Gene Symbol: Ptgs1
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1
Alias: Cox-1, Cox-3, Cox1, Cox3, Pghs-1, prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, PGH synthase 1, PHS 1, cyclooxygenase 3, cyclooxygenase-1, prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin H2 synthase 1
Species: rat
Products:     Ptgs1

Top Publications

  1. Kotnik P, Nielsen J, Kwon T, Krzisnik C, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S. Altered expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in rats with nephrogenic and central diabetes insipidus. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F1053-68 pubmed
    ..These results identify markedly reduced expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in IM in lithium-induced NDI. Furthermore, there were major changes in the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES in rats with CDI...
  2. Lu L, Shimizu T, Nakamura K, Yokotani K. Brain neuronal/inducible nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-1 are involved in the bombesin-induced activation of central adrenomedullary outflow in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;590:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..6 micromol/animal, i.c.v.). These results suggest that the brain neuronal NOS/COX-1 and inducible NOS/COX-1 are respectively involved in the bombesin-induced secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline from the adrenal medulla in rats. ..
  3. Retamoso L, Montagner F, Camargo E, Vitral R, Tanaka O. Polarized light microscopic analysis of bone formation after inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the third day, the C group showed better collagen organization than the PD group. Potassium diclofenac interfered in collagen maturation, reducing fibril organization in the initial phase of orthodontic movement. ..
  4. Schwab J, Brechtel K, Nguyen T, Schluesener H. Persistent accumulation of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) expressing microglia/macrophages and upregulation by endothelium following spinal cord injury. J Neuroimmunol. 2000;111:122-30 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we suggest that approaches based on: (i) short-term; and (ii) selective COX-2 blocking alone might not be a sufficient tool to suppress the local synthesis of prostanoids. ..
  5. Shi Y, Vanhoutte P. Oxidative stress and COX cause hyper-responsiveness in vascular smooth muscle of the femoral artery from diabetic rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic diabetes and the resulting increased oxidative stress activate the production of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids causing hypersensitivity of vascular smooth muscle. ..
  6. Graupera M, March S, Engel P, Rodes J, Bosch J, García Pagán J. Sinusoidal endothelial COX-1-derived prostanoids modulate the hepatic vascular tone of cirrhotic rat livers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G763-70 pubmed
    ..Despite abundant hepatic COX-2 expression, the increased response to Mtx of cirrhotic livers is mainly dependent of COX-1. Upregulation of COX-1 in cirrhotic SEC may be responsible for the hyperesponse to Mtx. ..
  7. Schwab J, Beschorner R, Meyermann R, Gözalan F, Schluesener H. Persistent accumulation of cyclooxygenase-1-expressing microglial cells and macrophages and transient upregulation by endothelium in human brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2002;96:892-9 pubmed
    ..The authors have identified localized, accumulated COX- I expression as a potential pharmacological target following TBI. Their results challenge the current paradigms of a selective COX-2 role in the postinjury inflammatory response. ..
  8. Graupera M, García Pagán J, Pares M, Abraldes J, Rosello J, Bosch J, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition corrects endothelial dysfunction in cirrhotic rat livers. J Hepatol. 2003;39:515-21 pubmed
    ..An increased production of TXA(2) is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in cirrhotic rat livers. This is mainly mediated by COX-1, but not by COX-2. ..
  9. Yermakova A, Rollins J, Callahan L, Rogers J, O Banion M. Cyclooxygenase-1 in human Alzheimer and control brain: quantitative analysis of expression by microglia and CA3 hippocampal neurons. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999;58:1135-46 pubmed
    ..Currently used NSAIDs inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase. The present study shows that COX-1 is widely expressed in human brain, and raises the possibility that COX-1 may contribute to CNS pathology. ..

