Pth

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pth
Description: parathyroid hormone
Alias: PTH-(1-84), Pth1, Pthr1, parathyroid hormone, hypothalamic parathyroid hormone, parathyrin
Species: rat
Products:     Pth

Top Publications

  1. Carrillo López N, Román García P, Rodríguez Rebollar A, Fernández Martín J, Naves Diaz M, Cannata Andia J. Indirect regulation of PTH by estrogens may require FGF23. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:2009-17 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms by which estrogens modulate PTH are controversial, including whether or not estrogen receptors (ERs) are present in the parathyroid glands...
  2. Kestenbaum B, Katz R, de Boer I, Hoofnagle A, Sarnak M, Shlipak M, et al. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and cardiovascular events among older adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1433-41 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations separately and in combination with incident cardiovascular events and mortality during 14 years of follow-up ..
  3. Ben Dov I, Galitzer H, Lavi Moshayoff V, Goetz R, Kuro O M, Mohammadi M, et al. The parathyroid is a target organ for FGF23 in rats. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:4003-8 pubmed
    ..Using both rats and in vitro rat parathyroid cultures, we show that FGF23 suppressed both parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and PTH gene expression...
  4. Wilson M, Meredith D, Bunnun C, Sessions R, Halestrap A. Studies on the DIDS-binding site of monocarboxylate transporter 1 suggest a homology model of the open conformation and a plausible translocation cycle. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20011-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The cross-linking data have also been used to model a structure of MCT1 bound to embigin that is consistent with published data. ..
  5. Shimizu E, Nakatani T, He Z, Partridge N. Parathyroid hormone regulates histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 through protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in osteoblastic cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:21340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..we reported that HDAC4 was a basal repressor of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) transcription and parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates HDAC4 to control MMP-13 promoter activity through dissociation from Runx2...
  6. Fisher J, Scott K, Wei N, Zhao J, Cusick T, Tijerina M, et al. Pharmacodynamic responses to combined treatment regimens with the calcium sensing receptor antagonist JTT-305/MK-5442 and alendronate in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Bone. 2012;50:1332-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the anabolic standard of care for patients with severe osteoporosis...
  7. Pirih F, Michalski M, Cho S, Koh A, Berry J, Ghaname E, et al. Parathyroid hormone mediates hematopoietic cell expansion through interleukin-6. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13657 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates hematopoietic cells through mechanisms of action that remain elusive. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is upregulated by PTH and stimulates hematopoiesis...
  8. Graciolli F, Neves K, dos Reis L, Graciolli R, Noronha I, Moyses R, et al. Phosphorus overload and PTH induce aortic expression of Runx2 in experimental uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:1416-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated levels of phosphate and parathormone (PTH) are considered nontraditional risk factors for VC...
  9. Lee Y, Choi H, Shin S, Lee H. Effect of lanthanum carbonate on phosphate control in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients in Korea: a randomized prospective study. Clin Nephrol. 2013;79:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperphosphatemia is a common complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Reducing the serum phosphate level is crucial in management of ESRD...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Matsui I, Hamano T, Mikami S, Inoue K, Shimomura A, Nagasawa Y, et al. Retention of fetuin-A in renal tubular lumen protects the kidney from nephrocalcinosis in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We further analyzed the role of fetuin-A in nephrocalcinosis. Continuous injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 induced nephrocalcinosis mainly in the proximal tubules in rats...
  2. Kovacs C, Chafe L, Fudge N, Friel J, Manley N. PTH regulates fetal blood calcium and skeletal mineralization independently of PTHrP. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4983-93 pubmed
    ..lack parathyroids and PTH (Hoxa3 null) with the effects of loss of PTHrP (Pthrp null), loss of PTH/PTHrP receptor (Pthr1 null), and loss of both PTH and PTHrP (Hoxa3 null x Pthrp null)...
  3. Sowa H, Kaji H, Iu M, Tsukamoto T, Sugimoto T, Chihara K. Parathyroid hormone-Smad3 axis exerts anti-apoptotic action and augments anabolic action of transforming growth factor beta in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52240-52 pubmed
    Although several studies indicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerted anabolic action on bone, its precise mechanisms have been unknown...
  4. Pioszak A, Parker N, Gardella T, Xu H. Structural basis for parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to the parathyroid hormone receptor and design of conformation-selective peptides. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28382-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are two related peptides that control calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone development, respectively, through activation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R), a class B G protein-..
