Gene Symbol: Ptgs2
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Alias: COX-2, Cox2, prostaglandin G/H synthase 2, PGH synthase 2, PGHS-2, PHS II, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
Species: rat
Products:     Ptgs2

Top Publications

  1. Albertini R, Aimbire F, Villaverde A, Silva J, Costa M. COX-2 mRNA expression decreases in the subplantar muscle of rat paw subjected to carrageenan-induced inflammation after low level laser therapy. Inflamm Res. 2007;56:228-9 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 0.26 vs. A(2)= 3.52 +/- 0.69). Irradiation reduced the edema (A(3)= 0.84 +/- 0.09; A(4)= 1.31 +/- 0.05) and the COX-2 mRNA (A(3)= 2.16 +/- 0.28; A(4)= 1.86 +/- 0.20). LLLT reduce the expression of COX-2 mRNA. ..
  2. Li W, Wu S, Hickey R, Rose M, Chen J, Graham S. Neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 activity and prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2 alpha exacerbate hypoxic neuronal injury in neuron-enriched primary culture. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:490-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of COX-2 did not increase expression of cyclin D1 or phosphoretinoblastoma protein (pRb), or cleavage of caspase 3 suggesting that this cell cycle mechanism does not mediate COX-2 toxicity in this model. ..
  3. McCormick D, Phillips J, Horn T, Johnson W, Steele V, Lubet R. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in rat oral cancers and prevention of oral carcinogenesis in rats by selective and nonselective COX inhibitors. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemopreventive activity of COX inhibitors may be linked to overexpression of their enzymatic target in incipient oral neoplasms. ..
  4. Ishiura Y, Fujimura M, Yamamoto H, Ishiguro T, Ohkura N, Myou S. COX-2 inhibition attenuates cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin in patients with asthma. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:370-4 pubmed
    ..7 [1.2] vs 21.6 [1.2] gM, P<.02). These findings indicate that COX-2 may be a possible modulator augmenting airway cough reflex sensitivity in asthmatic airways. ..
  5. Shi Y, Vanhoutte P. Oxidative stress and COX cause hyper-responsiveness in vascular smooth muscle of the femoral artery from diabetic rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic diabetes and the resulting increased oxidative stress activate the production of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids causing hypersensitivity of vascular smooth muscle. ..
  6. Hickey R, Adelson P, Johnnides M, Davis D, Yu Z, Rose M, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity following traumatic brain injury in the developing rat. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:271-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor SC58125 in PND17 rats exposed to CCI attenuated the rise in PGE2 but did not attenuate lesion volume or improve performance in the Morris water maze. ..
  7. Feng J, Lucchinetti E, Fischer G, Zhu M, Zaugg K, Schaub M, et al. Cardiac remodelling hinders activation of cyclooxygenase-2, diminishing protection by delayed pharmacological preconditioning: role of HIF1 alpha and CREB. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Isoflurane failed to mobilize cyclooxygenase-2-inducing CREB in ICER-overexpressing, remodelled hearts, which was associated with a shortening of the second window of protection. ..
  8. Jean Y, Chen W, Duh C, Huang S, Hsu C, Lin C, et al. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 participate in anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the natural marine compound lemnalol from Formosan soft coral Lemnalia cervicorni. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;578:323-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, inhibition of elevated iNOS and COX-2 protein expression as well as neurophil infiltration of carrageenan-injected paws may be involved in the beneficial effects of lemnalol. ..
  9. Sang N, Zhang J, Chen C. COX-2 oxidative metabolite of endocannabinoid 2-AG enhances excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission and induces neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1966-1977 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the COX-2 oxidative metabolism of endocannabinoids is an important mechanism contributing to the inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. ..

More Information


  1. Chen S, Wu C, Lee Y, Tam K, Tsai Y, Liou J, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts with Derlin-1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 via collaboration with p97 complex. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified Cav-1 as a key player in Derlin-1- and p97-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ubiquitination and degradation...