More Information


  1. Schwab J, Nguyen T, Postler E, Meyermann R, Schluesener H. Selective accumulation of cyclooxygenase-1-expressing microglial cells/macrophages in lesions of human focal cerebral ischemia. Acta Neuropathol. 2000;99:609-14 pubmed
    ..Therefore we suggest that therapeutic approaches based on selective COX-2 blocking might not be sufficient for suppressing the local synthesis of prostanoids. ..
  2. Candelario Jalil E, Taheri S, Yang Y, Sood R, Grossetete M, Estrada E, et al. Cyclooxygenase inhibition limits blood-brain barrier disruption following intracerebral injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;323:488-98 pubmed
    ..Modulation of COX in brain injury by COX inhibitors or agents modulating prostaglandin E(2) formation/signaling may be useful in clinical settings associated with BBB disruption. ..
  3. Schwab J, Seid K, Schluesener H. Traumatic brain injury induces prolonged accumulation of cyclooxygenase-1 expressing microglia/brain macrophages in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2001;18:881-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that therapeutic approaches based on long-term blocking including COX-1, might be superior to selective COX-2 blocking to suppress the local synthesis of prostanoids. ..
  4. Yamaguchi N, Okada S. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in spinally projecting neurons are involved in CRF-induced sympathetic activation. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN and COX-2 in the LC play roles in the CRF-induced sympathetic regulation in rats. ..
  5. Westergren V, Wilson S, Penrose J, Howarth P, Sampson A. Nasal mucosal expression of the leukotriene and prostanoid pathways in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:820-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Seasonal rhinitis biopsies shared only some of these changes, consistent with transient disease. Increased intra-epithelial mast cells and epithelial COX-1 expression in both rhinitic groups may generate modulatory prostanoids. ..
  6. Ma W, Du W, Eisenach J. Role for both spinal cord COX-1 and COX-2 in maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity following peripheral nerve injury. Brain Res. 2002;937:94-9 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of spinal COX may be an important mechanism of action in treating some patients with neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. ..
  7. Rosado E, Rodriguez Vilarrupla A, Gracia Sancho J, Monclús M, Bosch J, García Pagán J. Interaction between NO and COX pathways modulating hepatic endothelial cells from control and cirrhotic rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:2461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These strategies may have beneficial effects ameliorating the vasoconstrictor/vasodilator imbalance of the intrahepatic circulation of cirrhotic livers. ..
  8. Okamoto T, Hara A, Hino O. Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression but up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-1 in renal carcinomas of the Eker (TSC2 gene mutant) rat model. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:22-5 pubmed
    ..In total, Cox-2 mRNA expression was down-regulated in eight out of ten Eker RCs and cell lines, while Cox-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in nine out of ten Eker RCs and cell lines. ..
  9. Araldi D, Ferrari L, Lotufo C, Vieira A, Athié M, Figueiredo J, et al. Peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia depends on the COX increase in the dorsal root ganglion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3603-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Dhull D, Jindal A, Dhull R, Aggarwal S, Bhateja D, Padi S. Neuroprotective effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in ICV-STZ induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease in rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;46:223-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that both cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 isoforms, but not cyclooxygenase-3, are involved in the progression of neuronal damage in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-treated rats. ..
  11. Testa M, Rocca B, Spath L, Ranelletti F, Petrucci G, Ciabattoni G, et al. Expression and activity of cyclooxygenase isoforms in skeletal muscles and myocardium of humans and rodents. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1412-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, COX-1 and COX-2 are expressed and enzymatically active in myocytes of skeletal muscles and hearts of rodents and humans. PGE(2) appears to be the main product of COX activity in striated muscles. ..
  12. Zhang M, Sanchez Lopez P, McKanna J, Harris R. Regulation of cyclooxygenase expression by vasopressin in rat renal medulla. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1402-9 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that vasopressin stimulates medullary COX-2 expression through activation of both V1 and V2 receptors, and this stimulation is indirect and probably involves increased medullary electrolyte tonicity. ..