  5. Iida Klein A, Guo J, Takemura M, Drake M, Potts J, Abou Samra A, et al. Mutations in the second cytoplasmic loop of the rat parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptor result in selective loss of PTH-stimulated phospholipase C activity. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6882-9 pubmed
    To define the structural requirements of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein (PTHrP) receptor necessary for activation of phospholipase C (PLC), receptors with random mutations in their second cytoplasmic loop were ..
  6. Takenaka T, Watanabe Y, Inoue T, Miyazaki T, Suzuki H. Fibroblast growth factor 23 enhances renal klotho abundance. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo experiments were performed to assess the effects of FGF23 (10 ?g/kg), parathyroid hormone (PTH, 10 ?g/kg), and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25VD, 1 ?g/kg) on renal expression and serum ..
  7. Chan C, Arab S, Carasso S, Moravsky G, Li G, Liu P, et al. Impact of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis on myocardial mechanics and cardiomyocyte gene expression. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Nocturnal hemodialysis increased sessional dialysis dose and lowered parathyroid hormone levels (from 51 ± 67 to 24 ± 37 pmol/L, P<0.05) and phosphate...
  8. Deprez P, Temal T, Jary H, Auberval M, Lively S, Guedin D, et al. New potent calcimimetics: II. Discovery of benzothiazole trisubstituted ureas. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:2455-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in an in vivo model of chronic renal failure (short term and long term in 5/6 nephrectomized rats), benzothiazole urea 13 significantly decreased PTH levels after oral administration while keeping calcemia within the normal range.
  9. Naveh Many T, Nechama M. Regulation of parathyroid hormone mRNA stability by calcium, phosphate and uremia. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007;16:305-10 pubmed
    This review focuses on the regulation of parathyroid hormone gene expression by dietary-induced hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and uremia...
  10. Midura R, Su X, Morcuende J, Tammi M, Tammi R. Parathyroid hormone rapidly stimulates hyaluronan synthesis by periosteal osteoblasts in the tibial diaphysis of the growing rat. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51462-8 pubmed
    Short term treatment (3-24 h) with parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulated the synthesis and accumulation of hyaluronan (HyA) in explant cultures of tibial diaphyses from young rats...
  11. Lee M, Partridge N. Parathyroid hormone signaling in bone and kidney. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009;18:298-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) maintains a physiological balance of calcium and phosphate concentrations by binding to its receptor on the plasma membrane of cells in bone and kidney...
  12. Shimizu N, Guo J, Gardella T. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1-14) and -(1-11) analogs conformationally constrained by alpha-aminoisobutyric acid mediate full agonist responses via the juxtamembrane region of the PTH-1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:49003-12 pubmed
    The N-terminal portion of parathyroid hormone is critical for PTH-1 receptor (P1R) activation and has been postulated to be alpha-helical when bound to the receptor...
  13. Scialla J, Astor B, Isakova T, Xie H, Appel L, Wolf M. Mineral metabolites and CKD progression in African Americans. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years...
  14. Lanske B, Divieti P, Kovacs C, Pirro A, Landis W, Krane S, et al. The parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor mediates actions of both ligands in murine bone. Endocrinology. 1998;139:5194-204 pubmed
    b>PTH and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) have been shown to bind to and activate the same PTH/PTHrP receptor. Recent studies have demonstrated, however, the presence of additional receptors specific for each ligand...
  15. Kawane T, Mimura J, Fujii Kuriyama Y, Horiuchi N. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppresses rat PTH/PTH-related protein receptor gene promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:313-22 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates osteoblasts via a G protein-linked PTH/PTH-related protein (PTHrP) receptor. PTH effects on PTH/PTHrP receptor gene expression were studied in UMR 106 osteoblast-like cells...
  16. Dinour D, Beckerman P, Ganon L, Tordjman K, Eisenstein Z, Holtzman E. Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene, cause long-standing hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. J Urol. 2013;190:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients had a typical pattern of test results, including normal-high serum calcium, low parathyroid hormone levels, high vitamin D 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3, and low 24,25-(OH)2D3...
  17. Murray R, Holthouser K, Clark B, Salyer S, Barati M, Khundmiri S, et al. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreases sodium-phosphate cotransporter type IIa (NpT2a) mRNA stability. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F1076-85 pubmed publisher
    The acute inhibitory effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on proximal tubule Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (Na-K) and sodium-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transport have been extensively studied, while little is known about the chronic effects of PTH...
