Gene Symbol: Pvalb
Description: parvalbumin
Alias: PALB1, Pva, parvalbumin alpha, Parvalbumin (calcium binding protein)
Species: rat
Products:     Pvalb

Top Publications

  1. Lee C, Tepper J. Morphological and physiological properties of parvalbumin- and calretinin-containing gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons in the substantia nigra. J Comp Neurol. 2007;500:958-72 pubmed
  2. Nam S, Kim Y, Yoo D, Yi S, Kim W, Hwang I, et al. Hypothyroid states mitigate the diabetes-induced reduction of calbindin D-28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in type 2 diabetic rats. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that hypothyroidism ameliorated the diabetes-induced reduction of CB, CR, and PV immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. ..
  3. Liu H, Xu H, Yu T, Yao J, Zhao C, Yin Z. Expression of perineuronal nets, parvalbumin and protein tyrosine phosphatase ? in the rat visual cortex during development and after BFD. Curr Eye Res. 2013;38:1083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in the coexpression of PNNs, PV and PTP? provide valuable insights into the connection between CSPGs and PV neurons. ..
  4. Hackney C, Mahendrasingam S, Penn A, Fettiplace R. The concentrations of calcium buffering proteins in mammalian cochlear hair cells. J Neurosci. 2005;25:7867-75 pubmed
    ..The high concentration of calcium buffer in outer hair cells, similar only to skeletal muscle, may protect against deleterious consequences of Ca2+ loading after acoustic overstimulation. ..
  5. Rickman D. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity is enhanced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in organotypic cultures of rat retina. J Neurobiol. 1999;41:376-84 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that neurotrophins have specific effects upon the neurochemical and, perhaps, morphological differentiation of an important interneuron in a specific functional retinal circuit. ..
  6. Koh P. Ischemic injury decreases parvalbumin expression in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2012;512:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the reduction in parvalbumin levels after ischemic brain injury can modulate neuronal cell death. ..
  7. Vongvatcharanon U, Udomuksorn W, Vongvatcharanon S, Sobhon P. Age-related changes in parvalbumin in the heart of female rats. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:96-100 pubmed publisher
  8. Vongvatcharanon U, Khornchatri K, Udomuksorn W, Kumarnsit E, Vongvatcharanon S, Sobhon P. Influence of aging and long-term swimming exercise on parvalbumin distribution in rat hearts. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and 18-month samples (P<0.01). Our data indicate that PV is down-regulated in the rat heart during aging. In addition, our data indicate that long-term swimming exercise could induce an increase of PV expression. ..
  9. Harte M, Powell S, Swerdlow N, Geyer M, Reynolds G. Deficits in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114:893-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate selective abnormalities of sub-populations of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats, which resemble the neuronal deficits seen in this region in schizophrenia. ..

More Information


  1. Gomes da Silva S, Dona F, da Silva Fernandes M, Scorza F, Cavalheiro E, Arida R. Physical exercise during the adolescent period of life increases hippocampal parvalbumin expression. Brain Dev. 2010;32:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding indicates that aerobic exercise program during adolescent period promotes neuroplastic changes in hippocampal formation. ..
  2. Zamecnik J, Krsek P, Druga R, Marusic P, Benes V, Tichy M, et al. Densities of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in non-malformed hippocampal sclerosis-temporal neocortex and in cortical dysplasias. Brain Res Bull. 2006;68:474-81 pubmed
  3. Henzl M, Wycoff W, Larson J, Likos J. 15N nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation studies on rat beta-parvalbumin and the pentacarboxylate variants, S55D and G98D. Protein Sci. 2002;11:158-73 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the increased electrostatic repulsion attendant to introduction of an additional carboxylate into the CD site ligand array impedes backbone vibrational motion throughout the molecule. ..