  13. Shin T, Lee Y, Sim K. Involvement of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in the sciatic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis. Immunol Invest. 2003;32:123-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, COX-2 is enhanced in some Schwann cells and neural elements, possibly mediating peripheral nervous system inflammation. ..
  14. Shi Y, Cui L, Dai G, Chen J, Pan H, Song L, et al. Elevated prostaglandin E2 level via cPLA2--COX-2--mPGES-1 pathway involved in bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi in Wistar rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74:309-15 pubmed
    ..PGE2 may be a biomarker for the development of bladder TCC. cPLA2 and mPGES-1 may be targets for development of novel chemoprevention strategies for bladder TCC. ..
  15. Rao J, Ertley R, DeMar J, Rapoport S, Bazinet R, Lee H. Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortex. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:151-7 pubmed
  16. Hwang D, Scollard D, Byrne J, Levine E. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:455-60 pubmed
    ..In contrast, COX-2 was localized primarily in tumor cells but also appeared in stromal cells. Our results suggest that overexpression of COX may not be unique to colon cancer and may be a feature common to other epithelial tumors. ..
  17. Kong W, Wang D. [Chronic hypoxia altered the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase in intrapulmonary artery smooth muscle cell]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2001;24:531-3 pubmed
    ..Chronic hypoxia could enhance the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 caused by acute hypoxia in PASMC of rats. It might be responsible for the lower HPV under chronic hypoxia. ..
  18. Sankaran D, Bankovic Calic N, Ogborn M, Crow G, Aukema H. Selective COX-2 inhibition markedly slows disease progression and attenuates altered prostanoid production in Han:SPRD-cy rats with inherited kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F821-30 pubmed
    ..In summary, COX-2 inhibition attenuated renal injury, reduced the elevated renal COX-2 activity, and ameliorated disease-related alterations in prostanoid production in this rat model of chronic renal disease...
  19. Snipes J, Kis B, Shelness G, Hewett J, Busija D. Cloning and characterization of cyclooxygenase-1b (putative cyclooxygenase-3) in rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:668-76 pubmed
  20. Meng D, Wang S. [Changes of the mRNA expression and the intestinal mucosal cyclooxygenase activity in scalded rats]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2002;18:210-2 pubmed
    ..But those of COX-1 exhibited lower range of change. The pathological mechanism of rat intestinal mucosa injury after scalding might be closely related to the COXs participation by different styles between the two enzymes. ..
  21. Roca Ferrer J, Pujols L, Gartner S, Moreno A, Pumarola F, Mullol J, et al. Upregulation of COX-1 and COX-2 in nasal polyps in cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 2006;61:592-6 pubmed
    ..These findings raise questions regarding the potential use of selective or non-selective COX-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment in CF. ..
  22. Kis B, Snipes A, Bari F, Busija D. Regional distribution of cyclooxygenase-3 mRNA in the rat central nervous system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;126:78-80 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the expression pattern of COX-3 mRNA in the rat CNS primarily relates to the vascular density of a given region. ..
  23. Graham G, Davies M, Day R, Mohamudally A, Scott K. The modern pharmacology of paracetamol: therapeutic actions, mechanism of action, metabolism, toxicity and recent pharmacological findings. Inflammopharmacology. 2013;21:201-32 pubmed publisher
    ..There is considerable debate about the hepatotoxicity of therapeutic doses of paracetamol. Much of the toxicity may result from overuse of combinations of paracetamol with opioids which are widely used, particularly in USA. ..
  24. Ye W, Zhang H, Hillas E, Kohan D, Miller R, Nelson R, et al. Expression and function of COX isoforms in renal medulla: evidence for regulation of salt sensitivity and blood pressure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F542-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the two COX isoforms in the renal medulla play a similar role in the stabilization of arterial blood pressure during salt loading. ..
  25. Iadecola C, Sugimoto K, Niwa K, Kazama K, Ross M. Increased susceptibility to ischemic brain injury in cyclooxygenase-1-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001;21:1436-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, the vascular effects of COX-1 may contribute to maintain cerebral blood flow in the postischemic brain and, as such, play a protective role in ischemic brain injury. ..