  18. Kaiser E, Sato M, Onyia J, Chandrasekhar S. Parathyroid hormone (1-34) regulates integrin expression in vivo in rat osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2001;83:617-30 pubmed
    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates new sites of bone formation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation and function resulting in an increase in bone mass...
  19. Watanabe A, Yoneyama S, Nakajima M, Sato N, Takao Kawabata R, Isogai Y, et al. Osteosarcoma in Sprague-Dawley rats after long-term treatment with teriparatide (human parathyroid hormone (1-34)). J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37:617-29 pubmed
    ..Responses of the bones to teriparatide were similar between F344 and SD rats in many aspects. These results suggested that the carcinogenic potential of teriparatide in SD rats is essentially the same as in F344 rats...
  20. Martuseviciene G, Hofman Bang J, Clausen T, Olgaard K, Lewin E. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity. Kidney Int. 2011;79:742-8 pubmed publisher
    The involvement of sodium/potassium-ATPase in regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is inferred from in vitro studies...
  21. Youness E, Mohammed N, Morsy F. Cadmium impact and osteoporosis: mechanism of action. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2012;22:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum was taken for determination of calcium, phosphorous levels, parathyroid hormone, 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3), osteocalcin (OC) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity...
  22. Hoff A, Catala Lehnen P, Thomas P, Priemel M, Rueger J, Nasonkin I, et al. Increased bone mass is an unexpected phenotype associated with deletion of the calcitonin gene. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1849-57 pubmed
    ..However, KO animals were more responsive to exogenous human parathyroid hormone as evidenced by a greater increase of the serum calcium concentration and urine deoxypyridinoline ..
  23. Santana A, Degaspari S, Catanozi S, Delle H, de Sa Lima L, Silva C, et al. Thalidomide suppresses inflammation in adenine-induced CKD with uraemia in mice. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28:1140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..developed advanced CKD characterized by a marked increase in serum urea, creatinine, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels...
  24. Gattineni J, Alphonse P, Zhang Q, Mathews N, Bates C, Baum M. Regulation of renal phosphate transport by FGF23 is mediated by FGFR1 and FGFR4. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with FGFR1 and FGFR4 being the critical receptors for the phosphaturic actions of FGF23. ..
  25. Dhawan P, Peng X, Sutton A, MacDonald P, Croniger C, Trautwein C, et al. Functional cooperation between CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and the vitamin D receptor in regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:472-87 pubmed
    ..We found that not only 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) but also parathyroid hormone (PTH) can induce C/EBPbeta expression in osteoblastic cells...
  26. Miao Q, Li J, Miao S, Hu N, Zhang J, Zhang S, et al. The bone-protective effect of genistein in the animal model of bilateral ovariectomy: roles of phytoestrogens and PTH/PTHR1 against post-menopausal osteoporosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the therapeutic effects between genistein and nilestriol and investigated whether PTH and its specific receptor PTHR1 altered in response to genistein-containing diet in the animal model of ovariectomy...
  27. Simmonds C, Karsenty G, Karaplis A, Kovacs C. Parathyroid hormone regulates fetal-placental mineral homeostasis. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:594-605 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays an essential role in regulating calcium and bone homeostasis in the adult, but whether PTH is required at all for regulating fetal-placental mineral homeostasis and skeletal development is uncertain...
  28. Green J, Goldberg R, Maor G. PTH ameliorates acidosis-induced adverse effects in skeletal growth centers: the PTH-IGF-I axis. Kidney Int. 2003;63:487-500 pubmed
    ..Given the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH related protein (PTHrP) on the development of cartilaginous bone, we sought to determine ..
  29. D Amour P, Rousseau L, Hornyak S, Yang Z, Cantor T. Rat parathyroid hormone (rPTH) ELISAs specific for regions (2-7), (22-34) and (40-60) of the rat PTH structure: influence of sex and age. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;168:312-7 pubmed publisher
    Rat (r) PTH ELISAs were used to study the influence of age and sex on rPTH levels and circulating PTH molecular forms separated by HPLC. Standard curves and saturation analysis were undertaken to define epitopes...
  30. Iida A, Kemmochi Y, Kakimoto K, Tanimoto M, Mimura T, Shinozaki Y, et al. Ferric citrate hydrate, a new phosphate binder, prevents the complications of secondary hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification. Am J Nephrol. 2013;37:346-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels and the incidence and severity of parathyroid hyperplasia were also decreased...