  4. Spencer R, Shaia W, Gleason A, Sismanis A, Shapiro S. Changes in calcium-binding protein expression in the auditory brainstem nuclei of the jaundiced Gunn rat. Hear Res. 2002;171:129-141 pubmed
  5. Du Y, Grace A. Loss of Parvalbumin in the Hippocampus of MAM Schizophrenia Model Rats Is Attenuated by Peripubertal Diazepam. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19: pubmed publisher
    ..No change was found in the basolateral amygdala. Peripubertal diazepam attenuated the decrease of parvalbumin in the ventral hippocampus of methylazoxymethanol acetate rats. ..
  6. Berchtold M, Means A. The Ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin: molecular cloning and developmental regulation of mRNA abundance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:1414-8 pubmed
    ..However, CaM mRNA levels decrease during the early days of brain ontogeny. Thus, the mRNAs that encode the homologous Ca2+-binding proteins PV and CaM appear to be developmentally regulated in a tissue-specific manner. ..
  7. Perez Losada J, Sanchez Martin M, Rodríguez García A, Sanchez M, Orfao A, Flores T, et al. Zinc-finger transcription factor Slug contributes to the function of the stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway. Blood. 2002;100:1274-86 pubmed
    ..Slug may thus be considered a molecular target that contributes to the biologic specificity to the SCF/c-kit signaling pathway, opening up new avenues for stem cell mobilization. ..
  8. ZACHAROVA G, Palecek J. Parvalbumin and TRPV1 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons after acute peripheral inflammation. Physiol Res. 2009;58:305-9 pubmed
    ..Thus under the given experimental conditions, no change in somatic TRPV1 receptors and PV expression in L4 DRG neurons was found. ..
  9. Toury R, Belqasmi F, Hauchecorne M, Heizmann C, Balmain N. Ultrastructural localization of alpha-parvalbumin in the epiphyseal plate cartilage and bone of growing rats. Bone. 1996;19:245-53 pubmed
    ..The parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the cell processes of osteocytes of compact cortical bone seems to indicate that this calcium-binding protein may be involved in the regulation of Ca2+ fluxes and hence in calcium homeostasis in bone. ..
  10. Ichikawa H, Qiu F, Xiang M, Sugimoto T. Brn-3a is required for the generation of proprioceptors in the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus. Brain Res. 2005;1053:203-6 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that Brn-3a is required for the development of proprioceptors but not motoneurons in the trigeminal nervous system. ..
  11. Henzl M, Agah S, Larson J. Association of the AB and CD-EF domains from rat alpha- and beta-parvalbumin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:10906-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, the interaction between the beta AB domain and beta CD-EF domain may act to attenuate Ca(2+) affinity in the intact protein. ..
  12. Mercer A, Eastlake K, Trigg H, Thomson A. Local circuitry involving parvalbumin-positive basket cells in the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Hippocampus. 2012;22:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Connections with low probabilities of release had higher PPR. Quantal amplitude (q) for the facilitating connections was larger than q at depressing inputs onto fast spiking basket cells. ..
  13. Wirakiat W, Udomuksorn W, Vongvatcharanon S, Vongvatcharanon U. Effects of estrogen via estrogen receptors on parvalbumin levels in cardiac myocytes of ovariectomized rats. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The low PV levels in cardiac myocytes induced by low estrogen were restored by estrogen replacement therapy. Therefore a reduction of PV may lead to diastolic dysfunction in menopause. ..
  14. Koh P. Nicotinamide restores the reduction of parvalbumin in cerebral ischemic injury. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:225-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the fact that the maintenance of parvalbumin expression is mediated to the neuroprotective function of nicotinamide against ischemic brain injury. ..
  15. Yi S. Time-dependent changes of calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. J Vet Sci. 2013;14:373-80 pubmed
    ..However, this number subsequently decreased over time. These results suggest that CB and PV expression is lowest 3 weeks after STZ administration, and these deficits lead to disturbances in calcium homeostasis. ..
  16. Zhang M, Wu J, Huo L, Luo L, Song X, Fan F, et al. Environmental Enrichment Prevent the Juvenile Hypoxia-Induced Developmental Loss of Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Cells in the Prefrontal Cortex and Neurobehavioral Alterations Through Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase-2-Derived Oxidative Stress. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:7341-7350 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that EE might prevent the juvenile hypoxia-induced developmental loss of PV cells in the PFC and attenuate the neurobehavioral alterations through inhibition of NOX2-derived oxidative stress. ..