  26. Theilig F, Debiec H, Nafz B, Ronco P, Nusing R, Seyberth H, et al. Renal cortical regulation of COX-1 and functionally related products in early renovascular hypertension (rat). Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F987-94 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in 2K1C, COX-1 and PGES expression may fail to oppose the effects of renovascular hypertension through reduced prostaglandin signaling in late distal tubule and cortical collecting duct. ..
  27. Kadowaki H, Yamamoto T, Kageyama Yahara N, Kurokawa N, Kadowaki M. The pathophysiological roles of COX-1 and COX-2 in the intestinal smooth muscle contractility under the anaphylactic condition. Biomed Res. 2008;29:113-7 pubmed
  28. Adachi S, Fujioka H, Kakehashi C, Matsuwaki T, Nishihara M, Akema T. Possible involvement of microglia containing cyclooxygenase-1 in the accumulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in the preoptic area in female rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that microglia in the preoptic area containing COX-1 are responsible for producing PG(s), which, in turn, facilitates the accumulation of GnRH during the gonadotrophin surge in female rats. ..
  29. Welch W, Patel K, Modlinger P, Mendonca M, Kawada N, Dennehy K, et al. Roles of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, COX-1 and -2, and AT1, AT2, and TP receptors in a rat model of early 2K,1C hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2644-9 pubmed
    ..2K,1C hypertension in rats activates renin, O(2)*(-), and vasoconstrictor PGs. Hypertension is maintained by AT(1)Rs and by COX-1, but not COX-2, products that activate TPRs. ..
  30. Chulada P, Thompson M, Mahler J, Doyle C, Gaul B, Lee C, et al. Genetic disruption of Ptgs-1, as well as Ptgs-2, reduces intestinal tumorigenesis in Min mice. Cancer Res. 2000;60:4705-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that COX-1, as well as COX-2, plays a key role in intestinal tumorigenesis and that COX-1 may also be a chemotherapeutic target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ..
  31. Lee I, Seo Y. The effects of intrathecal cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, or nonselective inhibitors on pain behavior and spinal Fos-like immunoreactivity. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:972-7, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..FLI expression of laminae I-II alone may not be a good indicator of the ability to produce anti-hypersensitivity; however, the FLI of laminae V-VI correlates with phase 2 responses. ..
  32. Hou D, Wang Y, Xue L, Tian Y, Chen K, Song Z, et al. Effect of polygonum multiflorum on the fluidity of the mitochondria membrane and activity of COX in the hippocampus of rats with Abeta 1-40-induced Alzheimer's disease. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;33:987-92 pubmed
    ..05), and COX activity was significantly improved (P<0.05). Polygonum multiflorum could improve the fluidity of mitochondria membrane and the activity of mitochondrial COX in the model of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  33. Reinauer C, Censarek P, Kaber G, Weber A, Steger G, Klamp T, et al. Expression and translation of the COX-1b gene in human cells--no evidence of generation of COX-1b protein. Biol Chem. 2013;394:753-60 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhang X, Kainz V, Jakubowski M, Burstein R, Strassman A, Levy D. Localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the intracranial dura mater of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:33-6 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that NSAIDs may abort headache, at least in part, by inhibiting either neuronal or non-neuronal COX activity in the dura mater. ..
  35. Majed B, Khalil R. Molecular mechanisms regulating the vascular prostacyclin pathways and their adaptation during pregnancy and in the newborn. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64:540-82 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two major COX enzymes, COX1 and COX2, that differ in structure, tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and function...
  36. Gariepy H, Zhao J, Levy D. Differential contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 derived prostanoids to cortical spreading depression-Evoked cerebral oligemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37:1060-1068 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhang Y, Lu J, Elmquist J, Saper C. Specific roles of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced fever and Fos expression in rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2003;463:3-12 pubmed
    ..Although COX-2 plays a dominant role in mediating fever responses to i.v. LPS, at least some components of the response, including avoiding hypothermia and the induction of Fos in the NTS, VLM, PB, and PVH, appear to depend on COX-1. J. ..