  2. Zhang J, Chen C. Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol protects neurons by limiting COX-2 elevation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22601-11 pubmed publisher
  3. Hu S, Bradshaw H, Chen J, Tan B, Walker J. Prostaglandin E2 glycerol ester, an endogenous COX-2 metabolite of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, induces hyperalgesia and modulates NFkappaB activity. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1538-49 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 could act as an enzymatic switch by converting 2-AG from an antinociceptive mediator to a pro-nociceptive prostanoid. ..
  4. Torres R, Perez M, Marco A, Picado C, de Mora F. [A cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor worsens respiratory function and enhances mast cell activity in ovalbumin-sensitized mice]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2009;45:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this effect might be at least partially explained by the increase in airway mast cell activity. ..
  5. Yamagata K, Andreasson K, Kaufmann W, Barnes C, Worley P. Expression of a mitogen-inducible cyclooxygenase in brain neurons: regulation by synaptic activity and glucocorticoids. Neuron. 1993;11:371-86 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that COX-2 expression may be important in regulating prostaglandin signaling in brain. The marked inducibility in neurons by synaptic stimuli suggests a role in activity-dependent plasticity. ..
  6. Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Sawaoka H, Hori M, DuBois R. Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells. Cell. 1998;93:705-16 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase regulates colon carcinoma-induced angiogenesis by two mechanisms: COX-2 can modulate production of angiogenic factors by colon cancer cells, while COX-1 regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells. ..
  7. Ma W, Du W, Eisenach J. Role for both spinal cord COX-1 and COX-2 in maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity following peripheral nerve injury. Brain Res. 2002;937:94-9 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of spinal COX may be an important mechanism of action in treating some patients with neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. ..
  8. Yoshimura N, Sano H, Okamoto M, Akioka K, Ushigome H, Kadotani Y, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in human breast cancer. Surg Today. 2003;33:805-11 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that human breast cancer cells generated Cox-2, indicating that Cox-2 might play an important role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. ..
  9. Seybold V, Jia Y, Abrahams L. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 contributes to central sensitization in rats with peripheral inflammation. Pain. 2003;105:47-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that products of COX-2 contribute to the increased excitability of the spinal cord during persistent peripheral inflammation. ..
  10. Feng L, Sun W, Xia Y, Tang W, Chanmugam P, Soyoola E, et al. Cloning two isoforms of rat cyclooxygenase: differential regulation of their expression. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;307:361-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two COX isoforms were differentially expressed, and COX-2 was selectively induced in response to inflammatory stimuli in rats. ..
  11. Takahashi M, Kawaguchi M, Shimada K, Konishi N, Furuya H, Nakashima T. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Schwann cells and macrophages in the sciatic nerve after single spinal nerve injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2004;363:203-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that the cellular sources of COX-2 expression might be different between the early and late phases after nerve injury. ..
  12. Broom D, Samad T, Kohno T, Tegeder I, Geisslinger G, Woolf C. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2004;124:891-900 pubmed
    ..The pain hypersensitivity produced by the SNI model is not COX-2-dependent. ..
  13. Oshima M, Dinchuk J, Kargman S, Oshima H, Hancock B, Kwong E, et al. Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Apc delta716 knockout mice by inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Cell. 1996;87:803-9 pubmed
    ..To assess the role of COX-2 in colorectal tumorigenisis, we determined the effects of COX-2 gene (Ptgs2) knockouts and a novel COX-2 inhibitor on Apc delta716 knockout mice, a model of human familial adenomatous ..
  14. Durrenberger P, Facer P, Gray R, Chessell I, Naylor A, Bountra C, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in injured human nerve and a rat model of nerve injury. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2004;9:15-25 pubmed
    ..Selection of patients 4-6 weeks after nerve injury would be more likely to show any efficacy of Cox-2 inhibitors. ..
  15. Kim K, Yoon J, Gwak G, Kim W, Lee S, Jang J, et al. Bile acid-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and Mcl-1 in hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;342:1108-13 pubmed
    ..These results imply that the bile acid-mediated inductions of COX-2 and Mcl-1 may lead to HSC survival in cholestatic liver diseases. ..
