Cas localization and Rac1 activity during cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:813-24 pubmed
  89. Blakely B, Bye C, Fernando C, Horne M, Macheda M, Stacker S, et al. Wnt5a regulates midbrain dopaminergic axon growth and guidance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18373 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway)...