  38. Ayoub S, Wood E, Hassan S, Bolton C. Cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin levels in central nervous system tissues during the course of chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Inflamm Res. 2011;60:919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration is also given to the treatment of CR EAE and suggests that drugs designed to limit the inflammatory effects of the PGs should be administered prior to or during the relapse phase of the disease. ..
  39. Prochazkova M, Zanvit P, Dolezal T, Prokesova L, Krsiak M. Increased gene expression and production of spinal cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 during experimental osteoarthritis pain. Physiol Res. 2009;58:419-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to inflammatory pain, the upregulation of spinal COX-1 may be important in osteoarthritis pain. ..
  40. Yeoh A, Gibson R, Yeoh E, Bowen J, Stringer A, Giam K, et al. A novel animal model to investigate fractionated radiotherapy-induced alimentary mucositis: the role of apoptosis, p53, nuclear factor-kappaB, COX-1, and COX-2. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2319-27 pubmed
    ..Further studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced mucositis are planned to ultimately achieve anti-mucotoxic-targeted therapies. ..
  41. Athavale R, Clooney K, O Hagan J, Shawki H, Clark A, Green J. COX-1 and COX-2 expression in stage I and II invasive cervical carcinoma: relationship to disease relapse and long-term survival. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1303-8 pubmed
    ..The association between COX-2 expression and a worse prognosis was not proven in this study. ..
  42. Bobadilla R, Bracho I, Alvarez V, Anguiano L, Lopez P. Pregnancy induced changes in Cox-1, Cox-2 and NOSIII vascular and renal expression. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2004;47:25-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the influence of pregnancy is not homogeneous along the aorta and also that a balance between prostaglandins and nitric oxide is responsible of the blunted vascular reactivity during pregnancy in the rat. ..
  43. Ogawa N, Mori A, Hasebe M, Hoshino M, Saito M, Sakamoto K, et al. Nitric oxide dilates rat retinal blood vessels by cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanisms. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R968-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NO exerts a substantial part of its dilatory effect via a mechanism that involves COX-1-dependent pathway in rat retinal vasculature. ..
  44. Martinez F, Harabor A, Amankwah E, Hart D, Belik J. Urethane suppresses rat lung inducible cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels. Inflamm Res. 2000;49:727-31 pubmed
    ..Urethane has a suppressive effect on COX and iNOS RNA message in the lung and for this reason it should be avoided as an anesthetic when lung inflammatory processes are experimentally evaluated in the rat. ..
  45. Deininger M, Meyermann R, Trautmann K, Morgalla M, Duffner F, Grote E, et al. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 expressing macrophages/microglial cells and COX-2 expressing astrocytes accumulate during oligodendroglioma progression. Brain Res. 2000;885:111-6 pubmed
    ..0471) lower in primary oligodendrogliomas than in high grade oligodendroglioma relapses. These data provide convincing evidence for the differential accumulation of cyclooxygenase isoforms during oligodendroglioma progression in vivo. ..
  46. Hirata T, Narumiya S. Prostanoids as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Adv Immunol. 2012;116:143-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the role of prostanoids in regulating immunity, their involvement in immunopathology, and areas of insight that may lead to new therapeutic opportunities...
  47. Kelso M, Scheff S, Pauly J, Loftin C. Effects of genetic deficiency of cyclooxygenase-1 or cyclooxygenase-2 on functional and histological outcomes following traumatic brain injury in mice. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:108 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the deficiency of neither COX-1 nor COX-2 is sufficient to alter cognitive outcomes following TBI in mice. ..
  48. Daikoku T, Wang D, Tranguch S, Morrow J, Orsulic S, DuBois R, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 is a potential target for prevention and treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:3735-44 pubmed
    ..The growth inhibitory effects of SC-560 result from reduced cell proliferation and/or accelerated apoptosis. Our results imply COX-1 as a target for the prevention and/or treatment of EOC. ..