  16. Xu K, Kitchen C, Shu H, Murphy T. Platelet-derived growth factor-induced stabilization of cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA in rat smooth muscle cells requires the c-Src family of protein-tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32699-709 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of CUGBP2 is an important underlying mechanism for the ability of PDGFR/c-Src signaling to control the stability of COX-2 mRNA. ..
  17. Richardson J, Ottolini M, Pletneva L, Boukhvalova M, Zhang S, Vogel S, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces cyclooxygenase 2: a potential target for RSV therapy. J Immunol. 2005;174:4356-64 pubmed
    ..Treatment of cotton rats with indomethacin significantly mitigated lung histopathology produced by RSV. The studies described in this study provide the first evidence that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target in RSV-induced disease. ..
  18. Bos P, Zhang X, Nadal C, Shu W, Gomis R, Nguyen D, et al. Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Nature. 2009;459:1005-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as ..
  19. Ishiura Y, Fujimura M, Yamamoto H, Ohkura N, Myou S. Role of COX-2 in cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin in patients with sinobronchial syndrome. Cough. 2010;6:7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 (GSEM 1.3) vs. 27.2 (GSEM 1.3) muM]. These findings indicate that COX-2 may be a possible modulator augmenting airway cough reflex sensitivity in patients with sinobronchial syndrome. ..
  20. Roan J, Tsai Y, Chen I, Chang S, Huang C, Lam C. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 modulates phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells during increased aortic blood flow. Heart Vessels. 2012;27:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These functional changes were accomplished by VSMC phenotypic switching and reduced biosynthesis of collagen. ..
  21. Coccini T, Roda E, Barni S, Signorini C, Manzo L. Long-lasting oxidative pulmonary insult in rat after intratracheal instillation of silica nanoparticles doped with cadmium. Toxicology. 2012;302:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..SiNPs did not influence any of the evaluated endpoints. The results indicate the capacity of engineered SiNPs-Cd to cause long-lasting oxidative tissue injury following pulmonary exposure in rat. ..
  22. Deng A, Wead L, Blantz R. Temporal adaptation of tubuloglomerular feedback: effects of COX-2. Kidney Int. 2004;66:2348-53 pubmed
    ..Administration of COX-2 inhibitors prevented TGF temporal adaptation, identical to the effect of NOS I inhibition. Changes in intrarenal Ang II cannot explain this prevention of TGF temporal adaptation. ..
  23. Smit van Oosten A, Boonstra A, Navis G, van Goor H, Buikema H. Reduced cyclooxygenase involvement in vascular endothelial function in rat renal transplantation. Nephron Physiol. 2005;100:p21-30 pubmed
    ..RAS blockade improves common cardiovascular risk factors and endothelium-dependent dilation, but fails to restore prostaglandin function. ..
  24. Dupouy V, Ferre P, Uro Coste E, Lefebvre H. Time course of COX-1 and COX-2 expression during ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:233-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hindlimb I/R induced a large overexpression of COX-2 but not COX-1 protein between 6 and 10 h after injury. These results suggest a role for COX-2 enzyme in such pathophysiological conditions of the skeletal muscle. ..
  25. Lo C. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-II gene and PGE2 production of peritoneal macrophages in diabetic rats. J Surg Res. 2005;125:121-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, hyperglycemia also reduces NFkappaB activity and NFkappaB-dependent cytokines production. ..
  26. Kubo K, Inada T, Shingu K. Possible role of propofol's cyclooxygenase-inhibiting property in alleviating dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra in an MPTP-induced murine model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2011;1387:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that propofol might be beneficial in mitigating MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons, possibly via its COX-inhibiting activity. ..
  27. Hugyecz M, Mracskó É, Hertelendy P, Farkas E, Domoki F, Bari F. Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2011;1404:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both RSG and H(2)-RA prevented the changes of enzyme and connexin levels. Considering the lack of harmful side effects, inhalation of H(2)-RA can be a promising approach to reduce neuronal damage after TGCI. ..