  31. Kir S, Komaba H, García A, Economopoulos K, Liu W, Lanske B, et al. PTH/PTHrP Receptor Mediates Cachexia in Models of Kidney Failure and Cancer. Cell Metab. 2016;23:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PTH is involved in stimulating a thermogenic gene program in 5/6 nephrectomized mice that suffer from cachexia...
  32. Leupin O, Kramer I, Collette N, Loots G, Natt F, Kneissel M, et al. Control of the SOST bone enhancer by PTH using MEF2 transcription factors. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:1957-67 pubmed
    ..We show that MEF2 transcription factors control this enhancer and mediate inhibition of sclerostin expression by PTH. Sclerostin encoded by the SOST gene is a key regulator of bone formation...
  33. Heinrich G, Kronenberg H, Potts J, Habener J. Gene encoding parathyroid hormone. Nucleotide sequence of the rat gene and deduced amino acid sequence of rat preproparathyroid hormone. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:3320-9 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the rat parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene was established from a 14.5-kilobase pair fragment of rat liver DNA cloned in bacteriophage Charon 4A. The transcriptional unit of the gene of 2...
  34. Boumah C, Lee M, Selvamurugan N, Shimizu E, Partridge N. Runx2 recruits p300 to mediate parathyroid hormone's effects on histone acetylation and transcriptional activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1255-63 pubmed publisher
    b>PTH regulates transcription of a number of genes involved in bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis...
  35. Takahashi F, Morita K, Katai K, Segawa H, Fujioka A, Kouda T, et al. Effects of dietary Pi on the renal Na+-dependent Pi transporter NaPi-2 in thyroparathyroidectomized rats. Biochem J. 1998;333 ( Pt 1):175-81 pubmed
    Dietary Pi and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are two most important physiological and pathophysiological regulators of Pi re-absorption in the renal proximal tubule...
  36. Pirih F, Aghaloo T, Bezouglaia O, Nervina J, Tetradis S. Parathyroid hormone induces the NR4A family of nuclear orphan receptors in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:494-503 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone metabolism, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unknown...
  37. De Schutter T, Behets G, Geryl H, Peter M, Steppan S, Gundlach K, et al. Effect of a magnesium-based phosphate binder on medial calcification in a rat model of uremia. Kidney Int. 2013;83:1109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of chronic renal failure significantly increased serum PTH, dose-dependently prevented by CaMg but not sevelamer...
  38. Chertow G, Block G, Correa Rotter R, Drueke T, Floege J, Goodman W, et al. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2482-94 pubmed publisher
    ..assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive ..
  39. Jung S, Querfeld U, Muller D, Rudolph B, Peters H, Kramer S. Submaximal suppression of parathyroid hormone ameliorates calcitriol-induced aortic calcification and remodeling and myocardial fibrosis in uremic rats. J Hypertens. 2012;30:2182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..high-dose calcitriol-induced cardiovascular disease can be modulated by almost complete suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH), mediated by either cinacalcet (CINA) or parathyroidectomy (PTX)...
  40. London G, Marchais S, Guerin A, Boutouyrie P, Metivier F, de Vernejoul M. Association of bone activity, calcium load, aortic stiffness, and calcifications in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1827-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Independent of any other factor, including dosage of calcium-containing phosphate binders, adynamic bone was associated with greater aortic stiffening, suggesting cross-talk between the bone and arterial walls. ..
  41. Kim C, Takai E, Zhou H, Von Stechow D, Muller R, Dempster D, et al. Trabecular bone response to mechanical and parathyroid hormone stimulation: the role of mechanical microenvironment. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:2116-25 pubmed
    ..element analysis (FEA) technique, trabecular bone response to combined dynamic compressive loading and parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation was characterized...
  42. Ellegaard M, Kringelbach T, Syberg S, Petersen S, Beck Jensen J, Brüel A, et al. The effect of PTH(1-34) on fracture healing during different loading conditions. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:2145-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH(1-34) have been shown to promote bone healing in several animal studies. It is known that the mechanical environment is important in fracture healing...
  43. Massironi S, Cavalcoli F, Rossi R, Conte D, Spampatti M, Ciafardini C, et al. Chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: a transversal prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine laboratory assays included serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), plasma gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA)...
  44. Arnold A, Horst S, Gardella T, Baba H, Levine M, Kronenberg H. Mutation of the signal peptide-encoding region of the preproparathyroid hormone gene in familial isolated hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Invest. 1990;86:1084-7 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the signal sequence constitutes a novel pathophysiologic mechanism in man, and further study may yield important insights both into this form of hormone deficiency and into the role of signal sequences in human physiology. ..