  17. Henzl M, Agah S, Larson J. Characterization of the metal ion-binding domains from rat alpha- and beta-parvalbumins. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3594-607 pubmed
    ..Neither fragment exhibits a sigmoidal melting curve in the Ca(2+)-free state, suggesting that the apo-peptides are disordered. ..
  18. Rodenbaugh D, Wang W, Davis J, Edwards T, Potter J, Metzger J. Parvalbumin isoforms differentially accelerate cardiac myocyte relaxation kinetics in an animal model of diastolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1705-13 pubmed
    ..This comparative analysis showing distinct functional outcomes raises the prospect of utilizing naturally occurring Parv variants to address disease-associated slowed cardiac relaxation. ..
  19. Williams T, Corson D, Oikawa K, McCubbin W, Kay C, Sykes B. 1H NMR spectroscopic studies of calcium-binding proteins. 3. Solution conformations of rat apo-alpha-parvalbumin and metal-bound rat alpha-parvalbumin. Biochemistry. 1986;25:1835-46 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  20. Vongvatcharanon S, Vongvatcharanon U, Boonyoung P. Immunohistochemical localization of parvalbumin calcium-binding protein in the heart tissues of various species. Acta Histochem. 2008;110:26-33 pubmed
    ..The intensity of PV-ir may be correlated with the physical activity of the heart of each species. Some potential applications of these data for treatment of human diastolic heart dysfunctions are discussed. ..
  21. Fernández Suárez D, Celorrio M, Lanciego J, Franco R, Aymerich M. Loss of parvalbumin-positive neurons from the globus pallidus in animal models of Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012;71:973-82 pubmed publisher
  22. Pavel J, Hricová L, Jergova S, Lukacova N. The impact of short-lasting repeated vibrations on retrograde axonal transport, the expression of CGRP and parvalbumin in lower lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res. 2011;1396:1-10 pubmed publisher
  23. Henzl M, Tanner J. Solution structure of Ca2+-free rat alpha-parvalbumin. Protein Sci. 2008;17:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding implies that the alpha-PV isoform enjoys elevated divalent ion affinity because the metal ion-binding events do not require major structural rearrangement and the concomitant sacrifice of binding energy. ..
  24. Berchtold M, Epstein P, Beaudet A, Payne M, Heizmann C, Means A. Structural organization and chromosomal assignment of the parvalbumin gene. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:8696-701 pubmed
    ..It was also used to isolate a 7.5-kilobase pair EcoRI fragment from a human chromosome 22 DNA library. ..
  25. Barski J, Hartmann J, Rose C, Hoebeek F, Mörl K, Noll Hussong M, et al. Calbindin in cerebellar Purkinje cells is a critical determinant of the precision of motor coordination. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3469-77 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a unique role of Purkinje cell calbindin in a specific form of motor control and suggest that rapid calcium buffering may directly control behaviorally relevant neuronal signal integration. ..
  26. Gritti I, Manns I, Mainville L, Jones B. Parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin in cortically projecting and GABAergic, cholinergic, or glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2003;458:11-31 pubmed
  27. Liu F, Yang L, Sun X, Zhang H, Pan W, Wang X, et al. NOX2 Mediated-Parvalbumin Interneuron Loss Might Contribute to Anxiety-Like and Enhanced Fear Learning Behavior in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:6680-6689 pubmed
  28. Henzl M, Sirianni A, Markus L, Davis C. Site-directed mutagenesis of rat α-parvalbumin: replacement of canonical CD-site residues with their non-consensus counterparts from rat β-parvalbumin. Biophys Chem. 2015;197:25-39 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several variants display highly exothermic binding enthalpies, indicative of ligation-linked protein-folding. Consistent with that idea, scanning-calorimetry data confirm that L85F has significantly destabilized those proteins. ..