  28. Ota Y, Imai T, Hasumura M, Cho Y, Takami S, Oyamada T, et al. Prostaglandin synthases influence thyroid follicular cell proliferation but not carcinogenesis in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify the significance of the reduction of COX-2 expression in preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions. ..
  29. Yamaguchi N, Okada S. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in spinally projecting neurons are involved in CRF-induced sympathetic activation. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN and COX-2 in the LC play roles in the CRF-induced sympathetic regulation in rats. ..
  30. Wu Y, Su L, Wang H, Jeff Lin C, Hsu W, Chou T, et al. Co-overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 adversely affects the postoperative survival in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..27; p = 0.029). Overexpression of either COX-2 or mPGES-1 is common but unrelated in NSCLC. Co-overexpression of both COX-2 and mPGES-1 adversely affects postoperative overall and disease-free survivals. ..
  31. Jang E, Jeong H, Park D, Kim D, Choi Y, Chung K, et al. Src Tyrosine Kinase Activation by 4-Hydroxynonenal Upregulates p38, ERK/AP-1 Signaling and COX-2 Expression in YPEN-1 Cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129244 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results of this study show that 4-HNE stimulates Src tyrosine kinase in activation of the inflammation process. ..
  32. Innala L, Möller B, Ljung L, Magnusson S, Smedby T, Södergren A, et al. Cardiovascular events in early RA are a result of inflammatory burden and traditional risk factors: a five year prospective study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R131 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with DMARDs decreased the risk. The results may have implications for cardio-protective strategies in RA. ..
  33. Fitzsimmons B, Zattoni M, Svensson C, Steinauer J, Hua X, Yaksh T. Role of spinal p38alpha and beta MAPK in inflammatory hyperalgesia and spinal COX-2 expression. Neuroreport. 2010;21:313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that early activation of spinal p38beta isoform may affect acute facilitatory processing, and both p38beta and alpha isoforms mediate temporally delayed upregulation of spinal COX-2. ..
  34. Colleselli D, Bijuklic K, Mosheimer B, Kähler C. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 affects endothelial progenitor cell proliferation. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2933-41 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that upcoming therapy strategies in cancer patients targeting COX-2 may be effective in inhibiting tumour vasculogenesis as well as angiogenic processes. ..
  35. Lee K, Kim M, Kang N, Kim D, Surh Y, Lee H, et al. H-Ras selectively up-regulates MMP-9 and COX-2 through activation of ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB: an implication for invasive phenotype in rat liver epithelial cells. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1767-75 pubmed
  36. Hwang I, Yi S, Yoo K, Park O, Yan B, Kim I, et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus in type 2 diabetic rats: correlation with the neuroblasts. Brain Res. 2010;1341:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that COX-2 may be associated with the increase of synaptic plasticity or contacts in the hippocampus. ..
  37. Lin C, Lin W, Cheng S, Tung W, Wang H, Yang C. Transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt involved in ATP-induced inflammatory protein expression and cell motility. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1628-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Newly synthesized PGE(2) acted on its receptors to promote cell motility of ATP?S-stimulated VSMCs. ..
  38. Rodriguez N, Hoots W, Koshkina N, Morales Arias J, ARNDT C, Inwards C, et al. COX-2 expression correlates with survival in patients with osteosarcoma lung metastases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008;30:507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, COX-2 expression correlated inversely with disease-specific survival in patients with osteosarcoma lung metastases. Our data indicate that COX-2 expression in metastatic osteosarcoma may have prognostic significance. ..
  39. Suddek G, El Kenawi A, Abdel Aziz A, El Kashef H. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, attenuates renal injury in a rat model of Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Chemotherapy. 2011;57:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathological examination of the kidney confirmed these results. In conclusion, this study indicates that celecoxib may be a promising drug for clinical use as a nephroprotectant against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. ..
  40. Baserga M, Hale M, Wang Z, Yu X, Callaway C, McKnight R, et al. Uteroplacental insufficiency alters nephrogenesis and downregulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a model of IUGR with adult-onset hypertension. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1943-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in our animal model, UPI decreases fetal COX-2 expression during a period of active nephrogenesis in the IUGR rat, which is also characterized by decreased nephron number and adult-onset hypertension. ..