  45. Nechama M, Ben Dov I, Briata P, Gherzi R, Naveh Many T. The mRNA decay promoting factor K-homology splicing regulator protein post-transcriptionally determines parathyroid hormone mRNA levels. FASEB J. 2008;22:3458-68 pubmed publisher
    Serum calcium and phosphate concentrations and experimental chronic kidney failure control parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression post-transcriptionally through regulated binding of the trans-acting proteins AUF1 and upstream of N-ras ..
  46. Saab G, Bomback A, McFarlane S, Li S, Chen S, McCullough P, et al. The association of parathyroid hormone with ESRD and pre-ESRD mortality in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4414-21 pubmed publisher
    Studies have suggested that PTH may influence mortality and progression of chronic kidney disease. However, the development of either event may influence the development of the other as a competing risk...
  47. An H, Jin Z, Ge X, Wu J, Chen C, Zhang F, et al. Parathyroid hormone(1-34)-induced apoptosis in neuronal rat PC12 cells: implications for neurotoxicity. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:821-7 pubmed publisher
    Based on accumulated evidence, we speculate that a high concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) may cause neurotoxicity in patients with uremia through apoptosis-induced neuropathy...
  48. Nechama M, Ben Dov I, Silver J, Naveh Many T. Regulation of PTH mRNA stability by the calcimimetic R568 and the phosphorus binder lanthanum carbonate in CKD. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F795-800 pubmed publisher
    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA stability that leads to increased PTH mRNA and serum PTH levels...
  49. Wu Wong J, Kawai M, Chen Y, Wessale J, Huang C, Wu M, et al. Two novel vitamin D receptor modulators with similar structures exhibit different hypercalcemic effects in 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Am J Nephrol. 2013;37:310-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Current on-market VDRMs have a narrow therapeutic index at 1- to 4-fold [hypercalcemic toxicity vs. parathyroid hormone (PTH)-suppressing efficacy]...
  50. Zhang Q, Qiu J, Li H, Lu Y, Wang X, Yang J, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 promotes parathyroid hyperplasia in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats...
  51. Bell O, Gaberman E, Kilav R, Levi R, Cox K, Molkentin J, et al. The protein phosphatase calcineurin determines basal parathyroid hormone gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:516-26 pubmed
    Calcium and phosphate regulate PTH mRNA stability through differences in binding of parathyroid (PT) proteins to a minimal 63-nucleotide (nt) cis-acting instability element in its 3'-untranslated region...
  52. Shimizu E, Selvamurugan N, Westendorf J, Olson E, Partridge N. HDAC4 represses matrix metalloproteinase-13 transcription in osteoblastic cells, and parathyroid hormone controls this repression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9616-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone regulating bone remodeling through its actions on both bone formation and bone resorption...
  53. Eräranta A, Riutta A, Fan M, Koskela J, Tikkanen I, Lakkisto P, et al. Dietary phosphate binding and loading alter kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA and protein content in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats were on control diet. Blood pressure, plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, and FGF-23 were increased in remnant kidney rats, whereas ..
  54. Damron T, Horton J, Naqvi A, Loomis R, Margulies B, Strauss J, et al. Combination radioprotectors maintain proliferation better than single agents by decreasing early parathyroid hormone-related protein changes after growth plate irradiation. Radiat Res. 2006;165:350-8 pubmed
    ..At 2 days postirradiation, the decrease in parathyroid hormone-related protein and parathyroid hormone receptor 1 expression in the irradiated growth plate transitional ..
  55. Gupta S, Mittal A, Sathian B. Significance of HCG to distinguish parathyroid carcinoma from benign disease and in adding prognostic information: a hospital based study from Nepal. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:325-7 pubmed
    ..The variables collected were urinary HCG and HCG malignant isoform, calcium and parathyroid hormone. Preceding the study, approval was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee...
  56. Silva A, Fragoso A, Pinho A, Tavares N, Camacho A, Faísca M, et al. Phosphorus as an early marker of morbidity and mortality in type 2 chronic kidney disease diabetic patients. J Diabetes Complications. 2013;27:328-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients of group 3 presented lower clearance and Hb and increased PTH, Ca×P, LVMI, HOMA, uric acid, IL-6 and more hospitalization days...
  57. De Schutter T, Behets G, Jung S, Neven E, D Haese P, Querfeld U. Restoration of bone mineralization by cinacalcet is associated with a significant reduction in calcitriol-induced vascular calcification in uremic rats. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;91:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..osteoid width/area was seen in the CRF + vitD group, CIN treatment and PTX resulted in significantly reduced serum PTH level, which was accompanied by a distinct reduction of both the bone formation rate and the amount of osteoid...