  29. Henzl M, Larson J, Agah S. Influence of monovalent cation identity on parvalbumin divalent ion-binding properties. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2747-63 pubmed
    ..8 x 10(6) M(-1) and the latter to 1.4 x 10(4) and 2.9 x 10(2) M(-1). These data suggest that parvalbumin divalent ion affinity, particularly that of rat alpha, can be significantly attenuated by increased intracellular Na(+) levels...
  30. Yang D, Thalmann I, Thalmann R, Simmons D. Expression of alpha and beta parvalbumin is differentially regulated in the rat organ of corti during development. J Neurobiol. 2004;58:479-92 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that OM and alphaPV are differentially regulated in OHCs during cochlear development. Our findings further raise the possibility that the expression of PV proteins in OHCs may be influenced by efferent innervation. ..
  31. Guo K, Li D, Gu H, Jie Xu -, Yao Z. Postnatal development of nestin positive neurons in rat basal forebrain: different onset and topography with choline acetyltransferase and parvalbumin expression. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2014;35:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is further suggested that nestin is re-expressed by cholinergic neurons in the BF after differentiation but not persisted from neuronal precursor cells. ..
  32. McPhalen C, Sielecki A, Santarsiero B, James M. Refined crystal structure of rat parvalbumin, a mammalian alpha-lineage parvalbumin, at 2.0 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1994;235:718-32 pubmed
    ..Sequence differences between alpha and beta-lineage parvalbumins result in repacking of the hydrophobic core and some shifts in the protein backbone. The shifts are localized, however, and entire helices do not shift as rigid units. ..
  33. Epstein P, Means A, Berchtold M. Isolation of a rat parvalbumin gene and full length cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:5886-91 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that, despite the deletion of one Ca2+-binding domain, the remainder of the parvalbumin gene has maintained the structural pattern of the Ca2+-binding protein gene family. ..
  34. Henzl M, Ndubuka K. Low-affinity signature of the rat beta-parvalbumin CD site. Evidence for remote determinants. Biochemistry. 2007;46:23-35 pubmed
    ..56 and -0.96 kcal/mol for Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. Evidently, structural features beyond the metal ion-binding motif contribute to the unusual divalent ion-binding behavior associated with the rat beta CD site. ..
  35. Permyakov S, Bakunts A, Permyakova M, Denesyuk A, Uversky V, Permyakov E. Metal-controlled interdomain cooperativity in parvalbumins. Cell Calcium. 2009;46:163-75 pubmed publisher
  36. Turner C, Debenedetto D, Ware E, Stowe R, Lee A, Swanson J, et al. Postnatal exposure to MK801 induces selective changes in GAD67 or parvalbumin. Exp Brain Res. 2010;201:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, such differential effects may be of great clinical importance, given that cognitive deficits are seen in children exposed to anesthetics that act by blocking the NMDAR. ..
  37. Kuruba R, Hattiangady B, Parihar V, Shuai B, Shetty A. Differential susceptibility of interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y or parvalbumin in the aged hippocampus to acute seizure activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24493 pubmed publisher
    ..This discrepancy likely underlies the severe spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction observed in the aged people after AS activity. ..
  38. Wouterlood F, Boekel A, Aliane V, Belien J, Uylings H, Witter M. Contacts between medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers and parvalbumin expressing neurons in the subiculum of the rat. Neuroscience. 2008;156:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the medial and lateral subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex similarly tune the firing of principal neurons in the subiculum by way of parvalbumin positive interneurons in their respective terminal zones. ..
  39. Ango F, Di Cristo G, Higashiyama H, Bennett V, Wu P, Huang Z. Ankyrin-based subcellular gradient of neurofascin, an immunoglobulin family protein, directs GABAergic innervation at purkinje axon initial segment. Cell. 2004;119:257-72 pubmed
    ..Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses. ..
  40. Berchtold M, Heizmann C, Wilson K. Primary structure of parvalbumin from rat skeletal muscle. Eur J Biochem. 1982;127:381-9 pubmed
    ..A prediction of the secondary structure has been made and found to be very similar for the rat and rabbit proteins with the exception of the sequence region 72-78, located between the Ca2+, Mg2+-binding CD and EF domains...