  41. Xiao J, Ho C, Liong E, Nanji A, Leung T, Lau T, et al. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rat model through TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-kappa B pathways. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, green tea polyphenols and EGCG are useful supplements in the prevention of NAFLD. ..
  42. Graupera M, March S, Engel P, Rodes J, Bosch J, García Pagán J. Sinusoidal endothelial COX-1-derived prostanoids modulate the hepatic vascular tone of cirrhotic rat livers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G763-70 pubmed
    ..Despite abundant hepatic COX-2 expression, the increased response to Mtx of cirrhotic livers is mainly dependent of COX-1. Upregulation of COX-1 in cirrhotic SEC may be responsible for the hyperesponse to Mtx. ..
  43. Boldarian N, Pozharisskii K, Vinokurov V, Ten V, Samsonova E. [Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) expression in endometrial carcinoma (clinical and immunohistochemical study)]. Vopr Onkol. 2008;54:40-6 pubmed
  44. Oyama K, Fujimura T, Ninomiya I, Miyashita T, Kinami S, Fushida S, et al. [Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in a rat duodenoesophageal reflux model and chemoprevention of adenocarcinoma by the selective COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2007;104:1183-91 pubmed
    ..COX-2 may play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis through the activation of the inflammation-metaplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. Nimesulide is effective in preventing BE and EAC by suppressing COX-2 activity. ..
  45. Lopez Lopez J, Moral Sanz J, Frazziano G, Gomez Villalobos M, Moreno L, Menendez C, et al. Type 1 diabetes-induced hyper-responsiveness to 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat pulmonary arteries via oxidative stress and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further strengthen the link between diabetes and pulmonary arterial hypertension. ..
  46. Wei J, Du K, Cai Q, Ma L, Jiao Z, Tan J, et al. Lead induces COX-2 expression in glial cells in a NFAT-dependent, AP-1/NFκB-independent manner. Toxicology. 2014;325:67-73 pubmed publisher
  47. Ho H, Hsu S, Lee F, Huang H, Hsin I, Hou M, et al. Role of cyclooxygenase isoforms in encephalopathy of cirrhotic rats. J Chin Med Assoc. 2016;79:583-588 pubmed publisher
    ..the roles of cyclooxygenase isoforms responsible for prostaglandins synthesis, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and COX2, in cirrhotic rats with HE...
  48. Burke S, Collier J. The gene encoding cyclooxygenase-2 is regulated by IL-1? and prostaglandins in 832/13 rat insulinoma cells. Cell Immunol. 2011;271:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..part by inducing the expression of genes that produce soluble mediators of inflammation, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)...
  49. Huang Y, Gao J, Meng X, Jiang G, Yang Y, Li H, et al. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in cyclooxygenase-2 and transforming growth factor-? production in alveolar macrophage from chronic bronchitis rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:645-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated COX-2, PGE(2) and TGF-? productions in AM of CB rats were significantly increased, which might be regulated by the different MAPK signaling pathway. ..
  50. Ma L, Kong F, Ge H, Liu J, Gong F, Xu L, et al. Ventricular hypertrophy blocked delayed anesthetic cardioprotection in rats by alteration of iNOS/COX-2 signaling. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7071 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that ventricular hypertrophy abrogated isoflurane-induced delayed cardioprotection by alteration of iNOS/COX-2 pathway. ..
  51. Matsuura T, Takuwa H, Bakalova R, Obata T, Kanno I. Effect of cyclooxygenase-2 on the regulation of cerebral blood flow during neuronal activation in the rat. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study also revealed the potential side-effects of dimethylsulfoxide, a solvent of NS-398, on neurovascular coupling. ..
  52. Yuan Z, Zhang H, Jia Y, Cheng Y, Li X. Temporal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in peritoneal macrophages of rats and effects of panax notoginseng saponins. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2 expression in peritoneal macrophages has a double-hump feature after stimulation. PNS enhanced phagocytosis, inhibiting COX-2 expression at an early stage and elevating it at a later stage. ..