  58. Wu Wong J, Nakane M, Chen Y. Mapping the time-dependent effects of paricalcitol on serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels in 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Life Sci. 2013;92:161-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the frequency of monitoring paricalcitol's impact on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus and PTH in current clinical practice is sufficient by mapping the time-dependent effects of paricalcitol on these parameters...
  59. Panuccio V, Enia G, Tripepi R, Aliotta R, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone fractures in CKD patients. An exploratory single centre study. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:134 pubmed publisher
    ..vintage: 43 months) belonging to a single renal Unit, we measured at enrolment bone metabolic parameters (intact PTH, bone and total alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, CRP)...
  60. Sawada K, Wu Wong J, Chen Y, Wessale J, Kanai G, Kakuta T, et al. Vitamin D receptor agonist VS-105 directly modulates parathyroid hormone expression in human parathyroid cells and in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;167:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we have shown that a novel VDRA, VS-105, effectively suppresses serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) without affecting serum calcium levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) uremic rats...
  61. Rodriguez Ortiz M, Lopez I, Munoz Castaneda J, Martinez Moreno J, Ramírez A, Pineda C, et al. Calcium deficiency reduces circulating levels of FGF23. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..low in both calcium and vitamin D, the resulting hypocalcemia was associated with low FGF23 despite high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high calcitriol levels. FGF23 correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH...
  62. Chou C, Fritz R, Chou F, Kibler R. The immune response of Lewis rats to peptide 68-88 of guinea pig myelin basic protein. I. T cell determinants. J Immunol. 1979;123:1540-3 pubmed
    ..e., residues 71-85. ..
  63. Cayır A, Turan M, Ozkan O, Cayir Y, Kaya A, Davutoglu S, et al. Serum vitamin D levels in children with recurrent otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..2 ± 13.9 ng/mL and was below 20 ng/mL in 30 % (n = 32) of cases. Comparison of serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels and PTH in the study and control groups revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05)...
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    ..technology, that IL-18 expression is increased in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic cells in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment...
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    ..Based on the results it can be concluded that alcohol abuse by subjects excessively exposed to Pb considerably increases the risk of bone damage. ..
  67. Haq N, Chaaban A, Gebran N, Khan I, Abbachi F, Hassan M, et al. A prospective randomized pilot study on intermittent post-dialysis dosing of cinacalcet. Int Urol Nephrol. 2014;46:113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH), serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were followed for 16 weeks and compared to ..
  68. Lim A, Kim S, Lee I, Choue R. Impaired bone formation with a high-protein diet in rats with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2012;35:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Serum parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin levels were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the HP diet group (p < 0...
  69. Li M, Healy D, Li Y, Simmons H, Gao F, Ke H, et al. A comparison of the anabolic effects of rat and bovine parathyroid hormone (1-34) in ovariectomized rats. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2001;2:77-83 pubmed
    The current study was designed to compare the skeletal effects of comparable doses of rat parathyroid hormone 1-34 (rPTH) and bovine parathyroid hormone 1-34 (bPTH) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
  70. Mahon M. The parathyroid hormone receptorsome and the potential for therapeutic intervention. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13:116-28 pubmed
    The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) is activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), hormones that mediate mineral ion homeostasis and tissue development, respectively...
  71. Fujita T, Meguro T, Fukuyama R, Nakamuta H, Koida M. New signaling pathway for parathyroid hormone and cyclic AMP action on extracellular-regulated kinase and cell proliferation in bone cells. Checkpoint of modulation by cyclic AMP. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22191-200 pubmed
    cAMP signaling, activated by extracellular stimuli such as parathyroid hormone, has cell type-specific effects important for cellular proliferation and differentiation in bone cells...
  72. Parkinson D, Thakker R. A donor splice site mutation in the parathyroid hormone gene is associated with autosomal recessive hypoparathyroidism. Nat Genet. 1992;1:149-52 pubmed
    ..a consanguineous marriage, has identified a g to c substitution in the first nucleotide of intron 2 of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene...
  73. Hofman Bang J, Gravesen E, Olgaard K, Lewin E. Epigenetic Methylation of Parathyroid CaR and VDR Promoters in Experimental Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:123576 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is normalized despite low levels of CaR and VDR after experimental reversal of uremia...