  49. Deininger M, Bekure Nemariam K, Trautmann K, Morgalla M, Meyermann R, Schluesener H. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in brains of patients who died with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;20:25-30 pubmed
    ..These data show that accumulation of COX-1-expressing macrophages/microglial cells and COX-2-expressing neurons might represent important regulatory mechanisms in the complex process of neuronal degeneration in CJD patients. ..
  50. Hirao A, Kondo K, Takeuchi K, Inui N, Umemura K, Ohashi K, et al. Cyclooxygenase-dependent vasoconstricting factor(s) in remodelled rat femoral arteries. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In remodelled arteries following photochemical endothelial injury, the vasoconstrictive prostanoids PGH2 and PGF2alpha, but not TXA2, contribute to changes in endothelium-dependent vascular response via COX-1- and 2-dependent pathways. ..
  51. Favreau F, Petit Paris I, Hauet T, Dutheil D, Papet Y, Mauco G, et al. Cyclooxygenase 1-dependent production of F2-isoprostane and changes in redox status during warm renal ischemia-reperfusion. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36:1034-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore the two metabolites of arachidonic acid seemed to be produced via an enzymatic COX1-dependent pathway. Neither COX overexpression nor COX activation was detected...
  52. Kim H, Rapoport S, Rao J. Altered arachidonic acid cascade enzymes in postmortem brain from bipolar disorder patients. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..An upregulated cascade should be considered as a target for drug development and for neuroimaging in BD. ..
  53. Pu G, Wang C, Zheng P, He L. Effects of No.2 Renal Failure Recipe on expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and -1 mRNAs in rats with chronic renal failure. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2009;7:1067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..No. 2RFR can improve renal function and reduce glomerular sclerosis and renal fibrosis by inhibiting the over-expression of the COX-2 mRNA. ..
  54. Chung J, Barua S, Choi B, Min B, Han H, Baik E. Anti-inflammatory effect of low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis synovium. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..LIUS markedly reduced CFA-induced inflammatory cells infiltration. LIUS showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect in this animal arthritis model with reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovium. ..
  55. Pepicelli O, Fedele E, Berardi M, Raiteri M, Levi G, Greco A, et al. Cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2 differently contribute to prostaglandin E2 synthesis and lipid peroxidation after in vivo activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2005;93:1561-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that both isoforms should be considered as possible therapeutic targets to prevent brain damage caused by excitotoxicity. ..
  56. Smith A, Dorrance A. Arachidonic acid induces augmented vasoconstriction via cyclooxygenase 1 in the aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;75:43-9 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that there would be augmented vasoconstriction to AA, mediated via COX 1 in rats fed a high-fat (HF)-diet for 10 weeks (from 3 to 13 weeks old) compared to those fed regular rat chow...
  57. Egan C, Lockhart J, Ferrell W, Day S, McLean J. Pathophysiological basis of acute inflammatory hyperaemia in the rat knee: roles of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2. J Physiol. 2002;539:579-87 pubmed
    ..COX-1 but not COX-2 contributes to the maintenance of basal blood flow in the hyperaemic joint at 24 h. ..
  58. Okayama M, Hayashi S, Aoi Y, Nishio H, Kato S, Takeuchi K. Aggravation by selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon lesions in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:2095-103 pubmed
  59. Walia S, Kamal R, Kanwar S, Dhawan D. Cyclooxygenase as a target in chemoprevention by probiotics during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2015;67:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, treatment with probiotics has the potential of providing protection against colon cancer by suppressing the COX-2 expression as one of the protective mechanisms. ..
  60. Sato Y, Arai N, Negishi A, Ohya K. Expression of cyclooxygenase genes and involvement of endogenous prostaglandin during osteogenesis in the rat tibial bone marrow cavity. J Med Dent Sci. 1997;44:81-92 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present study suggests that COX-2 and COX-1 would both be involved in the early stage of osteogenesis, and COX-2 is likely to be more associated with the maturation of osteoblasts in the later stage. ..