  53. Luo C, Peng Y, Santti R, He M, Lin M. COX-1 and -2 expressions in sex-related organs of neonatally estrogen-treated rats and in activated and nonactivated macrophage RAW264.7 cells with phytoestrogen. Endocrine. 2006;29:161-7 pubmed
  54. Tenn C, Weiss M, Beaup C, Peinnequin A, Wang Y, Dorandeu F. Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to VX-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons. Toxicol Lett. 2012;210:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the increase in COX-2 activity may contribute to the mechanism of VX-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neuron. ..
  55. Zhao D, Xu D, Zhang X, Wang L, Tan W, Guo Y, et al. Interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 variants and smoking in pancreatic cancer: a possible role of nucleophosmin. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Functional COX-2 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and tobacco smoke specifically increases -765C promoter activity, which might be mediated by p-NPM. ..
  56. Sumanont Y, Murakami Y, Tohda M, Vajragupta O, Watanabe H, Matsumoto K. Effects of manganese complexes of curcumin and diacetylcurcumin on kainic acid-induced neurotoxic responses in the rat hippocampus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1732-9 pubmed
    ..p.) caused seizures and increased the expression of neurotoxic markers, immediate early genes [c-jun, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70)] and a delayed response ..
  57. Yokota A, Taniguchi M, Takahira Y, Tanaka A, Takeuchi K. Dexamethasone damages the rat stomach but not small intestine during inhibition of COX-1. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:1452-61 pubmed
  58. Gjerstad J, Lien G, Pedersen L, Valen E, Mollerup S. Changes in gene expression of Zif, c-fos and cyclooxygenase-2 associated with spinal long-term potentiation. Neuroreport. 2005;16:1477-81 pubmed
    ..The transient increase of the expression of Zif is consistent with an involvement in the transition from the early to the late-phase of spinal cord long-term potentiation. ..
  59. Colby J, Klein R, McArthur M, Conti C, Kiguchi K, Kawamoto T, et al. Progressive metaplastic and dysplastic changes in mouse pancreas induced by cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. Neoplasia. 2008;10:782-96 pubmed
    ..The progressive nature of the metaplastic/dysplastic changes observed in this model make it a valuable tool for examining the transition from chronic inflammation to neoplasia. ..
  60. Lee D, Kwak I, Lee S, Song S, Seong E, Chung H, et al. Effects of celecoxib and nordihydroguaiaretic acid on puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis in the rat. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24 Suppl:S183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggested that celecoxib and NDGA might effectively reduce proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome without impairing renal function. ..
  61. Polito F, Bitto A, Irrera N, Squadrito F, Fazzari C, Minutoli L, et al. Flavocoxid, a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase, reduces pancreatic damage in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Flavocoxid may provide a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of patients at high risk of developing this life-threatening condition. ..
  62. Akundi R, Candelario Jalil E, Hess S, Hull M, Lieb K, Gebicke Haerter P, et al. Signal transduction pathways regulating cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia. Glia. 2005;51:199-208 pubmed
    ..This detailed view of the intracellular signaling pathway in microglial activation and COX-2 expression opens a new therapeutic window in the search for new and more effective central anti-inflammatory agents. ..
  63. Aleshin S, Grabeklis S, Hanck T, Sergeeva M, Reiser G. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma positively controls and PPARalpha negatively controls cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rat brain astrocytes through a convergence on PPARbeta/delta via mutual control of PPAR expression levels. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:414-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate a novel principle of regulation in the signaling by synthetic PPAR agonists that involves modulating the interaction between PPARalpha,-beta/delta, and -gamma isoforms on the level of their expression. ..
  64. Yamashita A, Kunimatsu T, Yamamoto T, Yoshida K. Hypothermic, but not normothermic, ischemia causes a drastic increase in cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactive granule cells in rat dentate gyrus after 4 hours of ischemic reperfusion. Arch Histol Cytol. 2007;70:197-205 pubmed
    ..Considering the neuroprotective roles of the hypothermia, a rapid increase in Cox-2 in the dentate gyrus might be associated with this temperature-sensitive phenomenon. ..