  41. Harris R, Bennett D, Levine M, Putman C. Tail muscle parvalbumin content is decreased in chronic sacral spinal cord injured rats with spasticity. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:1311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, spasticity after transection causes a slow-to-fast SERCA isoform transformation that may be compensatory for decreased parvalbumin content. ..
  42. ZACHAROVA G, Sojka D, Palecek J. Changes of parvalbumin expression in the spinal cord after peripheral inflammation. Physiol Res. 2009;58:435-42 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that changes in expression of calcium-binding proteins in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons may modulate nociceptive transmission. ..
  43. Meade C, Deng Y, Fusco F, Del Mar N, Hersch S, Goldowitz D, et al. Cellular localization and development of neuronal intranuclear inclusions in striatal and cortical neurons in R6/2 transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol. 2002;449:241-69 pubmed
    ..That calbindinergic and parvalbuminergic striatal neurons develop large NIIs is consistent with a contribution of nuclear aggregate formation to their high degree of vulnerability in HD. ..
  44. Cao M, Ji F, Liu L, Li F. Expression changes of parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 induced by chronic constriction injury in rat dorsal root ganglia. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:2184-90 pubmed
  45. Schwaller B. Cytosolic Ca2+ buffers. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2:a004051 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these molecules are not only functionally coupled, but their expression is likely to be regulated in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner to maintain normal Ca(2+) signaling, even in the absence or malfunctioning of one of the components. ..
  46. Inácio A, Ruscher K, Wieloch T. Enriched environment downregulates macrophage migration inhibitory factor and increases parvalbumin in the brain following experimental stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;41:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulating MIF could constitute a new therapeutic approach to promote recovery after stroke. ..
  47. Lee Y, Tanner J, Larson J, Henzl M. Crystal structure of a high-affinity variant of rat alpha-parvalbumin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:10008-17 pubmed
    ..In 0.15 M KCl and 0.025 M Hepes-KOH (pH 7.4) at 5 degrees C, the macroscopic Ca2+ binding constants are 1.8 x 10(10) and 2.0 x 10(9) M(-1). The corresponding Mg2+ binding constants are 2.7 x 10(6) and 1.2 x 10(5) M(-1). ..
  48. Massi L, Lagler M, Hartwich K, Borhegyi Z, Somogyi P, Klausberger T. Temporal dynamics of parvalbumin-expressing axo-axonic and basket cells in the rat medial prefrontal cortex in vivo. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16496-16502 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct firing dynamics and synaptic targets of axo-axonic and other parvalbumin-expressing cells provide differential contributions to the temporal organization of prefrontal networks. ..
  49. Troxler H, Kuster T, Rhyner J, Gehrig P, Heizmann C. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: analysis of the Ca2+-binding properties of human recombinant alpha-parvalbumin and nine mutant proteins. Anal Biochem. 1999;268:64-71 pubmed
    ..P32848). This work demonstrates the great potential of the ESI-MS technique as a sensitive, specific, and rapid method for direct identification and determination of the stoichiometry of Ca2+-binding proteins and other metalloproteins. ..
  50. Brenhouse H, Andersen S. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment prevents delayed effects of early life stress in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the relationship between early life stress and interneuron dysfunction in adolescence. ..
  51. Barinka F, Salaj M, Rybář J, Krajčovičová E, Kubova H, Druga R. Calretinin, parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive interneurons in perirhinal cortex and temporal area Te3V of the rat brain: qualitative and quantitative analyses. Brain Res. 2012;1436:68-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the PRC possesses specific interneuronal equipment with unusually high proportion of CR+ interneurons, what might be of importance for the presumed gating function of PRC in normal and diseased states. ..
  52. Agah S, Larson J, Henzl M. Impact of proline residues on parvalbumin stability. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10886-95 pubmed
    ..0 degrees higher than wild-type alpha. The observed differences in stability resulting from proline addition/removal are largely consistent with alterations in main-chain and side-chain conformational entropy. ..