  61. Esquivias P, Morandeira A, Escartin A, Cebrián C, Santander S, Esteva F, et al. Indomethacin but not a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor inhibits esophageal adenocarcinogenesis in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:4866-74 pubmed
    ..In this rat model of gastrointestinal reflux, indomethacin was associated with a decrease in the severity of esophagitis and reduced development of esophageal intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. ..
  62. Font Nieves M, Sans Fons M, Gorina R, Bonfill Teixidor E, Salas Perdomo A, Márquez Kisinousky L, et al. Induction of COX-2 enzyme and down-regulation of COX-1 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) control prostaglandin E2 production in astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6454-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects might induce cerebral blood flow responses to brain inflammation. ..
  63. Wu B, Zeng L, Lin Y, Wen Z, Chen G, Iwakiri R, et al. Downregulation of cyclooxygenase-1 is involved in gastric mucosal apoptosis via death signaling in portal hypertensive rats. Cell Res. 2009;19:1269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that downregulation of COX-1 is involved in gastric mucosal apoptosis via death signaling-mediated type-I cell death in PHT rats. ..
  64. Burdan F, Szumiło J, Gajjar B, Dudka J, Korobowicz A, Patel S, et al. Immunoexpression of constitutive and inducible cyclo-oxygenase isoforms in the rat foetal and maternal digestive tract. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2008;67:24-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, constitutive and inducible COX isoforms were detected in the digestive tract of pregnant female and in foetuses. COX-1 was the predominant isoform in both the adult and foetal organs. ..
  65. Dupouy V, Ferre P, Uro Coste E, Lefebvre H. Time course of COX-1 and COX-2 expression during ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:233-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hindlimb I/R induced a large overexpression of COX-2 but not COX-1 protein between 6 and 10 h after injury. These results suggest a role for COX-2 enzyme in such pathophysiological conditions of the skeletal muscle. ..
  66. Teather L, Packard M, Bazan N. Post-training cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition impairs memory consolidation. Learn Mem. 2002;9:41-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that COX-2 is a required biochemical component mediating the consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. ..
  67. Hla T, Neilson K. Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7384-8 pubmed
    ..High-level induction of the hCox-2 transcript in mesenchymal-derived inflammatory cells suggests a role in inflammatory conditions. ..
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    ..The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the roles of COX1 and COX2 in regulating blood pressure and renal function...
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    ..The expression of splenic COX-1 was unaffected by LPS. We conclude that COX-1, but not COX-2, mediates LPS hypothermia, and that both COX isoforms are required for LPS hypotension. ..
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    ..Thus, COX-1 may play a crucial role in the pathology of neuroinflammation and might be a critical target for the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. ..
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    ..15d-PGJ2 suppressed ischemic brain infarction and neuronal apoptosis and necrosis in a PPARgamma dependent manner. 15d-PGJ2 may play a role in controlling acute brain damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. ..
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    ..Meanwhile, cyclooxgenase-2 may be critical for the late phase rather than the initiation of the fever response in rats. ..
  74. St Louis I, Singh M, Brasseur K, Leblanc V, Parent S, Asselin E. Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the endometrium of cyclic, pregnant and in a model of pseudopregnant rats and their regulation by sex steroids. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:103 pubmed publisher
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    ..We conclude that GSK-3 inhibitors block CT from inducing COX-1 gene expression via a mechanism beyond GR and Sp3 transcription factor. ..
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    ..This study shows that both cox isoforms are present in skin and that they have an important role in mediating bradykinin-evoked heat sensitisation of C-MH sensitive fibres through cox-1 and cox-2 dependent prostaglandin synthesis. ..
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    ..These results indicate that inhibition of COX-1 activity may be valid therapeutic strategy to reduce brain inflammatory response and neurodegeneration. ..