  65. Issa A, Miyata K, Heng V, Mitchell K, Derbenev A. Increased neuronal activity in the OVLT of Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats with inducible Ang II-dependent malignant hypertension. Neurosci Lett. 2012;519:26-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings demonstrate increased c-fos and TRPV1 expression levels in the OVLT of Cyp1a1-Ren2 transgenic rats with Ang II-dependent malignant hypertension. ..
  66. Benish M, Bartal I, Goldfarb Y, Levi B, Avraham R, Raz A, et al. Perioperative use of beta-blockers and COX-2 inhibitors may improve immune competence and reduce the risk of tumor metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:2042-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment combining perioperative COX-2 inhibition and beta-blockade is practical in operated cancer patients, and our study suggests potential immunological and clinical benefits. ..
  67. Valdeolivas S, Pazos M, Bisogno T, Piscitelli F, Iannotti F, Allarà M, et al. The inhibition of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) biosynthesis, rather than enhancing striatal damage, protects striatal neurons from malonate-induced death: a potential role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent metabolism of 2-AG. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e862 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, MAGL inhibition or the administration of PGE2-G aggravates the malonate toxicity. ..
  68. Kuper C, Bartels H, Beck F, Neuhofer W. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells. Kidney Int. 2011;80:938-945 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells. ..
  69. Jaimes E, Tian R, Pearse D, Raij L. Up-regulation of glomerular COX-2 by angiotensin II: role of reactive oxygen species. Kidney Int. 2005;68:2143-53 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that blockade of specific PGE(2) receptors may be a novel strategy to modulate the pathologic effects of COX-2-derived prostaglandins without simultaneously affecting protective vasodilatory mechanisms. ..
  70. Kotnik P, Nielsen J, Kwon T, Krzisnik C, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S. Altered expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in rats with nephrogenic and central diabetes insipidus. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F1053-68 pubmed
    ..These results identify markedly reduced expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in IM in lithium-induced NDI. Furthermore, there were major changes in the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in rats with CDI...
  71. Lin H, Tang H, Keating T, Wu Y, Shih A, Hammond D, et al. Resveratrol is pro-apoptotic and thyroid hormone is anti-apoptotic in glioma cells: both actions are integrin and ERK mediated. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:62-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the receptor sites on alphaVbeta3 for RV and thyroid hormone are discrete and activate ERK1/2-dependent downstream effects on apoptosis that are distinctive. ..
  72. Wu Y, Bai M, Zhang J, Jin Y, Zhang L, Bao B. [The effect of nitric oxide inhalation on the expression of COX-2 and toll-like receptor 4 in rat acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2009;32:111-4 pubmed
    ..LPS increased the expression of COX-2 and TLR4. Low dose of nitric oxide (20x10(-6) mg/L) inhalation reduced the bronchiolar expression of COX-2 and TLR4 induced by LPS. ..
  73. Farrell J, Gaxiola Valdez I, Wolff M, David L, Dika H, Geeraert B, et al. Postictal behavioural impairments are due to a severe prolonged hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that is COX-2 dependent. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, epilepsy is much more than a disease hallmarked by seizures, since the occurrence of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia results in a separate set of neurological consequences that are currently not being treated and are preventable. ..
  74. Atar S, Ye Y, Lin Y, Freeberg S, Nishi S, Rosanio S, et al. Atorvastatin-induced cardioprotection is mediated by increasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and consequent S-nitrosylation of cyclooxygenase-2. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H1960-8 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that preconditioning effects are mediated via PG. ..
  75. de Menezes G, dos Reis W, Santos J, Duarte I, de Francischi J. Inhibition of prostaglandin F(2alpha) by selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors accounts for reduced rat leukocyte migration. Inflammation. 2005;29:163-9 pubmed
    To investigate whether selective COX 2 inhibitors (celecoxib, rofecoxib) would play a role in a model of leukocyte migration in rats...
  76. Copland I, Reynaud D, Pace Asciak C, Post M. Mechanotransduction of stretch-induced prostanoid release by fetal lung epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L487-95 pubmed
    ..The data are compatible with cPLA(2) and COX-2 being intimately involved in regulating the injury response to adverse mechanical ventilation. ..
  77. Burdan F, Szumiło J, Gajjar B, Dudka J, Korobowicz A, Patel S, et al. Immunoexpression of constitutive and inducible cyclo-oxygenase isoforms in the rat foetal and maternal digestive tract. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2008;67:24-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, constitutive and inducible COX isoforms were detected in the digestive tract of pregnant female and in foetuses. COX-1 was the predominant isoform in both the adult and foetal organs. ..
  78. Liu C, Gao J, Chen B, Chen L, Belguise K, Yu W, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes pulmonary intravascular macrophage accumulation by exacerbating BMP signaling in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;138:205-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that inhibition of COX-2 by parecoxib can improve the HPS through the repression of BMP signaling and macrophage accumulation. ..
  79. Zuloaga K, Gonzales R. Dihydrotestosterone attenuates hypoxia inducible factor-1? and cyclooxygenase-2 in cerebral arteries during hypoxia or hypoxia with glucose deprivation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1882-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that upregulation of COX-2 and HIF-1? in response to hypoxia is suppressed by DHT via an androgen receptor-independent mechanism. ..
  80. Sarkar P, Hayes B. Induction of COX-2 by acrolein in rat lung epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;301:191-9 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies offer an explanation for the mechanism of COX-2 induction by acrolein in rat lung epithelial cells. ..
  81. Friis U, Madsen K, Svenningsen P, Hansen P, Gulaveerasingam A, Jørgensen F, et al. Hypotonicity-induced Renin exocytosis from juxtaglomerular cells requires aquaporin-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:2154-61 pubmed publisher
  82. Travaglia T, Berger R, Luz M, Furieri L, Ribeiro J, Vassallo D, et al. Low-salt diet increases NO bioavailability and COX-2 vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 2016;145:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither ROS nor the local renin-angiotensin system is involved in these responses. ..
  83. Pu G, Wang C, Zheng P, He L. Effects of No.2 Renal Failure Recipe on expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and -1 mRNAs in rats with chronic renal failure. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2009;7:1067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..No. 2RFR can improve renal function and reduce glomerular sclerosis and renal fibrosis by inhibiting the over-expression of the COX-2 mRNA. ..
  84. Qiu J, Yuan H, Chen S, Zhou Y, Song D, Chen R. TNFα up-regulates COX-2 in chronic progressive nephropathy through nuclear accumulation of RelB and NF-κB2. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2016;122:88-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that TNFα-RelB/p52 pathway may be involved in the early stages of renal damage, in part by stimulating COX-2 and inflammatory responses. ..
  85. Bautista García P, Sanchez Lozada L, Cristóbal García M, Tapia E, Soto V, Avila Casado M, et al. Chronic inhibition of NOS-2 ameliorates renal injury, as well as COX-2 and TGF-beta 1 overexpression in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:3074-81 pubmed
  86. Bhave V, Donthamsetty S, Latendresse J, Mehendale H. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 aggravates secretory phospholipase A2-mediated progression of acute liver injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;228:239-46 pubmed publisher
  87. Martins J, Ferracini M, Ravanelli N, Landgraf R, Jancar S. Insulin suppresses LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-kappaB activation in alveolar macrophages. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;22:279-86 pubmed publisher
  88. Zhang X, Kainz V, Jakubowski M, Burstein R, Strassman A, Levy D. Localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the intracranial dura mater of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:33-6 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that NSAIDs may abort headache, at least in part, by inhibiting either neuronal or non-neuronal COX activity in the dura mater. ..
  89. Pham H, Vincenti R, Slice L. COX-2 promoter activation by AT1R-Gq-PAK-p38beta signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that in IEC-18 cells, Ang II-dependent activation of the COX-2 promoter is mediated primarily through Gq/11 signaling via a PAK/MKK6/p38beta/CREB signaling cascade. ..
  90. Brenhouse H, Andersen S. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment prevents delayed effects of early life stress in rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the relationship between early life stress and interneuron dysfunction in adolescence. ..